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  • 1. Aslan, M.
    et al.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Sørensen, B.F.
    Madsen, B.
    Strength Variability of Single Flax Fibres2011In: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803, Vol. 46Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    De Vrieze, S.
    et al.
    Ghent University.
    Van Camp, T.
    Ghent University.
    Nelvig, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Hagström, Bengt
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Westbroek, P.
    Ghent University.
    De Clerck, K.
    Ghent University.
    The effect of temperature and humidity on electrospinning2009In: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803, Vol. 44, no 5, p. 1357-1362Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrospinning is a process that generates nanofibres. Temperature and humidity affect this process. In this article the influence of humidity and temperature on the formation and the properties of nanofibres are studied using cellulose acetate (CA) and poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) as target materials. The experiments indicate that two major parameters are dependent of temperature and have their influence on the average fibre diameter. A first parameter is the solvent evaporation rate that increases with increasing temperature. The second parameter is the viscosity of the polymer solution that decreases with increasing temperature. The trend in variation of the average nanofibre diameter as a function of humidity is different for CA and PVP, which can be explained by variations in chemical and molecular interaction and its influence on the solvent evaporation rate. As the humidity increases, the average fibre diameter of the CA nanofibres increases, whilst for PVP the average diameter decreases. The average diameter of nanofibres made by electrospinning change significantly through variation of temperature and humidity. © 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  • 3.
    Gillgren, Thomas
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Alven, T.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Impact of melt rheology on zein foam properties2010In: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803, Vol. 45, no 21, p. 5762-5768Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Zein, the main protein fraction in maize, is left as a by-product from bio-ethanol production. The protein has been investigated as a material for a long time, but mainly in the form of films. In contrast, foamed zein is presented in this article. Zein foams may perhaps be used, e.g. as trays for biodegradable food packages or as scaffolds for tissue engineering. A batch method for manufacturing solid foams was successfully developed, the foams being manufactured by evaporation of solvent from zein resins. In order to be suitable for foam formation, a resin must possess gas-retaining properties, which can be predicted by extensional rheology. The presence of plasticizer in some of the resins decreased their extensional viscosity, and this in turn affected the foaming process. Although all the resins displayed strain-hardening behaviour, there was coalescence of pores in all the foams. Insufficient extensional viscosity resulted in the collapse of pore walls during foam expansion. Structure analysis showed, e.g. that most pores were elongated along the main axis of the mould in which the foams were manufactured. The plasticizer content in the resins had no significant effect on the mechanical properties of the foams. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  • 4.
    Kymäläinen, Maija
    et al.
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Hautamäki, Saara
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Lillqvist, Kristiina
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Segerholm, Kristoffer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Rautkari, Lauri
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Surface modification of solid wood by charring2017In: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803, Vol. 52, no 10, p. 6111-6119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most wooden structures for outdoor applications require repetitive maintenance operations to protect the surfaces from adverse effects of weathering. One-sided surface modification of boards with a relatively fast charring process has the potential to increase the durability and service life of wooden claddings. To assess some weathering-related effects on surface charred wood, spruce and pine sapwood were subjected to a series of long charring processes (30–120 min) at a moderate temperature of 250 °C and to a short one (30 s) at a high temperature of 400 °C. The wettability and contact angles of treated samples were investigated, and the heat transfer was measured along with the micromorphological changes taking place in the material. The result revealed an increased moisture resistance of charred spruce sapwood and an increased water uptake of pine sapwood. The contact angles of both wood species improved compared to references. Heat conduction measurement revealed that only a thin section of the wood was thermally modified. Some micromorphological changes were recorded, especially on the inside walls of the lumina. The results show that spruce sapwood has an improved resistance towards moisture-induced weathering, but more studies are needed to unlock the potential of surface charred wood.

  • 5.
    Laine, Kristiina
    et al.
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Segerholm, Kristoffer
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Wålinder, Magnus
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Rautkari, Lauri
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Ormondroyd, Graham
    Bangor University, UK.
    Hughes, Mark
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Jones, Dennis
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Material och produkter (TRm).
    Micromorphological studies of surface densified wood2014In: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803, Vol. 49, no 5, p. 2027-2034Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) wood was surface densified in its radial direction in an open press with one heated plate to obtain a higher density on the wood surface whilst retaining the overall thickness of the sample. This study investigated the effect of temperature (100, 150 and 200 °C) and press closing speed (5, 10 and 30 mm/min, giving closing times of 60, 30 and 10 s, respectively) on the micromorphology of the cell-wall, as well as changes occurring during set-recovery of the densified wood. The micromorphology was analysed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with a sample preparation technique based on ultraviolet-excimer laser ablation. Furthermore, the density profiles of the samples were measured. Low press temperature (100 °C) and short closing time (10 s) resulted in more deformation through the whole thickness, whilst increasing the temperature (150 and 200 °C) and prolonging the closing time (30 and 60 s) enabled more targeted deformation closer to the heated plate. The deformation occurred in the earlywood regions as curling and twisting of the radial cell-walls, however, no apparent cell-wall disruption or internal fracture was observed, even at low temperatures and fast press closing speed, nor after soaking and drying of the samples. In the SEM-analysis after soaking and drying, it was noticed that the cells did not completely recover their original form. Thus, part of the deformation was considered permanent perhaps due to viscoelastic flow and plastic deformation of the cell-wall components.

  • 6.
    Larsson, Per T.
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Lindström, Tom
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Carlsson, Leif A.
    Florida Atlantic University, USA.
    Fellers, Christer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Fiber length and bonding effects on tensile strength and toughness of kraft paper2018In: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803, Vol. 53, no 4, p. 3006-3015Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fiber length and fiber-to-fiber bonding effects on tensile strength and fracture toughness of kraft paper have experimentally been investigated. Laboratory sheets were made from kraft pulp, each with a distinct set of fiber lengths. Additionally, the fiber–fiber bond strength was improved by carboxymethyl (CMC) grafting. The tensile strength and work of fracture toughness results were compared to predictions from a shear-lag model which considers the fiber–fiber bond shear strength, the fiber tensile strength and fiber pull-out work. The tensile strength and fracture work for papers with weak fiber–fiber bonds increased with fiber length consistent with the shear-lag model. CMC-treated fibers provided strong fiber–fiber bonds. Papers made from such fibers displayed high strength and work of fracture independent of fiber length which indicates that the failure process is governed by fiber failures rather than bond failures. The fracture toughness, expressed as the critical value of the J-integral, increased strongly with fiber length for both untreated and CMC-treated papers. The results show that long fibers and CMC addition are extremely beneficial for improving the fracture toughness. © 2017, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  • 7. Lu, X.
    et al.
    Langton, Maud
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Olofsson, P.
    Redelius, P.
    Wax morphology in bitumen2005In: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803, Vol. 40, no 8, p. 1893-1900Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wax crystallisation and melting in bitumen is usually considered detrimental to bitumen quality and asphalt performance. The objectives of this paper are to study wax morphology in bitumen and to investigate effects of time, temperature, and thermal cycling on wax crystallisation. Various samples were selected, including eight waxy bitumens of different sources and three laboratory blends prepared by adding a slack wax and two isolated bitumen waxes to the non-waxy bitumen. Test methods used were differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), polarised light microscopy (PLM), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and freeze etching (fracture) in combination with transmission electron microscopy (FF-TEM). The DSC results indicated that the selected bitumen samples differ widely in wax content and wax crystallisation starting and melting out temperatures. It was found that non-waxy bitumen displayed no structure or crystals neither in PLM, CLSM or FF-TEM, while waxy bitumens from different crude origins showed a large variation of structures. The morphology of wax crystals was highly dependent on crystallisation temperature as well as temperature history. The wax which has been isolated from waxy bitumen and mixed into non-waxy bitumen displayed similar morphology as the wax in the original bitumen. It was also found that bitumen wax usually melted at temperatures lower than 60°C although in one case a temperature of 80°C was needed until complete melting of the wax. © 2005 Springer Science + Business Media, Inc.

  • 8.
    Mannberg, Peter
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, SICOMP.
    Nyström, Birgitha
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, SICOMP.
    Joffe, Roberts
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, SICOMP.
    Service life assessment and moisture influence on bio-based thermosetting resins2014In: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803, Vol. 49, no 10, p. 3687-3693Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, three different types of bio-based resins are compared to a conventional oil-based epoxy in terms of moisture uptake, long-term properties and its influence of moisture and glass transition temperature, T g. Moisture uptake is determined by means of gravimetric method, time temperature superposition (TTSP), and T g data obtained in dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). Moisture uptake show Fickian diffuison behavour for all resins, saturation level and diffusion coefficient however differ. The long-term properties is characterised by creep compliance master curves created by means of TTSP. The examined bio-based resins are compatible to the reference epoxy in term of stability up to 3-10 years. Comparison between master curves for virgin, wet, and dried material show that moisture present in the specimen increases creep rate, and that some of this increase remains after drying of samples. T g measurements show that moisture inside the specimen decreases T g; this is anticipated because of the plasticizing effect of water. The overall conclusions are that the bio-based resins of polyester, and epoxy type are comparable in performance with oil-based epoxy, LY556 and they can be used to develop high-performance composites. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  • 9.
    Mannberg, Peter
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, SICOMP.
    Nyström, Birgitha
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, SICOMP.
    Wallström, L.
    LTU.
    Joffe, Roberts
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, SICOMP.
    Service life assessment and moisture influence on bio-based composites2014In: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803, Vol. 49, no 15, p. 5265-5270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A race towards a more sustainable society is going on worldwide, and decreasing dependence on fossil resources in energy and transport sectors are main goals. One path to decreased oil usage is development of lightweight materials from renewable resources like bio-based composites. However, these new bio-based materials not only have to compete in mechanical performance but also have to restrain environmental loads like moisture and temperature over time. In this study, two bio-based composites have been compared to an oil-based composite in terms of long-term properties and water absorption behaviour. The long-term behaviour is determined by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis, DMTA and time temperature superposition, TTSP. The water uptake is determined by submersion of specimens into water and tracking their weight change over time. The moisture influence is characterised in form of water uptake and change in the master curves created by TTSP procedure. The results show that there is a significant difference in long-term performance between the bio-based and oil-based composites. It is realised that the bio-based composites can be a good alternative for some applications especially when taking their eco-friendly nature into account. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  • 10.
    Martinsson, Åsa
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Sandström, Rolf
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Hydrogen depth profile in phosphorus-doped, oxygen-free copper after cathodic charging2012In: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803, Vol. 47, no 19, p. 6768-6776Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spent nuclear fuel, in Sweden, is planned to be put in 50-mm thick copper canisters and placed in 500-m depth in the bedrock. Depending on the conditions in the repository, an uptake of hydrogen in the copper may occur. It is therefore necessary to establish how a hydrogen uptake affects the microstructure in both the surface and the bulk. Phosphorus-doped, oxygen-free copper has been cathodically charged with hydrogen for up to 3 weeks. The amount of hydrogen as a function of the distance from the surface was measured by two methods: glow discharge optical emission spectrometry and melt extraction. The penetration of the increased hydrogen content was about 50 μm. Extensive bubble formation took place during the charging. A model has been formulated for the diffusion of hydrogen into the copper, the bubble formation and growth. The model can describe the total amount of hydrogen, the number of bubbles and their sizes as a function of the distance from the surface. Bubbles close to the surface caused the surface to bulge due to the high hydrogen pressure. From the shape of the deformed surface, the maximum hydrogen pressure could be estimated with the help of stress analysis. The maximum pressure was found to be about 400 MPa, which is almost an order of magnitude larger than previously recorded values for electroless deposited copper. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012.

  • 11.
    Miettinen, Arttu
    et al.
    University of Jyvaskyla, Finland.
    Ekman, Axel
    University of Jyvaskyla, Finland.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Kataja, Markku
    University of Jyvaskyla, Finland.
    Measuring intrinsic thickness of rough membranes: application to nanofibrillated cellulose films2015In: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803, Vol. 50, no 21, p. 6926-6934Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adequate measurement of thickness of sheet-like materials or membranes is most important for quantifying their properties such as density, barrier properties and mechanical strength. Depending on the surface roughness of the membrane, the thickness measured by standard micrometre devices (apparent thickness) may considerably overestimate the actual geometrical mean thickness (intrinsic thickness) required for such purposes. In this work, we present a method for correcting the measured apparent thickness value of thin membranes for their surface roughness, thereby obtaining an improved estimate of the intrinsic thickness. The surface roughness data required for the correction can be obtained by common surface profiling techniques. The method includes a calibration parameter, the value of which can be found experimentally by independent measurements, or can be estimated theoretically using results from standard mechanical contact theory. The method is tested on a set of nanofibrillated cellulose films with varying roughness levels controlled by pulp fibre content. The surface topography of film samples was measured using laser profilometry, and the method was calibrated experimentally using data from X-ray microtomographic images for one type of film. The intrinsic thickness estimates given by the new method are generally in good accordance with independent results obtained from X-ray microtomography.

  • 12. Mihranyan, A.
    et al.
    Esmaeili, M.
    Razaq, A.
    Alexeichik, D.
    Lindström, T.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Influence of the nanocellulose raw material characteristics on the electrochemical and mechanical properties of conductive paper electrodes2012In: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803, no 10, p. 4463-4472Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Olsson, Carina
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Hedlund, Artur
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Idström, Alexander
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Westman, Gunnar
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Effect of methylimidazole on cellulose/ionic liquid solutions and regenerated material therefrom2014In: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803, Vol. 49, no 9, p. 3423-3433Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cellulose, especially wood-based cellulose, is increasingly important for making everyday materials such as man-made-regenerated textile fibers, produced via dissolution and subsequent precipitation. In this paper, the effect of cosolvents in ionic liquid-facilitated cellulose dissolution is discussed. Both microcrystalline cellulose and dissolving grade hardwood pulp were studied. Three different cosolvents in combination with ionic liquid were evaluated using turbidity measurements and viscosity. The ionic liquid precursor N-methylimidazole proved to be a promising cosolvent candidate and was thus selected for further studies together with the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3- methylimidazolium acetate. Results show that dissolution rate can be increased by cosolvent addition, and the viscosity can be significantly reduced. The solutions were stable over time at room temperature and could be converted to regenerated textile fibers with good mechanical properties via airgap spinning and traditional wet spinning. Fibers spun from binary solvents exhibited significantly higher crystallinity than the fibers from neat ionic liquid. © 2014 The Author(s).

  • 14. Petersson, M.
    et al.
    Gustafson, I.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Ageing of two petroleum waxes2008In: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803, Vol. 43, no 6, p. 1859-1868Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of ageing at different storage conditions on the microstructure and melting properties of two petroleum waxes, petrolatum and microcrystalline wax, were investigated. The two waxes were stored for a maximum of 50 weeks at different temperatures. Samples were analysed before storage and removed from storage and analysed after different storage times. The effect of storage time and temperature was analysed with confocal laser scanning microscopy and modulated differential scanning calorimetry. Some alteration in the microstructure occurred with longer storage time. The amount of fine and irregular structures seen in the initial petrolatum samples decreased with storage time, and some shadowy, grey areas appeared. The microstructure of the microcrystalline wax stored at 23 °C became more diffuse and more, shadowy, grey areas appeared with time compared to samples stored at 50 °C. These showed coarser crystalline structures and fewer shadowy, grey areas. The results of confocal laser scanning microscopy and modulated differential scanning calorimetry analyses indicated that recrystallization occurred in both waxes during storage. The proposed recrystallization processes taking place during storage were most likely the same in all samples, but the recrystallization occurred to a greater extent in the microcrystalline wax samples stored at 50 °C. © 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  • 15. Petersson, M.
    et al.
    Gustafson, I.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Comparison of microstructural and physical properties of two petroleum waxes2008In: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803, Vol. 43, no 6, p. 1869-1879Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microstructural and physical properties of two petroleum waxes, petrolatum and microcrystalline wax, were characterized in this work. Petroleum waxes are known to be hydrophobic and can be used in applications where a good moisture barrier is needed. In order to achieve a better understanding of different inherent properties of a wax, the two waxes in this work were characterized with infrared spectroscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, rheology and X-ray diffraction. It was concluded from the results of infrared spectroscopy that the two waxes consisted only of saturated alkanes. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that the petrolatum sample had a more open microstructure with coarse crystals separated from each other than the microcrystalline wax, which appeared to have a more network-like crystalline structure consisting of somewhat finer crystals. Both waxes crystallized over a broad temperature range. Their crystallization characteristics were quite different, however, probably owing to a different oil content. According to modulated differential scanning calorimetry and rheological measurements the microcrystalline wax crystallized through a two-step process, whereas the petrolatum crystallized through only one step. © 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  • 16.
    Santos, Sara M.
    et al.
    INIA, Spain.
    Carbajo, José M.
    INIA, Spain.
    Gomez, Nuria
    INIA, Spain.
    Quintana, Ester
    INIA, Spain.
    Ladero, Miguel
    Complutense University of Madrid, Spain.
    Sanchez, Arsenio
    National Library of Spain, Spain.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Villar, Juan C.
    INIA, Spain.
    Use of bacterial cellulose in degraded paper restoration. Part I: application on model papers2016In: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803, Vol. 51, no 3, p. 1541-1552Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The disappearance of bibliographic heritage is one of the biggest problems facing libraries. One of the most common methods used to restore paper, lining, is to apply a reinforcing layer to the document. This study focuses on lining papers with bacterial cellulose (BC) sheets from Gluconacetobacter sucrofermentans. For this purpose, several model papers have been selected. They have been characterized before and after the lining with this BC and a specific Japanese paper (JP) to compare both materials. Taking into account the differences between bacterial and vegetal cellulose is expected that the results may be similar to other BC and JP. The samples have been characterized before and after an aging process. There are no significant differences in some of the characteristics studied. Nevertheless, BC-lined papers present higher gloss values and b* coordinate. The wettability decreases with both BC and JP. However, in papers lined with BC, the wettability decreases more markedly and independently of the model paper used. This is related to the sealing of the surface structure by BC, which also leads to a reduction of air permeability. When the lined papers go through an aging process, there are no significant changes in any characteristic, except in b* and L* color coordinates. Additionally, the wettability rate decreases in all cases. This study indicates that papers lined with BC are stable over time. Finally, the use of BC as reinforcing material may offer advantages for specific conservation treatments, being more suitable for certain types of paper than JP.

  • 17.
    Santos, Sara M.
    et al.
    INIA, Spain.
    Carbajo, José M.
    INIA, Spain.
    Gomez, Nuria
    INIA, Spain.
    Quintana, Ester
    INIA, Spain.
    Ladero, Miguel
    Complutense University of Madrid, Spain.
    Sanchez, Arsenio
    National Library of Spain, Spain.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Villar, Juan C.
    INIA, Spain.
    Use of bacterial cellulose in degraded paper restoration. Part II: application on real samples2016In: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803, Vol. 51, no 3, p. 1553-1561Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Preservation of documentary heritage is one of the biggest challenges facing paper conservators today. The singular properties of bacterial cellulose (BC) lead us to propose to reinforce paper with BC sheets. In the first part of this study, the reinforcing capability of BC was tested on model papers of well-known fiber composition. The aim of the present study was to verify the suitability of rebuilding degraded old papers with BC. The degraded papers were characterized before and after the reinforcement. In addition, lined samples were characterized before and after an aging process in order to study the stability in time. The same methodology was used with Japanese paper (JP), a material commonly used by paper conservators, in order to compare both materials as reinforcement. Mechanical properties of paper lined with BC are as good as those obtained with JP. Papers lined with BC have more marked modifications on their optical properties than those restored with JP. Nevertheless, letters in books lined with BC are more legible. Moreover, only the papers restored with BC show high changes in porosity. The aging process leads to a slight decrement in burst index. Changes on tear index and optical properties with the aging process depend on the paper to be restored. This study suggests that BC improves deteriorated paper quality, without altering the information contained therein, and that this improvement is maintained over time. Hence, BC is a promising alternative material for the restoration of paper.

  • 18.
    Silva, Filomena
    et al.
    ARAID Agencia Aragonesa para la Investigación y el Desarollo, Spain; University of Zaragoza, Spain; University of Beira Interior, Portugal .
    Gracia, Nicolas
    University of Zaragoza, Spain.
    McDonagh, Birgitte
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, PFI.
    Domingues, Fernanda
    University of Beira Interior, Portugal.
    Nerín, Cristina
    University of Zaragoza, Spain.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, PFI.
    Antimicrobial activity of biocomposite films containing cellulose nanofibrils and ethyl lauroyl arginate2019In: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803, Vol. 54, no 18, p. 12159-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Food packaging is tailored to keep food fresh by increasing shelf life and preventing microbial deterioration. However, traditional food packaging is commonly made from non-degradable polymers without antimicrobial properties and that pose an environmental threat if not disposed properly. To address this issue, here we describe the preparation of cellulose nanofibril (CNF) films and hydrogels with antimicrobial activity against common foodborne pathogens such as verotoxigenic E. coli, L. monocytogenes and S. Typhimurium. Furthermore, two grades of negatively charged CNFs with different fibrillation degrees were modified with ethyl lauroyl arginate (LAE), which is an antimicrobial agent. CNF films were able to bind LAE molecules up to a maximum concentration of 145–160 ppm. LAE–CNF biocomposite films exerted a bactericidal activity against a major foodborne pathogen present in ready-to-eat food (L. monocytogenes) even at 1% LAE. Our work describes a novel biopolymer-based strategy that overcomes the current hurdles with LAE incorporation into packaging materials, offering a green and antimicrobial alternative for packaging of ready-to-eat (RTE) meat products. .

  • 19. Song, K.
    et al.
    Yin, Y.
    Salmen, L.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Xiao, F.
    Jiang, X.
    Changes in the properties of wood cell walls during the transformation from sapwood to heartwood2014In: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803, Vol. 49, no 4, p. 1734-1742Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Stevanic, J.S.
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Bergström, E.M.
    Gatenholm, P.
    Berglund, L.
    Salmen, L.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Arabinoxylan/nanofibrillated cellulose composite films2012In: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803, no 18, p. 6724-6732Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Stevanic, J.S.
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Mikkonen, K.S.
    Xu, C.
    Tenkanen, M.
    Berglund, L.
    Salmen, L.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Wood cell wall mimicking for composite films of spruce nanofibrillated cellulose with spruce galactoglucomannan and arabinoglucuronoxylan2014In: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803, Vol. 49, no 14, p. 5043-5055Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Wallqvist, Viveca
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Rutland, Mark
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Claesson, Per
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Surface wrinkling: The phenomenon causing bees in bitumen2013In: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803, Vol. 48, no 20, p. 6970-6976Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Öhgren, Camilla
    et al.
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Langton, Maud
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Hermansson, Ann-Marie
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Structure-fracture measurements of particulate gels2004In: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803, Vol. 39, no 21, p. 6473-6482Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Images on a micron scale and the stress-strain behaviour of gel structures during tension were simultaneously recorded in real time using a mini fracture cell under the confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). ?-lactoglobulin gels tailor-made to vary in density, connectivity, thickness of strands and size of aggregates and clusters were used as a food model system. Amylopectin and gelatin were used to generate different types of ?-lactoglobulin network microstructures and also as a second continuous phase. Both rheological and structural differences in fragility between ?-lactoglobulin gels were verified according to the density of their aggregated network structure. A dense gel has a more brittle behaviour where the clusters are rigid and the crack propagates smoothly compared to a gel with an open network structure, which has a discontinuous crack growth, via a winding pathway around clusters, and also break-up of the pores far from the crack tip. Differences in the stretchability of the aggregated ?-lactoglobulin structure, induced by addition of amylopectin solution, were proved and related to differences in stress-strain behaviour and crack propagation. Gelatin gels in the pores between the ?-lactoglobulin clusters do not affect the structure of the ?-lactoglobulin network but make the fracture fragile giving a smooth fracture surface, cause continuous crack growth and fracture propagation through ?-lactoglobulin clusters. This is a consequence of that the mixed gel follows the behaviour of the gelatin gel when the gelatin phase is stronger than the ?-lactoglobulin network. © 2004 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

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