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  • 1.
    Bekhta, Pavlo
    et al.
    Ukrainian National Forestry University, Ukraine.
    Sedliacik, Jan
    Technical University in Zvolen, Slovakia.
    Jones, Dennis
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Effect of short-term thermomechanical densification of wood veneers on the properties of birch plywood2017In: European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, ISSN 0018-3768, E-ISSN 1436-736XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the physical and mechanical properties of plywood panels made from pre-compressed birch (Betula verrucosa Ehrh.) veneer were evaluated. Veneer sheets underwent short-term thermo-mechanical (STTM) compression at temperatures of 150 or 180 °C and at pressures of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 or 3.5 MPa for a period of 1 min prior to adhesive being applied and pressed into panels using phenol formaldehyde adhesive at 100 g/m2 spread rate; this was one-third less than the adhesive spread used for the control panels (150 g/m2). The pressing pressure was 1.0 MPa, which was almost half of the pressure used for the control panels (1.8 MPa); and pressing time was 3 min, also half of the pressing time used for the control panels (6 min). The results showed that surface roughness of compressed veneer, water absorption and thickness swelling of plywood panels made from compressed veneer were significantly improved. The shear strength values of plywood panels made from compressed birch veneer even with reduced adhesive spread were higher than those of plywood panels made from uncompressed veneer. The findings in this study indicated that compression of birch veneer could be considered as an alternative to produce more eco-friendly (owing to smaller adhesive spread) value-added material with enhanced properties.

  • 2. Berglund, Anders
    et al.
    Johansson, Erik
    Förädling och processer (TRf).
    Skog, Johan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Value optimized log rotation for strength graded boards using computed tomography2014In: European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, ISSN 0018-3768, E-ISSN 1436-736X, Vol. 72, no 5, p. 635-642Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3. Hu, Min
    et al.
    Johansson, Marie
    Olsson, Anders
    Oscarsson, Jan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Enquist, Bertil
    Local variation of modulus of elasticity in timber determined on the basis of non-contact deformation measurement and scanned fibre orientation2015In: European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, ISSN 0018-3768, E-ISSN 1436-736X, Vol. 70, no 1, p. 17-27Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Johansson, Pernilla
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Arfvidsson, J.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Examples of characteristics of wood that affect mould growth: a meta-analysis2017In: European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, ISSN 0018-3768, E-ISSN 1436-736X, Vol. 75, no 4, p. 603-613Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Building materials differ in their susceptibility to mould growth. Wood is a material often considered to have a low mould resistance. However, wood is not a homogenous material and different characteristics of the material are expected to have an impact on mould growth. In this paper, it was shown that wood species (pine or spruce), sawing pattern (centre-board or side-board) and surface structure (planed or sawn) affected mould growth. In addition, it was indicated that the susceptibility cannot be described by one single parameter, but also depends on other parameters. It is therefore difficult to estimate the susceptibility of wood in general. These conclusions were drawn from a meta-analysis, using data from five separate, previously performed laboratory studies conducted at 90% relative humidity and 22 °C, and from a laboratory study performed at 95% RH and 22 °C. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

  • 5. Laine, K.
    et al.
    Segerholm, K.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Wålinder, M.
    Rautkari, L.
    Hughes, M.
    Lankveld, C.
    Surface densification of acetylated wood2016In: European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, ISSN 0018-3768, E-ISSN 1436-736X, Vol. 74, no 6, p. 829-835Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mechanical properties of wood can be improved by compressing its porous structure between heated metal plates. By adjusting the process parameters it is possible to target the densification only in the surface region of wood where the property improvements are mostly needed in applications, such as flooring. The compressed form is, however, sensitive to moisture and will recover to some extent in high humidity. In this study, therefore, acetylated radiata pine was utilised in the surface densification process in order to both reduce the set-recovery of densified wood and to improve the hardness of the acetylated wood. Pre-acetylation was found to significantly reduce the set-recovery of surface densified wood. However, after the second cycle the increase in set-recovery of acetylated wood was relatively higher than the un-acetylated wood. The acetylated samples were compressed by only 1 mm (instead of the target 2 mm), yet, the hardness and hardness recovery of the acetylated samples significantly increased as a result of densification. It was also discovered that rough (un-planed) surfaces may be surface densified, however, even if the surface became smooth to the touch, the appearance remained uneven. © 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  • 6. Malmquist, Lars
    Lumber drying as a diffusion process1991In: European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, ISSN 0018-3768, E-ISSN 1436-736X, Vol. 49, p. 161-167Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Norén, Bengt
    Trätek..
    Matching of wood for testing purpose1994In: European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, ISSN 0018-3768, E-ISSN 1436-736X, Vol. 52, no 3, p. 191-197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Different methods of pair matching both small "clean" wood specimens and structural timber are described. Matching of structural timber according to modulus of elasticy and knots results in pairs that differ in strength by an average of about 15 percent with extremes up to 40 percent. These differences are due to other parameters such as fibre deviation, number of cut fibres, tension strength perpendicular to grain, whose influence is not sufficiently reflected in the deviation of local stiffness. Här beskrivs olika sätt att tillverka par av likvärdiga provkroppar av trä för hållfasthetsbestämning. "Matchning" av helrent trä och förband ingår, men tyngdpunkten är lagd på matchning av konstruktionsvirke såsom den tillämpats vid Träteks långtidsundersökning av tid till brott som funktion av belastningsgraden.

  • 8.
    Nussbaum, Ralph
    Trätek..
    Penetration of water-borne alkyd emulsions and solvent-borne alkyds into wood. Autoradiographic and SEM-EDXA studies1994In: European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, ISSN 0018-3768, E-ISSN 1436-736X, Vol. 52, p. 389-393Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9. Nyrud, Anders Q
    et al.
    Bringslimark, Tina
    Englund, Finn
    SP - Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Wood use in a hospital environment: VOC emissions and air quality2012In: European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, ISSN 0018-3768, E-ISSN 1436-736X, Vol. 70, no 4, p. 541-543Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10. Sjödin, Johan
    et al.
    Enquist, Bertil
    Serrano, Erik
    SP - Sveriges provnings- och forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Contact-free measurements and numerical analyses of the strain distribution in the joint area of steel-to-timber dowel joints2006In: European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, ISSN 0018-3768, E-ISSN 1436-736X, Vol. 64, no 6, p. 497-506Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11. Sjödin, Johan
    et al.
    Johansson, Carl-Johan
    SP- Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Influence of initial moisture induced stresses in multiple steel-to-timber dowel joints2007In: European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, ISSN 0018-3768, E-ISSN 1436-736X, Vol. 65, no 1, p. 71-77Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12. Sjödin, Johan
    et al.
    Serrano, Erik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    A numerical study of methods to predict the capacity of multiple steel-timber dowel joints2008In: European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, ISSN 0018-3768, E-ISSN 1436-736X, Vol. 66, no 6, p. 447-454Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13. Sjödin, Johan
    et al.
    Serrano, Erik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Enquist, Bertil
    An experimental and numerical study of the effect of friction in single dowel joints2008In: European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, ISSN 0018-3768, E-ISSN 1436-736X, Vol. 66, no 5, p. 363-372Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Sterley, Magdalena
    et al.
    AB Trätek.
    Blümer, Hartwig
    Wålinder, Magnus
    AB Trätek.
    Edge and face gluing of green timber using a one-component polyurethane adhesive2004In: European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, ISSN 0018-3768, E-ISSN 1436-736X, Vol. 62, no 6, p. 479-482Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Sundqvist, Bror
    SP - Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Material och produkter (TRm).
    Impact of cold temperatures on the shear strength of Norway spruce joints glued with different adhesives2015In: European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, ISSN 0018-3768, E-ISSN 1436-736X, Vol. 73, no 2, p. 225-233Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16. Wessels, C.B
    et al.
    Crafford, P.L
    du Toit, B
    Grahn, Thomas
    RISE, Innventia.
    Johansson, M
    Lundqvist, Sven-Olof
    RISE, Innventia.
    Säll, H
    Seifert, T
    Variation in physical and mechanical properties from three drought tolerant Eucalyptus species grown on the dry west coast of Southern Africa2016In: European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, ISSN 0018-3768, E-ISSN 1436-736X, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Southern Africa, and specifically its western parts is dominated by low rainfall areas, and it is expected that the rainfall in most of these parts will in future decrease further due to climate change. Woodlots of fast-growing, non-invasive tree species can provide the opportunity to produce wood and release the pressure on natural woodlands, while creating much needed income to inhabitants. Over the last two decades several trials of Eucalyptus species that could potentially withstand arid conditions were established on the South African west coast. The three most promising genotypes according to their volume growth were selected among 46 pure and hybrid species from two 20-year-old trials for further evaluation. These included 10 Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus camaldulensis hybrid trees, 9 Eucalyptus gomphocephala trees, and 9 Eucalyptus cladocalyx trees for a total of 28 trees. The objective of the study reported here was to investigate the within-tree and between species variability of selected physical and processing properties determining the suitability of these three species for lumber production. The density, microfibril angle, spiral grain angle, MOE, MOR, radial and tangential shrinkage, twist, bow, splitting, and collapse were measured in a radial and longitudinal gradient. Valuable insights were gained which could provide decision support for planting, processing and further research on these species when grown in arid conditions. The E. grandis × camaldulensis hybrid was inferior in terms of most relevant properties to the other two species evaluated. The main shortcoming of both E. gomphocephala and E. cladocalyx was the high levels of twist in lumber.

  • 17.
    Ziethén, Rune
    SP- Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Reliability of proof-loaded Norway spruce2008In: European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, ISSN 0018-3768, E-ISSN 1436-736X, Vol. 66, no 6, p. 401-408Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Östman, Birgit
    et al.
    SP - Sveriges provnings- och forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Mikkola, Esko
    European classes for the reaction to fire performance of wood products2006In: European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, ISSN 0018-3768, E-ISSN 1436-736X, Vol. 64, no 4, p. 327-337Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The new classification system for the reaction to fire performance of building products in Europe has been applied to five different product families of wood: Wood-based panels, Structural timber, Glued laminated timber, Solid wood panelling and cladding and Wood flooring as being ‘products with known and stable fire performance’. The European classification system includes two sub-systems, one main system for all construction products except floorings and the other for flooring products. Wood properties such as density, thickness, joints and types of end use application including different substrates have been studied thoroughly and are included in the classification. Most wood products fall in classes D-s2, d0 or Dfl-s1 (for floorings). Testing has been performed according to EN 13823 (2002) SBI- Single Burning Item test, EN ISO 9239-1 (2002) Radiant panel test, and EN ISO 11925-2 (2002) Small flame test. In all, more than one hundred wood products in different end use applications have been studied. Clear relationships between the main Euroclass fire performance parameters and product parameters (such as density and thickness) have been demonstrated. Tables with reaction to fire classification of different wood products and end use applications have been developed, approved by the European Commission and published in their Official Journal. This procedure is ongoing with further official decisions to be published.

1 - 18 of 18
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