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  • 1.
    Holmberg, Jonas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF. University Wes, Sweden.
    Wretland, Anders
    GKN Aerospace Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Berglund, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Grit Blasting for Removal of Recast Layer from EDM Process on Inconel 718 Shaft: An Evaluation of Surface Integrity2016In: Journal of materials engineering and performance (Print), ISSN 1059-9495, E-ISSN 1544-1024, Vol. 25, no 12, p. 5540-5550Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The heat generated during EDM melts the work material and thereby allows large amounts to be removed, but an unfavorable surface of a recast layer (RCL) will also be created. This layer has entirely different properties compared to the bulk. Hence, it is of great interest to efficiently remove this layer and to verify that it has been removed. The main objective of this work has been to study the efficiency of grit blasting for removal of RCL on an EDM aero space shaft. Additionally, x-ray fluorescence (XRF) has been evaluated as a nondestructive measurement to determine RCL presence. The results show that the grit-blasting processing parameters have strong influence on the ability to remove RCL and at the same time introduce beneficial compressive stresses even after short exposure time. Longer exposure will remove the RCL from the surface but also increase the risk that a larger amount of the blasting medium will get stuck into the surface. This investigation shows that a short exposure time in combination with a short grit-blasting nozzle distance is the most preferable process setting. It was further found that handheld XRF equipment can be used as a nondestructive measurement in order to evaluate the amount of RCL present on an EDM surface. This was realized by analyzing the residual elements from the EDM wire.

  • 2.
    Ivanov, D.
    et al.
    EFD Induction A.s..
    Markegård, L.
    EFD Induction A.s..
    Asperheim, J.I.
    EFD Induction A.s..
    Kristoffersen, Hans
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Simulation of Stress and Strain for Induction-Hardening Applications2013In: Journal of materials engineering and performance (Print), ISSN 1059-9495, E-ISSN 1544-1024, Vol. 22, no 11, p. 3258-3268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The possibility to manage stress and strain in hardened parts might be beneficial for a number of induction-hardening applications. The most important of these benefits are the improvement of fatigue strength, avoidance of cracks, and minimization of distortion. An appropriate and powerful way to take the stress and strain into account during the development of a process is to make use of computer simulations. In-house developed and commercial software packages have been coupled to incorporate the electromagnetic task into the calculations. The simulations have been performed followed by analysis of the results. The influences of two different values of quenching intensity, strength of initial material structure, strength of austenite, surface power density-frequency-time combination, and workpiece diameter on the residual stress are studied. The influence of quenching intensity is confirmed by the series of experiments representing the external hardening of a cylinder with eight variations of quenching intensity. Measured by x-rays, the values of surface tangential stress are used as a dataset for verification of the model being used for analyses. © 2013 ASM International.

  • 3.
    Kroupa, Ales
    et al.
    Institute of Physics of Materials, Czech Republic.
    Andersson, Dag
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Hoo, Nick
    ITRI Ltd, UK.
    Pearce, Jeremy B
    ITRI Ltd, UK.
    Watson, Andy
    University of Leeds, UK.
    Dinsdale, Alan
    National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Mucklejohn, Stuart
    Ceravision Ltd, UK.
    Current problems and possible solutions in high-temperature lead-free soldering2012In: Journal of materials engineering and performance (Print), ISSN 1059-9495, E-ISSN 1544-1024, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 629-637Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The substitution of lead in the electronics industry is one of the key issues in the current drive towards ecological manufacturing. Legislation has already banned the use of lead in solders for mainstream applications (T M≈220 °C), but the use of lead in the solders for high-temperature applications (>85% lead, T M≈250-350 °C) is still exempt in RoHS2. The search for proper substitutes has been ongoing among solder manufacturers only for a decade without finding a viable low cost alternative and is the subject of intensive research. This article tries to map the current situation in the field of high-temperature lead-free soldering, presenting a short review of current legislation, requirements for substitute alloys, and finally it describes some existing solutions both in the field of promising new materials and new technologies. Currently, there is no drop-in replacement for lead-containing solders and therefore both the new materials and the new technologies may be viable solutions for production of reliable lead-free joints for high-temperature applications.

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