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  • 1.
    Hatami, Sepher
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Tillverkningsprocesser.
    Ma, Taoran
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Tillverkningsprocesser.
    Vuoristo, Taina
    Swerim AB, Sweden.
    Bertilsson, Jens
    Sigma Industry East North AB, Sweden.
    Lyckfeldt, Ola
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Tillverkningsprocesser.
    Fatigue Strength of 316 L Stainless Steel Manufactured by Selective Laser Melting2020Inngår i: Journal of materials engineering and performance (Print), ISSN 1059-9495, E-ISSN 1544-1024, Vol. 29, s. 3183-3194Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the fatigue strength of 316 L stainless steel manufactured by selective laser melting (SLM) is evaluated. The effect of powder layer thickness and postmachining is investigated. Specimens were produced with 30 and 50 µm layer thickness and tested under high cycle fatigue in as-printed and postmachined conditions. Examination of the specimens reveals that in the as-printed condition, fatigue strength suffers from high roughness and surface tensile residual stresses as well as defects such as pores and lack of fusion voids. After machining, the fatigue strength was improved due to lower surface roughness, presence of compressive residual stresses, and removal of surface porosity. The results show that increasing the layer thickness (within the range tested) has a minor negative impact on fatigue strength; however, it has a major positive impact on the productivity of the SLM process. In addition, it is clear that the impact of postmachining on fatigue is far greater than that of the layer thickness. © 2020, The Author(s).

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 2.
    Holmberg, Jonas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Tillverkningsprocesser.
    Berglund, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Tillverkningsprocesser.
    Stormvinter, Albin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Tillverkningsprocesser.
    Andersson, Pär
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Tillverkningsprocesser.
    Lundin, Per
    Ludin Stress Service AB, Sweden.
    Influence of Local Electropolishing Conditions on Ferritic–Pearlitic Steel on X-Ray Diffraction Residual Stress Profiling2024Inngår i: Journal of materials engineering and performance (Print), ISSN 1059-9495, E-ISSN 1544-1024, Vol. 33, s. 3682-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Layer removal with electropolishing is a well-established method when measuring residual stress profiles with lab-XRD. This is done to measure the depth impact from processes such as shot peening, heat treatment, or machining. Electropolishing is used to minimize the influence on the inherent residual stresses of the material during layer removal, performed successively in incremental steps to specific depths followed by measurement. Great control of the material removal is critical for the measured stresses at each depth. Therefore, the selection of size of the measurement spot and electropolishing parameters is essential. The main objective in this work is to investigate how different electrolytes and electropolishing equipment affect the resulting surface roughness, geometry, microstructure, and consequently the measured residual stress. A second objective has been to establish a methodology of assessing the acquired electropolished depth. The aim has been to get a better understanding of the influence of the layer removal method on the accuracy of the acquired depth. Evaluation has been done by electropolishing one ground and one shot peened sample of a low-alloy carbon steel, grade 1.1730, with different methods. The results showed a difference in stresses depending on the electrolyte used where the perchloric acid had better ability to retain the stresses compared to the saturated salt. Electropolishing with saturated salt is fast and results in evenly distributed material removal but has high surface roughness, which is due to a difference in electropolishing of the two phases, ferrite, and pearlite. Perchloric acid electropolishing is slower but generates a smooth surface as both ferrite and pearlite have the same material removal rates but may cause an increased material removal for the center of the electropolished area. In this work, it is suggested to use perchloric acid electropolishing for the final layer removal step. © 2023, The Author(s).

  • 3.
    Holmberg, Jonas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Tillverkningsprocesser.
    Wendel, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Tillverkningsprocesser.
    Stormvinter, Albin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Tillverkningsprocesser.
    Progressive Induction Hardening: Measurement and Alteration of Residual Stresses2024Inngår i: Journal of materials engineering and performance (Print), ISSN 1059-9495, E-ISSN 1544-1024Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Progressive induction hardening is an in-line steel heat treatment method commonly used to surface harden powertrain components. It produces a martensitic case layer with a sharp transition zone to the base material. This rapid process will induce large residual stresses, where a compressive state in the case layer will shift to a tensile state in the transition zone. For fatigue performance, it is important to quantify the magnitude and distribution of these stresses, and moreover how they depend on material and processing parameters. In this work, x-ray diffraction in combination with a layer removal method is used for efficient and robust quantification of the subsurface stress state, which combines electropolishing with either turning or milling. Characterization is done on C45E steel samples that were progressively induction hardened using either a fast or slow (27.5 or 5 mm/s, respectively) scanning speed. The results show that although the hardening procedures will meet arbitrary requirements on surface hardness, case depth and microstructure, the subsurface tensile stress peak magnitude is doubled when using a fast scanning speed. However, the near-surface compressive residual stresses are comparable. In addition, the subsurface tensile residual stress peak is compared with the on-surface tensile stresses in the fade-out zone.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 4.
    Holmberg, Jonas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Material och produktion, IVF. University Wes, Sweden.
    Wretland, Anders
    GKN Aerospace Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Berglund, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Material och produktion, IVF.
    Grit Blasting for Removal of Recast Layer from EDM Process on Inconel 718 Shaft: An Evaluation of Surface Integrity2016Inngår i: Journal of materials engineering and performance (Print), ISSN 1059-9495, E-ISSN 1544-1024, Vol. 25, nr 12, s. 5540-5550Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The heat generated during EDM melts the work material and thereby allows large amounts to be removed, but an unfavorable surface of a recast layer (RCL) will also be created. This layer has entirely different properties compared to the bulk. Hence, it is of great interest to efficiently remove this layer and to verify that it has been removed. The main objective of this work has been to study the efficiency of grit blasting for removal of RCL on an EDM aero space shaft. Additionally, x-ray fluorescence (XRF) has been evaluated as a nondestructive measurement to determine RCL presence. The results show that the grit-blasting processing parameters have strong influence on the ability to remove RCL and at the same time introduce beneficial compressive stresses even after short exposure time. Longer exposure will remove the RCL from the surface but also increase the risk that a larger amount of the blasting medium will get stuck into the surface. This investigation shows that a short exposure time in combination with a short grit-blasting nozzle distance is the most preferable process setting. It was further found that handheld XRF equipment can be used as a nondestructive measurement in order to evaluate the amount of RCL present on an EDM surface. This was realized by analyzing the residual elements from the EDM wire.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 5.
    Ivanov, Dmitry
    et al.
    EFD Induction A.S., Norway.
    Markegård, Leif
    EFD Induction A.S., Norway.
    Asperheim, John Inge
    EFD Induction A.S., Norway.
    Kristoffersen, Hans
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Material och produktion, IVF.
    Simulation of Stress and Strain for Induction-Hardening Applications2013Inngår i: Journal of materials engineering and performance (Print), ISSN 1059-9495, E-ISSN 1544-1024, Vol. 22, nr 11, s. 3258-3268Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The possibility to manage stress and strain in hardened parts might be beneficial for a number of induction-hardening applications. The most important of these benefits are the improvement of fatigue strength, avoidance of cracks, and minimization of distortion. An appropriate and powerful way to take the stress and strain into account during the development of a process is to make use of computer simulations. In-house developed and commercial software packages have been coupled to incorporate the electromagnetic task into the calculations. The simulations have been performed followed by analysis of the results. The influences of two different values of quenching intensity, strength of initial material structure, strength of austenite, surface power density-frequency-time combination, and workpiece diameter on the residual stress are studied. The influence of quenching intensity is confirmed by the series of experiments representing the external hardening of a cylinder with eight variations of quenching intensity. Measured by x-rays, the values of surface tangential stress are used as a dataset for verification of the model being used for analyses.

  • 6.
    Kroupa, Ales
    et al.
    Institute of Physics of Materials, Czech Republic.
    Andersson, Dag
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, IVF.
    Hoo, Nick
    ITRI Ltd, UK.
    Pearce, Jeremy B
    ITRI Ltd, UK.
    Watson, Andy
    University of Leeds, UK.
    Dinsdale, Alan
    National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Mucklejohn, Stuart
    Ceravision Ltd, UK.
    Current problems and possible solutions in high-temperature lead-free soldering2012Inngår i: Journal of materials engineering and performance (Print), ISSN 1059-9495, E-ISSN 1544-1024, Vol. 21, nr 5, s. 629-637Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The substitution of lead in the electronics industry is one of the key issues in the current drive towards ecological manufacturing. Legislation has already banned the use of lead in solders for mainstream applications (T M≈220 °C), but the use of lead in the solders for high-temperature applications (>85% lead, T M≈250-350 °C) is still exempt in RoHS2. The search for proper substitutes has been ongoing among solder manufacturers only for a decade without finding a viable low cost alternative and is the subject of intensive research. This article tries to map the current situation in the field of high-temperature lead-free soldering, presenting a short review of current legislation, requirements for substitute alloys, and finally it describes some existing solutions both in the field of promising new materials and new technologies. Currently, there is no drop-in replacement for lead-containing solders and therefore both the new materials and the new technologies may be viable solutions for production of reliable lead-free joints for high-temperature applications.

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