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  • 1.
    Fahlström, Karl
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB. University West, Sweden.
    Andersson, O.
    Volvo Cars, Sweden; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Melander, A.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Karlsson, L.
    University West, Sweden.
    Svensson, L. -E
    University West, Sweden.
    Correlation between laser welding sequence and distortions for thin sheet structures2017In: Science and technology of welding and joining, ISSN 1362-1718, E-ISSN 1743-2936, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 150-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thin ultra-high strength steel shaped as 700 mm long U-beams have been laser welded in overlap configuration to study the influence of welding sequence on distortions. Three different welding directions, three different energy inputs as well as stitch welding have been evaluated, using resistance spot welding (RSW) as a reference. Transverse widening at the ends and narrowing at the centre of the beam were measured. A clear correlation was found between the weld metal volume and distortion. For continuous welds there was also a nearly linear relationship between the energy input and distortion. However, the amount of distortion was not affected by a change in welding direction. Stitching and RSW reduced distortion significantly compared to continuous laser welding.

  • 2.
    Fahlström, Karl
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Andersson, Oscar
    Volvo Cars, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Leif
    University West, Sweden.
    Svensson, Lars-Erik
    University West, Sweden.
    Metallurgical effects and distortions in laser welding of thin sheet steels with variations in strength2017In: Science and technology of welding and joining, ISSN 1362-1718, E-ISSN 1743-2936, Vol. 22, no 7, p. 573-579Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Geometrical distortions occur while welding, but the understanding of how and why they occur and how to control them is limited. The relation between the weld width, weld metal volume, total energy input, width of hard zone and distortions when laser welding three different thin sheet steels with varying strength has therefore been studied. Weld metal volume and total energy input show a good correlation with distortion for one steel at a time. The best correlation with the when including all three steel grades was the width of the hard zone composed of weld metal and the martensitic area in the heat affected zone. © 2017 Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining.

  • 3.
    Ratanathavorn, Wallop
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Melander, Arne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Dissimilar joining between aluminium alloy (AA 6111) and thermoplastics using friction stir welding2015In: Science and technology of welding and joining, ISSN 1362-1718, E-ISSN 1743-2936, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 222-228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, friction stir welding was used to produce shear overlap joints between aluminium and a thermoplastic (AA 6111 to polyphenylene sulphide). The process uses the friction stir welding tool to create metallic chips which merge with the molten thermoplastic to form a joint. No special surface pretreatment is required before joining. Cross-sections show mechanical locking between the chipped polymer filled zone and the surrounding aluminium sheet. The effects of joining parameters such as rotational speed, translational speed and distance to backing were investigated in relation to the joint strength and failure mode. Optimum speeds and backing distances could be identified. The joint strength is dominated by mechanical interlocking between the chip and polymer filled zone and the aluminium sheet.

  • 4.
    Ratanathavorn, Wallop
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Melander, Arne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Influence of zinc on intermetallic compounds formed in friction stir welding of AA5754 aluminium alloy to galvanised ultra-high strength steel2017In: Science and technology of welding and joining, ISSN 1362-1718, E-ISSN 1743-2936, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, lap joints between AA5754 and DP1000 ultra-high strength steels were produced by friction stir welding. In order to investigate the roles of zinc on intermetallic phase formation and joint properties, steel substrates were used, two being galvanised coated and one uncoated. Joint performance has been evaluated in term of maximum tensile shear loading. The effects of the process parameter, translational speed; chemical compositions; and intermetallic phase formation on the mechanical properties have been investigated. The results show that joints with a galvanised layer exhibit higher strength as compared to the non-coated steel. A thicker galvanised layer promotes the presence of zinc in the aluminium matrix, resulting in better joint properties. The level of zinc contents in the aluminium matrix depends on process temperature and material circulation characteristics. Two stable Al-rich intermetallic phases, Al5Fe2 and Al13Fe4, were detected at the interface regardless of the coating conditions.

  • 5.
    Tolf, E.
    et al.
    Scania CV AB.
    Hedegård, Joakim
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Melander, Arne
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Surface breaking cracks in resistance spot welds of dual phase steels with electrogalvanised and hot dip zinc coating2012In: Science and technology of welding and joining, ISSN 1362-1718, E-ISSN 1743-2936, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 25-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In normal production of resistance spot welded galvanised structures, it is difficult to completely avoid surface breaking cracks. Known key factors to cause cracking are zinc coating, electrode wear during subsequent welding and insufficient electrode cooling. In this report, an embrittlement mechanism was investigated that could be coupled to the galvanisation method for dual phase steels. With identical bulk material and weld parameters, the first 50 spot welds were crack free with electrogalvanised coating, while only 10 out of 50 were crack free with hot dip galvanised coating. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis of the worn electrode surfaces used for welding of the hot dip galvanised coating revealed areas of aluminium oxide. Since aluminium oxide is a very strong isolator, the electrical resistance will increase, which in turn is suggested to increase the surface temperature of the spot weld and thereby increase the probability for liquid metal embrittlement and surface cracks. © 2013 Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining.

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