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  • 1.
    Ferraro, Stefano
    et al.
    University of Padova, Italy.
    Bjurenstedt, Anton
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Seifeddine, Salem
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, SWECAST. Jönköping University, Sweden.
    On the Formation of Sludge Intermetallic Particles in Secondary Aluminum Alloys2015Inngår i: Metallurgical and Materials Transactions. A, ISSN 1073-5623, E-ISSN 1543-1940, Vol. 46, nr 8, s. 3713-3722Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary precipitation of Fe-rich intermetallics in AlSi9Cu3(Fe) type alloys is studied for different Fe, Mn, and Cr contents and cooling rates. Differential scanning calorimetry, thermal analysis, and interrupted solidification with a rapid quenching technique were used in combination in order to assess the nucleation temperature of sludge particles, as well as to follow their evolution. The results revealed that the sludge nucleation temperature and the release of latent heat during sludge formation are functions of Fe, Mn, and Cr levels in the molten alloy (i.e., the sludge factor, SF) and cooling rate. Moreover, it can be concluded that sensitivity to sludge formation is not affected by cooling rate; i.e., a decrease in the SF will reduce sludge nucleation temperature to the same extent for a higher cooling rate as for a lower cooling rate. The sludge formation temperature detected will assist foundries in setting the optimal molten metal temperature for preventing sludge formation in holding furnaces and plunger systems.

  • 2.
    Frisk, Karin
    et al.
    RISE., Swerea, KIMAB.
    Borggren, Ulrika
    SSAB, Sweden.
    Precipitation in Microalloyed Steel by Model Alloy Experiments and Thermodynamic Calculations2016Inngår i: Metallurgical and Materials Transactions. A, ISSN 1073-5623, E-ISSN 1543-1940, Vol. 47, nr 10, s. 4806-4817Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Precipitation in microalloyed steel has been studied by applying thermodynamic calculations based on a description of the Gibbs energies of the individual phases over the full multicomponent composition range. To validate and improve the thermodynamic description, new experimental investigations of the phase separation in the cubic carbides/nitrides/carbonitrides in alloys containing Nb, V, Mo, and Cr, have been performed. Model alloys were designed to obtain equilibrium carbides/carbonitrides that are sufficiently large for measurements of compositions, making it possible to study the partitioning of the elements into different precipitates, showing distinctly different composition sets. The reliability of the calculations, when applied to multicomponent alloys, was tested by comparing with published experimental studies of precipitation in microalloyed steel. It is shown that thermodynamic calculations accurately describe the observed precipitation sequences. Further, they can reproduce several important features of precipitation processes in microalloyed steel such as the partitioning of Mo between matrix and precipitates and the variation of precipitate compositions depending on precipitation temperature. 

  • 3.
    Golpayegani, A.
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Liu, F.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Svensson, Henrik
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea SWECAST AB.
    Andersson, M.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Andrén, H.-O.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Microstructure of a creep-resistant 10 pct chromium steel containing 250 ppm boron2011Inngår i: Metallurgical and Materials Transactions. A, ISSN 1073-5623, E-ISSN 1543-1940, Vol. 42, nr 4, s. 940-951Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 4.
    Kohne, Thomas
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Fahlkrans, Johan
    Scania CV AB, Sweden.
    Stormvinter, Albin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Polymera material och kompositer.
    Maawad, Emad
    Helmholtz-Zentrum Hereon, Germany.
    Winkelmann, Aimo
    AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland.
    Hedström, Peter
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Borgenstam, Annika
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Evolution of Martensite Tetragonality in High-Carbon Steels Revealed by In Situ High-Energy X-Ray Diffraction2023Inngår i: Metallurgical and Materials Transactions. A, ISSN 1073-5623, E-ISSN 1543-1940, Vol. 54, nr 4, s. 1083-1100Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The martensitic transformation was studied by in situ and ex situ experiments in two high-carbon, 0.54 and 0.74 wt pct C, steels applying three different cooling rates, 15 °C/s, 5 °C/s, and 0.5 °C/s, in the temperature range around Ms, to improve the understanding of the evolution of martensite tetragonality c/a and phase fraction formed during the transformation. The combination of in situ high-energy X-ray diffraction during controlled cooling and spatially resolved tetragonality c/a determination by electron backscatter diffraction pattern matching was used to study the transformation behavior. The cooling rate and the different Ms for the steels had a clear impact on the martensitic transformation with a decrease in average tetragonality due to stronger autotempering for a decreasing cooling rate and higher Ms. A slower cooling rate also resulted in a lower fraction of martensite at room temperature, but with an increase in fraction of autotempered martensite. Additionally, a heterogeneous distribution of martensite tetragonality was observed for all cooling rates. © 2023, The Author(s).

  • 5.
    Lindwall, Greta
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB AB.
    Flyg, Jesper
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB AB.
    Frisk, Karin
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB AB.
    Sandberg, O.
    Uddeholms AB.
    Experimental and theoretical investigations of hot isostatically pressed-produced stainless steel/high alloy tool steel compound materials2011Inngår i: Metallurgical and Materials Transactions. A, ISSN 1073-5623, E-ISSN 1543-1940, Vol. 42, nr 5, s. 1165-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Consolidation of tool steel powders and simultaneous joining to a stainless 316L steel are performed by hot isostatic pressing (HIP). Two tool steel grades are considered: a high vanadium alloyed carbon tool steel, and a high vanadium and chromium alloyed nitrogen tool steel. The boundary layer arising during diffusion bonding is in focus and, in particular, the diffusion of carbon and nitrogen over the joint. Measurements of the elemental concentration profiles and corrosion tests by the double loop-electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation (DL-EPR) method are performed. Comparative calculations with the DICTRA software are performed and are found to be in agreement with the experimental results. It is found that the carbon tool steel grade has a more critical influence on the corrosion resistance of the stainless 316L steel in comparison to the nitrogen tool steel grade. © 2010 The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International.

  • 6.
    Lynch, Peter A
    et al.
    Deakin University, Australia.
    Barnett, Matthew R
    Deakin University, Australia.
    Stevenson, Andrew
    CSIRO Manufacturing, Australia.
    Hutchinson, Bevis
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB AB.
    Characterizing Grain-Oriented Silicon Steel Sheet Using Automated High-Resolution Laue X-ray Diffraction2017Inngår i: Metallurgical and Materials Transactions. A, ISSN 1073-5623, E-ISSN 1543-1940, Vol. 48, nr 11, s. 5206-10Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Controlling texture in grain-oriented (GO) silicon steel sheet is critical for optimization of its magnetization performance. A new automated laboratory system, based on X-ray Laue diffraction, is introduced as a rapid method for large scale grain orientation mapping and texture measurement in these materials. Wide area grain orientation maps are demonstrated for both macroetched and coated GO steel sheets. The large secondary grains contain uniform lattice rotations, the origins of which are discussed.

  • 7.
    Pettersson, Niklas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Pettersson, Rachel F. A.
    Jernkontoret, Sweden.
    Wessman, Sten
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Precipitation of Chromium Nitrides in the Super Duplex Stainless Steel 25072015Inngår i: Metallurgical and Materials Transactions. A, ISSN 1073-5623, E-ISSN 1543-1940, Vol. 46, nr 3, s. 1062-1072Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Precipitation of chromium nitrides during cooling from temperatures in the range 1373 K to 1523 K (1100 °C to 1250 °C) has been studied for the super duplex stainless steel 2507 (UNS S32750). Characterization with optical, scanning and transmission electron microscopy was combined to quantify the precipitation process. Primarily Cr2N nitrides were found to precipitate with a high density in the interior of ferrite grains. An increased cooling rate and/or an increased austenite spacing clearly promoted nitride formation, resulting in precipitation within a higher fraction of the ferrite grains, and lager nitride particles. Furthermore, formation of the meta-stable CrN was induced by higher cooling rates. The toughness seemed unaffected by nitrides. A slight decrease in pitting resistance was, however, noticed for quenched samples with large amounts of precipitates. The limited adverse effect on pitting resistance is attributed to the small size (~200 nm) of most nitrides. Slower cooling of duplex stainless steels to allow nitrogen partitioning is suggested in order to avoid large nitrides, and thereby produce a size distribution with a smaller detrimental effect on pitting resistance.

  • 8.
    Pettersson, Niklas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB AB.
    Wessman, Sten
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB AB.
    Hertzman, Staffan
    Outokumpu Stainless Research Foundation, Sweden.
    Studer, Andrew
    Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Australia.
    High-Temperature Phase Equilibria of Duplex Stainless Steels Assessed with a Novel In-Situ Neutron Scattering Approach2017Inngår i: Metallurgical and Materials Transactions. A, ISSN 1073-5623, E-ISSN 1543-1940, Vol. 48, nr 4, s. 1562-1571Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Duplex stainless steels are designed to solidify with ferrite as the parent phase, with subsequent austenite formation occurring in the solid state, implying that, thermodynamically, a fully ferritic range should exist at high temperatures. However, computational thermodynamic tools appear currently to overestimate the austenite stability of these systems, and contradictory data exist in the literature. In the present work, the high-temperature phase equilibria of four commercial duplex stainless steel grades, denoted 2304, 2101, 2507, and 3207, with varying alloying levels were assessed by measurements of the austenite-to-ferrite transformation at temperatures approaching 1673 K (1400 °C) using a novel in-situ neutron scattering approach. All grades became fully ferritic at some point during progressive heating. Higher austenite dissolution temperatures were measured for the higher alloyed grades, and for 3207, the temperature range for a single-phase ferritic structure approached zero. The influence of temperatures in the region of austenite dissolution was further evaluated by microstructural characterization using electron backscattered diffraction of isothermally heat-treated and quenched samples. The new experimental data are compared to thermodynamic calculations, and the precision of databases is discussed.

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