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  • 1.
    Elger, Ragna
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Lindberg, Fredrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Norling, Rikard
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Pettersson, Rachel
    Jernkontoret, Sweden.
    Exposure of 304L and 310S in chlorinating gasification environments2015In: Materials at High Temperature, ISSN 0960-3409, E-ISSN 1878-6413, Vol. 32, no 1-2, p. 36-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work examines the difference in behaviour between two austenitic steels, 304L and 310S, in a simulated environment with carbon and oxygen activities typical of the syngas cooler of a steam blown gasifier. The cyclic exposures were performed with and without addition of 500 ppm HCl for a total duration of 960 h. The oxide layers (200-600 nm) were studied using TEM, a focused ion beam microscope with EDX (FIB-EDX), electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD), SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD). For 304L, a Cr and Ni depleted zone with a ferritic structure was observed below the oxide layer and a thin, manganese rich layer at the metal/oxide interface. For 310S, circular oxide patches were observed on the surface after exposure with HCl. These displayed elevated concentration of Al, Ca and Si, typical of inclusions. Results indicate that the addition of HCl results in a difference in oxide quality and structure but that HCl at the level of this study has little impact on the sound metal thickness.

  • 2.
    Elger, Ragna
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, KIMAB.
    Viklund, Peter
    DEKRA Industrial AB, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Rachel
    Jernkontoret, Sweden.
    Laboratory testing to evaluate candidate alloys for superheaters in waste-fired boilers2016In: Materials at High Temperature, ISSN 0960-3409, E-ISSN 1878-6413, Vol. 33, no 6, p. 587-595Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two types of laboratory tests were used to evaluate the behaviour of a wide range of steels in chlorinating–sulphidising conditions: high temperature exposure after applying salt by dipping in an aqueous KCl/ZnCl2 solution and salt-bed test in a ZnCl2/NaCl/KCl/CaSO4 salt mixture. The exposures were performed at 500 °C in a gas comprising N2/HCl/SO2/O2/N2. For the alloy group with 20–30 wt-% chromium and 25–65 wt-% nickel, the extrapolated metal loss was below 0.2 mm/year in the salt dip, up to 6 mm/year in the salt-bed test with 10% Cl and up to 20 mm/year in the 20% Cl salt-bed test. The intermediate alloy group showed poorer performance in the salt-bed; Esshete1250 showed also large spallation in the salt dip test. Results were compared with plant-exposed samples. Further refinement of the salt dip test is suggested for material ranking in the superheater region of a waste or biomass-fired incinerator. © 2016 Swerea Kimab.

  • 3.
    Pettersson, Rachel
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Effects of composition on the corrosion of Fe-Ni-Cr alloys in chlorinating and sulfidising environments2009In: Materials at High Temperature, ISSN 0960-3409, E-ISSN 1878-6413, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 217-222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of six austenitic alloys has been prepared in which the nickel content was successively increased from 14 to 78% while retaining a base level of 20%Cr. These were isothermally exposed for 100 hours at 700°C in an air-45% water vapour environment, an oxidising-sulfidising environment (air + 49%Ar + 26%H2O + 1%SO2) and a chlorinating environment at low oxygen partial pressure (argon + 0.1%O2 + 15-26%H2O + 0.2-0.35%HCl). The latter two environments gave opposite trends in terms of gross mass change. High metal loss associated with breakaway oxidation occurred at a low nickel contents in the chlorinating environment. In the sulfidising environment the most severe effects were observed at high nickel levels and were associated with the formation of sulfur-containing oxide nodules. © 2009 Science Reviews 2000 Ltd.

  • 4.
    Pettersson, Rachel
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Karlsson, F.
    Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery.
    Flyg, Jesper
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Hot corrosion of two nickel-base superalloys under alkali sulfate deposition conditions2009In: Materials at High Temperature, ISSN 0960-3409, E-ISSN 1878-6413, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 251-257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The single crystal MD2 (Ni-8Cr-5Al-5Co-2Mo-8W-6Ta-1Ti) and the polycrystalline Inconel 792 (Ni-13Cr-3Al-9Co-2Mo-4W-4Ta-4Ti) were exposed at 850 and 900°C in an severely sulfidising environment comprising synthetic air with 8% water vapour and 2000 ppm SO2, and a deposit of 20mol% Na2SO4 + 80mol% K2SO4 applied every 160 hours. Results were evaluated in terms of mass change, which indicated the existence of an incubation time before the onset of extensive attack, and post-test metallography to evaluate metal loss. Metallographic studies are presented showing the complex external oxide scale formation and internal oxidation and sulfidation. © 2009 Science Reviews 2000 Ltd.

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