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  • 1.
    Arvidson, Magnus
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Large-Scale Water Spray and Water Mist Fire Suppression System Tests for the Protection of Ro-Ro Cargo Decks on Ships2014Ingår i: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 50, nr 3, s. 589-610Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper summarises a series of large-scale fire suppression tests conducted to simulate a fire in the trailer of a heavy goods freight truck on a roll-on roll-off (ro-ro) cargo deck. The tests were conducted with a traditional deluge water spray system as well as a deluge high-pressure water mist system. Parameters such as the water discharge density, the system operating pressure, the nozzle K-factor and whether the fire was fully exposed to the water spray or shielded were varied. The total and convective heat release rate of the fire was measured in order to determine the fire suppression and fire control capabilities of the tested systems. Test results indicate that a water discharge density of at least 10 mm/min is necessary to provide fire suppression of a fire in a heavy goods freight truck, whilst 5 mm/min would provide fire control. Furthermore, the test results indicate that a high-pressure water mist system would require higher flow rates as compared to a traditional water spray system in order to provide fire control.

  • 2.
    Arvidson, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    The Response Time of Different SprinklerGlass Bulbs in a Residential Room FireScenario2018Ingår i: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 54, nr 5, s. 1265-1282Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The response time of fire sprinklers is essential for their performance,especially in applications where life safety protection is desired. The earlier the sprin-kler activates, the smaller the size of the fire. Most commercial residential sprinklersare fitted with 3 mm, 68C glass bulbs. However, thinner sprinkler glass bulbs withlower operating temperatures are available. The aim of this study was to determinethe response time—and the corresponding heat release rate—of different glass bulbsin a residential room fire scenario. A series of tests were conducted inside a compart-ment measuring 3.66 m by 3.66 m having a ceiling height of 2.5 m. The compartmentwas either enclosed or had two walls removed to provide a more ventilated scenario.A propane gas burner was positioned at one of the corners. The mass flow rate ofthe gas was controlled such that either ‘slow’, ‘medium’ or ‘fast’ fire growth rate sce-narios were simulated. In each test, nine Response Time Index (RTI) and operatingtemperature combinations were tested. Each test was replicated three times. In addi-tion, two commercial fire detectors were tested. The results show that the fire is con-siderably smaller upon activation with a combination of a low RTI and a lowoperating temperature, as compared to the 3 mm, 68C glass bulb typically used forresidential sprinklers. The operating temperature proved to have a larger impact onthe results than the RTI. The heat from the fire was typically detected by the firedetectors prior to the activation of the sprinkler glass bulbs, especially for the ‘slow’and ‘medium’ fire growth rate scenarios.

  • 3.
    Arvidson, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Westlund, Örjan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    The Development of Automatic Sprinkler System Concepts for Maritime Vehicle Carriers2024Ingår i: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Closed ro-ro spaces on maritime vehicle carriers are usually protected by a total-flooding carbon dioxide system. Such systems have many benefits, for example that there are no residues that can adversely affect the protected objects (in this case thousands of vehicles) and the agent is electrically non-conductive. However, there could be a considerable time delay from the start of a fire until the carbon dioxide system is discharged. Experience has shown that this delay time can cause significant fire damage and jeopardize the performance of the system. Within the EU funded LASH FIRE project, design and installation guidelines for supplementary automatic water-based fire sprinkler systems were developed. An important design feature is that the system automatically activates at an early stage of a fire. This would allow more time to fight the fire manually or to safely evacuate the space and discharge the CO2 system when the fire is controlled to one or a few vehicles instead of at a time when it has escalated in size. The work was partly based on a comprehensive literature review that identified relevant standards and information applicable to the design of automatic fire sprinkler and deluge water spray systems. Large-scale fire tests verified that the suggested system designs were able to provide control of realistic vehicle fires, including fires in passenger cars and a freight truck.

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  • 4.
    Arvidson, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Westlund, Örjan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Water Spray Fire Suppression Tests Comparing Gasoline-Fuelled and Battery Electric Vehicles2023Ingår i: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Fire Technology, Vol. 59, nr 6, s. 3391-3414Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Closed ro-ro spaces on maritime vehicle carriers are usually protected by a total-flooding carbon dioxide system. Such systems have many benefits, for example that there are no residues that can adversely affect the protected objects (in this case thousands of vehicles) and the agent is electrically non-conductive. However, there could be a considerable time delay from the start of a fire until the carbon dioxide system is discharged. Experience has shown that this delay time can cause significant fire damage and jeopardize the performance of the system. Within the EU funded LASH FIRE project, design and installation guidelines for supplementary automatic water-based fire sprinkler systems were developed. An important design feature is that the system automatically activates at an early stage of a fire. This would allow more time to fight the fire manually or to safely evacuate the space and discharge the CO2 system when the fire is controlled to one or a few vehicles instead of at a time when it has escalated in size. The work was partly based on a comprehensive literature review that identified relevant standards and information applicable to the design of automatic fire sprinkler and deluge water spray systems. Large-scale fire tests verified that the suggested system designs were able to provide control of realistic vehicle fires, including fires in passenger cars and a freight truck.

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  • 5.
    Arvidson, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Westlund, Örjan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Water Spray Fire Suppression Tests Comparing Gasoline-Fuelled and Battery Electric Vehicles2023Ingår i: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 59, s. 3391-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The increased use of electric vehicles has raised a concern about the performance efficiency of water spray fire suppression systems (often denoted “drencher systems”) typically installed on ro–ro cargo and ro–ro passenger ships. A test series was conducted involving testing of two pairs of geometrically similar gasoline-fuelled and battery electric vehicles in test conditions as equivalent as possible. During testing, key parameters such as the heat release rate, the gas temperature above the vehicle and the surface temperature of target steel sheet screens at the sides of the vehicle were measured. Fire ignition was arranged in such a way that the gasoline fuel or the battery pack was involved at the initial stage of the fire. It is concluded that fires in the two types of vehicles are different but have similarities. However, a fire in a battery electric vehicle does not seem to be more challenging than a fire in a gasoline-fuelled vehicle for a drencher system designed in accordance with current international recommendations

  • 6.
    Bisschop, Roeland
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Säkerhetsforskning.
    Willstrand, Ola
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Säkerhetsforskning.
    Rosengren, Max
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Säkerhetsforskning.
    Handling Lithium-Ion Batteries in Electric Vehicles: Preventing and Recovering from Hazardous Events2020Ingår i: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 56, s. 2671-2694Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The demand for lithium-ion battery powered road vehicles continues toincrease around the world. As more of these become operational across the globe,their involvement in traffic accidents and incidents is likely to rise. This can damagethe lithium-ion battery and subsequently pose a threat to occupants and respondersas well as those involved in vehicle recovery and salvage operations. The project thispaper is based on aimed to alleviate such concerns. To provide a basis for fire safetysystems to be applied to damaged EVs, hazards have been identified and means forpreventing and controlling lithium-ion battery fires, including preventive measuresduring workshop and salvage activities were studied. Tests were also performed withfixed fire suppression systems applying suppressant inside traction batteries whichshowed to improve their safety.

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  • 7.
    Blomqvist, Per
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Simonson, Margaret
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Andersson, Petra
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Quantified in Large-Scale Fire Experiments2012Ingår i: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 48, nr 2, s. 513-528Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 8.
    Boström, Lars
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Larsen, C K
    Concrete for tunnel linings exposed to servere fire exposure2006Ingår i: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 4, nr 4, s. 351-362Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 9.
    Caruette, Marie-Laure
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Persson, Henry
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    New Additive for low viscosity of AFFF/AR concentrates - study of the potential fire performance2004Ingår i: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 40, s. 367-384Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 10.
    Dahlbom, Sixten
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Mallin, Tove
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Bobert, Magnus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Fire Test Performance of Eleven PFAS-Free Class B Firefighting Foams Varying Fuels, Admixture, Water Types and Foam Generation Techniques2022Ingår i: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 58, nr 3, s. 1639-1665Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The firefighting performance of eleven PFAS-free firefighting foams was evaluated using different fuels (Jet A1, commercial heptane and diesel) and types of water (freshwater and synthetic sea water). Moreover, different firefighting foam generation techniques and application methods were evaluated. The firefighting foams were generated as aspirated foams or as compressed air foams (CAFs). The results for CAF showed a higher performance, with respect to extinction time and burn-back resistance, compared to the foam generated using a UNI 86 nozzle. The CAF was not optimised, indicating a further potential of this foam generation technique. The results indicate that the time to fire knockdown decreases with decreasing foam viscosity. The heat flux was shown to be small, although the entire fuel surface was involved in the fire. The tests showed a dependence on fuel type; different products performed differently depending on the fuel. Tests using sea water showed that addition of salt to the foam solution generally prolonged the extinction time, although for one of the firefighting foams a shorter extinction time was observed. Out of the eleven evaluated PFAS-free products there was no product that outperformed the rest. None of the products in the study met the fire test performance requirements in all the referenced standards. Instead, the products seem to have different niches where they perform best e.g., with different types of fuel or water.

  • 11.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge. Western Norway University of Applied Science, Norway; Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg, Germany.
    Hagen, Bjarne Christian
    Western Norway University of Applied Science, Norway.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Krause, Ulrich
    Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg, Germany.
    Frette, Vidar
    Western Norway University of Applied Science, Norway.
    Extinguishing Smoldering Fires in Wood Pellets with Water Cooling: An Experimental Study2019Ingår i: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 25, nr 1, s. 257-284Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Smoldering fires in stored or transported solid biofuels are very difficult to extinguish. The current study has explored heat extraction from the combustion zone as a method for extinguishing such flameless fires. Heat extraction from the sample was made feasible using water flowing through a metal pipe located inside the sample. The fuel container was a steel cylinder with insulated side walls, open at the top and heated from below. Wood pellets (1.25 kg, 1.8 l) was used as fuel. Results from small-scale experiments provide proof-of-concept of cooling as a new extinguishing method for smoldering fires. During self-sustained smoldering with heat production in the range 0 W to 60 W, the heat loss to the cooling unit was in the range 5 W to 20 W. There were only marginal differences between non-extinguished and extinguished cases. Up-scaling is discussed, cooling could be feasible for preventing smoldering fires in silos.

  • 12.
    Fridolf, Karl
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Nilsson, Daniel
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Frantzich, Håkan
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Evacuation of a Metro Train in an Underground Rail Transportation System: Flow Rate Capacity of Train Exits, Tunnel Walking Speeds and Exit Choice2015Ingår i: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 52, nr 5, s. 1481-1518Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Including in total 135 participants in the ages 19–69 years (recruited from the general public), an unannounced full-scale field evacuation experiment was performed in the Stockholm underground metro system on the night between October 17 and 18, 2014. The purpose was to collect data on the flow rate of people in train exits during the evacuation of a train in a tunnel and on the walking speed of people when moving long distances on an uneven surface in a tunnel, and to study exit choice and behaviour during an evacuation. Consequently, the experiment involved the evacuation of a rail car (a Bombardier C20 train) in a tunnel as well as the subsequent evacuation of the tunnel itself; the latter meant that the participants either could evacuate to the closest station (~400 m) or to an available emergency exit (~200 m). Among other things, the experiment demonstrated that the averaged flow rates of people in the train exits varied between 0.19 p/s and 0.22 p/s (0.14–0.16 p/m s when considering the train exit width of 1.4 m) and that the averaged walking speeds in the tunnel varied between 1.1 m/s and 1.2 m/s (no smoke present). Furthermore, all 135 participants found and used the available emergency exit, which had been equipped with a technical system consisting of a loudspeaker that broadcasted a combined alarm signal and a pre-recorded voice message.

  • 13.
    Garberg Olsø, Brynhild
    et al.
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Stølen, Reidar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Schjøth Bunkholt, Nora
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Leikanger Friquin, Kathinka
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Hjertnes, Jostein
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Factors Affecting the Fire Safety Design of Photovoltaic Installations Under Performance-Based Regulations in Norway2023Ingår i: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 59, s. 2055-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of Photovoltaic (PV) installations on the fire safety of buildings must be considered in all building projects where such energy systems are established. The holistic fire safety of the building largely depends on how the fire safety of the PV installation is considered by the different actors during the design and construction process. Research has therefore been undertaken to study how performance-based regulations in combination with the lack of national guidelines affect the overall fire safety considerations for PV installations in Norway. Four factors were found to govern to which extent PV installations are emphasised in the fire safety design phase: (1) whether the building was first of its kind as a pioneering building, (2) whether the building was built before or after the publication of the 2018 revision of the norm NEK 400, (3) The level of knowledge and experience of the fire safety consultant, which in turn affects the use of performance-based engineering tools and the level of detailing in the design and construction phases, and (4) The degree of integration in the building. The main goal of the study is to give an insight and a contribution to the development of in-depth knowledge on how fire safety design for PV installations on buildings is handled in Norway, which may also be relevant to other countries with similar performance-based regulations.

  • 14.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Eymann, Loriane
    Ecole des mines d’Ales, France.
    Regeffe, Maxime
    Ecole des mines d’Ales, France.
    Limit-Based Fire Hazard Model for Evaluating Tunnel Life Safety2015Ingår i: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 51, nr 3, s. 585-614Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the simple one-dimensional symmetry of a tunnel with a longitudinal ventilation flow, risk analysis often comprises resource intensive and complex calculations. The purpose of this article is to present a simple yet precise limit-based model for assessing the possibility for a safe tunnel evacuation. To estimate the model uncertainty, fire dynamics calculations were compared to experimental data. The calculations performed well compared to experimental test data, showing an average difference between 5 and 40% in predicting the time available for evacuation, when criteria for visibility, air temperature, CO, CO2 and O2 concentration and heat flux were calculated. For steadily growing fires, visibility showed a low sensitivity to variability in input parameters with a relative difference at 9% compared to experimental data. Due to several factors it was not possible to estimate the accuracy of HCN calculations. Visualizing the hazards in a time–distance diagram revealed visibility to be the key indicator for calculating ASET for a broad set of plausible input parameters. This resulted in a simple expression for calculating ASET and consequently a simple condition for evaluating life safety.

  • 15.
    Heidari, Mohammad
    et al.
    Fire Testing Centre, France ; Imperial College London, UK.
    Robert, Fabienne
    Fire Testing Centre, France.
    Lange, David
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Rein, Guillermo
    Imperial College London, UK.
    Probabilistic Study of the Resistance of a Simply-Supported Reinforced Concrete Slab According to Eurocode Parametric Fire2019Ingår i: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 55, nr 4, s. 1377-1404Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the application of a simple probabilistic methodology to determine the reliability of a structural element exposed to fire when designed following Eurocode 1-1-2 (EC1). Eurocodes are being used extensively within the European Union in the design of many buildings and structures. Here, the methodology is applied to a simply-supported, reinforced concrete slab 180 mm thick, with a standard load bearing fire resistance of 90 min. The slab is subjected to a fire in an office compartment of 420 m2 floor area and 4 m height. Temperature time curves are produced using the EC1 parametric fire curve, which assumes uniform temperature and a uniform burning condition for the fire. Heat transfer calculations identify the plausible worst case scenarios in terms of maximum rebar temperature. We found that a ventilation-controlled fire with opening factor 0.02 m1/2 results in a maximum rebar temperature of 448°C after 102 min of fire exposure. Sensitivity analyses to the main parameters in the EC1 fire curves and in the EC1 heat transfer calculations are performed using a one-at-a-time (OAT) method. The failure probability is then calculated for a series of input parameters using the Monte Carlo method. The results show that this slab has a 0.3% probability of failure when the compartment is designed with all layers of safety in place (detection and sprinkler systems, safe access route, and fire fighting devices are available). Unavailability of sprinkler systems results in a 1% probability of failure. When both sprinkler system and detection are not available in the building, the probability of failure is 8%. This novel study conducts for the first time a probabilistic calculation using the EC1 parametric curve, helping engineers to identify the most critical design fires and the probabilistic resistance assumed in EC1. 

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  • 16.
    Huang, Chen
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Bisschop, Roeland
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Anderson, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    A Sensitivity Study of a Thermal Propagation Model in an Automotive Battery Module2023Ingår i: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 59, s. 1405-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal runaway is a major concern for lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles. A manufacturing fault or unusual operating conditions may lead to this event. Starting from a single battery cell, more cells may be triggered into thermal runaway, and the battery pack may be destroyed. To prevent this from happening, safety solutions need to be evaluated. Physical testing is an effective, yet costly, method to assessing battery safety performance. As such, the potential of a numerical tool, which can cut costs and reduce product development times, is investigated in terms of capturing a battery module’s tolerance to a single cell failure. A 3D-FE model of a battery module was built, using a commercial software, to study thermal runaway propagation. The model assumes that when the cell jelly roll reaches a critical value, thermal runaway occurs. This approach was considered to study the module’s tolerance to a single cell failure, which was in reasonable agreement with what had been observed in full-scale experiments. In addition, quantitative sensitivity study on the i) model input parameters, ii) model space, and iii) time resolutions on the computed start time instant and time duration of thermal runaway were performed. The critical temperature was found to have the greatest influence on thermal runaway propagation. The specific heat capacity of jelly roll was found to significantly impact the thermal runaway time duration. The multi-physics model for battery thermal propagation is promising and worth to be applied with care for designing safer batteries in combination with physical testing.

  • 17.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Erratum to: Theoretical and Experimental Study of Critical Velocity for Smoke Control in a Tunnel Cross-Passage2014Ingår i: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 50, nr 5, s. 1325-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 18.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Fire Safety in Tunnel: Guest Editorial Fire Technology2015Ingår i: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 49, nr 2, s. 433-434Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 19.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Guest Editorial Fire Technology: Fire Safety in Tunnels2013Ingår i: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 49, nr 2, s. 433-434Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 20.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research. Lund University, Sweden.
    New Challenges in Tunnel Fire Safety2016Ingår i: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 52, nr 5, s. 1445-1447Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 21.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    A New Methodology of Design Fires for Train Carriages Based on Exponential Curve Method2016Ingår i: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 52, nr 5, s. 1449-1464Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Design fires have great influences on the fire safety concepts and safety measures, and are the basis for any assessment and calculation in tunnel fire safety design. A new methodology of design fires for individual train carriages is proposed based on the exponential design fire curve method and state-of-the-art fire research. The three key parameters required for construction of a design fire are the maximum heat release rate, time to maximum heat release rate, and energy content. An overview of the full scale train carriage fire tests is given and the results show that the maximum heat release rate is in a range of 7 MW to 77 MW and the time to reach the maximum heat release rate varies from 7 min to 118 min. The method could be employed to one single train carriage or several carriages, and alternatively one carriage could be divided into several individual sections. To illustrate the use of the methodology, several engineering applications are presented, including design fires for a metro train carriage with a maximum heat release rate of 77 MW, a double-deck railway train carriage with a maximum heat release rate of 60 MW and a tram carriage with a maximum heat release rate of 28 MW. The main objective is to provide practicing engineers with a flexible and reliable methodology to make design fires for individual train carriages in performance-based tunnel fire safety design.

  • 22.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Appel, Glenn
    Swedish Transport Administration, Sweden.
    Lundström, Ulf
    Swedish Transport Administration, Sweden.
    Becker, Conny
    Brandskyddslaget AB, Sweden.
    Large Scale Tunnel Fire Tests with Large Droplet Water-Based Fixed Fire Fighting System2016Ingår i: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 52, nr 5, s. 1539-1558Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the main results of six large scale fixed fire fighting system tests that were carried out in the Runehamar tunnel in September 2013. It describes the background and the performance of the system. The main fire load consisted of 420 standardized wood pallets and a target consisting of a pile of 21 wood pallets placed 5 m from the rear end of the main fire load. The purpose was to investigate possible fire spread. The water spray system is a deluge zone system delivering 10 mm/min in the activated zone. The detection system was simulated with use of thermocouple in the tunnel ceiling. The alarm was registered when the ceiling gas temperature was 141°C. After alarm was obtained the system was activated manually after a given delay time that was varied in the tests. The heat release rates in tests with fire suppression were reduced to 20–45 MW compared to 100 MW estimated for a free-burn test or 75 MW in test 6 with a failure of activation. Fire spread to the target was prevented after fire suppression. 

  • 23.
    Kumm, Maria
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ). Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Entrainment in a Free Jet Generated by a Positive Pressure Ventilator2014Ingår i: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 50, nr 6, s. 1499-1515Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Results of a simple flow model to describe the entrainment into the air cone created by a positive pressure ventilator (PPV) fan are compared to experimental data. Velocity profiles measured in the air cone of a conventional PPV ventilator are used. The entrainment coefficient and the cone angle were determined for the fan investigated. The correspondence between calculated and measured values is discussed and disparities explained. The findings from the tests are turned into practical guidance for the fire brigade and the advantages and limitations of the simplified model are discussed.

  • 24. Lange, David
    et al.
    Boström, Lars
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Schmid, Joachim
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Albrektsson, Joakim
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    The reduced cross section method applied to glulam timber exposed to non-standard fire curves2015Ingår i: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 51, nr 6, s. 1311-1340Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Timber is an desired material for structural applications due to its green credentials and attractive external appearance. Fire safety design of timber structures is largely limited to considering the exposure of elements to the standard fire, to which timber demonstrates exceptional resilience. This paper reports on a series of tests which were carried out with the intention of exploring the impact of non-standard fires on timber elements. Because of the natural variation in timber elements, the tests and the resulting analysis of the test results were conceived and designed in such a way that as much information about the statistical distribution of the response of the elements as possible could be obtained. The resulting testing programme comprised four furnace fire tests, each of eight loaded timber beams, with three different temperature time curves: two standard fire tests, one long-cool parametric fire and one short-hot parametric fire. The reduced cross section method for structural calculations is extended in this paper to parametric fire exposures, and the results of the tests are compared with this method. It is shown that the thickness of the zero-strength layer is dependent on the temperature time curve to which the timber is exposed in the furnace and that the 7 mm zero-strength layer prescribed in EN 1995-1-2 may be un-conservative for members in bending. For the cases studied, the zero-strength layer thickness in bending is shown to be around about 15 mm under standard fire exposure and 16 mm under exposure to a long cool parametric fire. Conversely, the zero-strength layer is only 8 mm deep under exposure to a short hot parametric fire. This has implications for the design of timber elements not only for parametric fire exposure in enclosures, but also perhaps for the use of timber elements in large open structures such as halls or arenas where more localised fire exposure or travelling fire exposure may be expected.

  • 25.
    Lange, David
    et al.
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Schmid, Joachim
    ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Hidalgo, Juan
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    A Comparison of the Conditions in a Fire Resistance Furnace When Testing Combustible and Non-combustible Construction2020Ingår i: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 56, nr 4, s. 1621-1654Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on two experiments conducted in a fire resistance furnace to study the differences in the boundary conditions, the fire dynamics and the fuel required to run the furnace when a combustible timber specimen as opposed to a non-combustible concrete specimen is tested. In both experiments measurements were taken in the furnace to evaluate the difference in the environments of the furnace and the response of the elements being tested. These include non-control plate thermometers distributed throughout the furnace; O2, CO2 and CO gas measurements taken at different distances from the specimen surface and in the furnace exhaust; instrumentation of one of the bricks comprising the furnace lining with thermocouples at different depths from the exposed surface; and mass loss of the combustible timber specimen. Thermal exposure of elements in a furnace is discussed, as well as the impact of the different materials on the similarity of thermal exposure. This is done through analysis and discussion of the different measurements taken and the apparent influence of the specimen being tested on the boundary condition of the heat diffusion equation. We conclude that; (1) the fire dynamics in a furnace are dependent on the specimen being tested; (2) that the test with the combustible specimen requires less fuel flow to the burners such that the control plate thermometers follow the ISO 834 temperature–time curve compared to the non-combustible specimen, however that this is not only a result of the combustibility of the specimen but is also a consequence of the different thermal inertia of the two materials; (3) that the boundary condition for heat transfer to a test object in furnace tests is dependent on the properties of the specimen being tested; and (4) that the timber when placed on the furnace experiences smouldering combustion after the char layer has formed. A fire resistance test of combustible construction of a given period represents a significantly less onerous test in terms of energy absorbed or fuel made available than one of a non-combustible construction, implying that the existing fire resistance framework may not be appropriate for timber structures and that an alternative approach may be required.

  • 26. Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Position of maximum ceiling temperature in a tunnel fire2014Ingår i: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 50, nr 4, s. 889-905Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The position of the maximum ceiling gas temperature indicates how far the fire plum could be blown away by a ventilation flow. It could be applied to estimate the activation of a detection system or a sprinkler system, or to estimate the range of damage to the tunnel structure. An equation for predicting the position of the maximum ceiling gas temperature in a tunnel fire is proposed based on a theoretical analysis and validated using both laboratory test data and full scale test data. A flame angle has been defined based on the position of the maximum ceiling temperature in a tunnel fire. The flame angle is directly related to the dimensionless ventilation velocity, and it becomes insensitive to the heat release rate for a large tunnel fire. Further, it is found that a constant critical flame angle exists, defined as the flame angle under the critical condition when the backlayering just disappears. For a given tunnel and fire source, the flame angle under critical conditions is the same value, independent of heat release rate, and the maximum ceiling temperature under critical conditions always corresponds to the same position. Generally the horizontal distance between the position of the maximum ceiling temperature and the fire source centre is around 1.5 times the effective tunnel height under the critical condition.

  • 27.
    Lindström, Johan
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Försth, Michael
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Fire Test of Profile Plank for Transformer Pit Fire Protection2014Ingår i: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 52, nr 2, s. 309-319Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In general it is recommended to fill a transformer pit with rock ballast to extinguish the fire if there is a leakage of burning transformer oil. There is a lack of technology-neutral performance requirements for the design of solutions for fire extinguishment in transformer pit fires. This hampers the introduction of alternatives to the traditional method of filling the pit with rocks. Therefore we have conducted quantitative tests where temperatures and concentrations of CO, CO2, and O2 were measured at different position in a transformer pit subjected to burning oil simulating an accidental rupture and leakage. The tests were conducted to investigate the extinguishing capacity of one specific alternative solution, i.e. a profile plank layer over the pit. Three tests were performed with 90°C and 140°C pre-heated transformer oil. In the second test, a 19 cm water bed was used to examine the impact of rain water in the pit. The result showed that the profile plank extinguished the flames in a few seconds and that the water level did not have any significant effect on the result. The measurements showed that the temperatures peaked at 600–800°C 50 cm above the profile plank in all tests but dropped to under 100°C in 14–16 s. Furthermore the O2-concentration dropped to 3–5 vol% below the plank, which contributed to the rapid extinction of the burning oil.

  • 28.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Neumann, Nick
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Pulsations During Fires in Tunnels2013Ingår i: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 49, nr 2, s. 551-581Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The existing theoretical modelling of thermoacoustic oscillations has been studied and applied to the case of tunnel fires. The assumptions of the theoretical model were reviewed. It was found that several assumptions are not applicable to tunnel fires and, hence, suggestions for improvement are given. The correlation which expresses the starting conditions for thermoacoustic oscillations is analysed and dependencies on different parameters are presented. The pulsations documented during the large-scale tests in the Runehamar tunnel in 2003 have also been further analysed. The measurements were compared to the theoretical limiting curve for oscillations, showing good agreement. To further study thermoacoustic oscillations in tunnels, more detailed tests in a model-scale tunnel (1:100) were performed. These tests focused on the circumstances which are required to create thermoacoustic oscillations, i. e. the fire was located at different positions along the tunnel and the air flow rate was varied. The tunnel had a length of 4 m, was 8 cm wide and 6 cm high. The results were in good accordance with the theoretical modelling but showed deviations which were most obvious at very low and high air velocities. Both the starting conditions for thermoacoustic oscillations and cases where the thermoacoustic oscillations suddenly stopped, were observed. These findings led to identification of several points in the theoretical model which need to be improved, and to the development of a strategy to avoid such pulsation in fires.

  • 29.
    Martinsson, John
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Datavetenskap.
    Runefors, M.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Frantzich, H.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Glebe, D.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    McNamee, Margaret
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Mogren, Olof
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Datavetenskap.
    A Novel Method for Smart Fire Detection Using Acoustic Measurements and Machine Learning: Proof of Concept2022Ingår i: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 58, s. 3385-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Fires are a major hazard resulting in high monetary costs, personal suffering, and irreplaceable losses. The consequences of a fire can be mitigated by early detection systems which increase the potential for successful intervention. The number of false alarms in current systems can for some applications be very high, but could be reduced by increasing the reliability of the detection system by using complementary signals from multiple sensors. The current study investigates the novel use of machine learning for fire event detection based on acoustic sensor measurements. Many materials exposed to heat give rise to acoustic emissions during heating, pyrolysis and burning phases. Further, sound is generated by the heat flow associated with the flame itself. The acoustic data collected in this study is used to define an acoustic sound event detection task, and the proposed machine learning method is trained to detect the presence of a fire event based on the emitted acoustic signal. The method is able to detect the presence of fire events from the examined material types with an overall F-score of 98.4%. The method has been developed using laboratory scale tests as a proof of concept and needs further development using realistic scenarios in the future. © 2022, The Author(s).

  • 30.
    Palm, Anders
    et al.
    Greater Stockholm Fire Brigade, Sweden.
    Kumm, Maria
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ). Lund University, Sweden.
    Full Scale Firefighting Tests in the Tistbrottet Mine2015Ingår i: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 52, nr 5, s. 1519-1537Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper describes full-scale fire-fighting tests performed in an underground mine. A total of six different methods to fight a full scale fire in a mine tunnel were tested. The methods involved different fire-fighting equipment but were comparable regarding fundamental conditions such as length of response-route, fire-fighting set-up, and smoke and fire size. The aim was to compare different equipment and methods to reach and eventually extinguish the fire. Fire fighters using breathing apparatus (BA) were monitored regarding air consumption, movement speed and local actions and decisions. The results are presented and analyzed in respect to fire-fighting efficiency, front BA operations including moving speed and performed actions, as well as the time to successfully put out the fire. Measurements of heat release rates, temperatures and moving speeds are given in order to quantify the efficiency of the operation. Results indicate that a timespan of 15–30 min is needed for the firefighters to reach the fire source and achieve the extinguishing criteria in five of the tests. The standard equipment and nozzles shows good performance in the tests. A limiting factor on the firefighter’s endurance is the amount of air that is available. As a result from these findings the endurance of BA-teams could improve if focus is put on team organization, lightweight equipment and air supply.

  • 31.
    Porterie, Bernard
    et al.
    Aix-Marseille Université, France.
    Dizet, Nina
    Aix-Marseille Université, France.
    Pizzo, Yannick
    Aix-Marseille Université, France.
    Loraud, Jean-Claude
    Aix-Marseille Université, France.
    Boulet, Pascal
    Université de Lorraine, France.
    Collin, Anthony
    Université de Lorraine, France.
    Zeinali, Davood
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet. Université de Lorraine, France.
    de Carvalho, Eric
    Bureau Veritas Marine & Offshore, France.
    Mindykowski, Pierrick
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet. Leclanché E-Mobility SA, Switzerland.
    A Simulation Tool to Quantify the Consequences of Fires on Board Ro-Ro Ships2024Ingår i: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 60, nr 1, s. 459-499Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Every year, fires aboard roll-on roll-off (ro-ro) ships result in costly damage to ships and their cargo and, fortunately less frequently, in tragic loss of life. On the other hand, statistical studies have shown that a large proportion of major fire accidents originated in the vehicle decks. To improve the issue of vehicle-deck fires on board ro-ro ships, a performance-based simulation tool was developed to quantify the consequences of these fires on people, ship, and cargo. This tool combines a deterministic computational fluid dynamics model to assess the fire consequences in the vehicle decks and open areas of the ship; a stochastic network model in the accommodation spaces; and a deterministic evacuation model to evaluate the consequences of fire to people on board. This article briefly presents the numerical tools used and their extension to ro-ro ships, then the results obtained for selected fire scenarios on two generic ro-ro ships, varying the location of the fire source, wind conditions, and including one accidental situation due to a loss of integrity of the insulation at the ceiling of the deck from which the fire originated and one scenario where some openings of this deck were closed. People evacuation was simulated for the accidental scenario. Fire consequences are further evaluated in terms of human survivability, in compliance with the life safety performance criteria of the International Maritime Organization, damage to the ship and cargo. A qualitative comparison with reported accident data is presented to assess the consistency of model results.

  • 32.
    Sandinge, Anna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik. DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Sørensen, Lars
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Dederichs, Anne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Säkerhetsforskning. DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    The Effect of Accelerated Ageing on Reaction-to-Fire Properties–Composite Materials2022Ingår i: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 58, nr 3, s. 1305-1332Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As material age, the durability, strength, and other mechanical properties are impacted. The lifespan of a material generally decreases when exposed to weathering conditions such as wind, temperature, humidity, and light. It is important to have knowledge of how materials age and how the material properties are affected. Regarding materials´ fire behaviour and the effect of ageing on these properties, the knowledge is limited. The research questions of the current work are: Are the fire properties of composite materials affected by ageing? And if so, how is it affected? The study is on material at Technology Readiness Level 9 (TRL). In this study, three composite fibre laminates developed for marine applications were exposed to accelerated ageing. Two different ageing conditions were selected, thermal ageing with an increased temperature of 90°C and moisture ageing in a moderately increased temperature of 40°C and a relative humidity of 90%. Samples were collected after one, two and four weeks of ageing. The reaction-to-fire properties after ageing was evaluated using the ISO 5660–1 cone calorimeter and the EN ISO 5659–2 smoke chamber with FTIR gas analysis. The test results showed that the fire behaviour was affected. Two of the composite laminates, both phenolic/basalt composites, showed a deteriorated fire behaviour from the thermal ageing and the third composite laminate, a PFA/glass fibre composite, showed an improved fire behaviour both for thermal and moisture ageing. The smoke toxicity was affected by the accelerated ageing, especially for the PFA/glass fibre composite that showed a higher production of CO and HCN, both for the thermal aged and the moisture aged samples. © 2021, The Author(s).

  • 33. Sazegara, Shaz
    et al.
    Spearpoint, Michael
    Baker, Greg
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Benchmarking the Single Item Ignition Prediction Capability of B-RISK Using Furniture Calorimeter and Room-Size Experiments2017Ingår i: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 53, nr 4, s. 1485-1508Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper benchmarks B-RISK’s capability to predict item ignition in multiple object compartment fire simulations. A series of fire experiments have been conducted which measured single item ignition times under the furniture calorimeter and in the ISO 9705 room. These experiments used mock-up armchair, TV and cabinetry furniture items created from three common materials found in most households in New Zealand exposed to a 100 kW gas burner flame. B-RISK uses the flux-time product (FTP) method as the criterion to predict ignition of items, based on radiation received using the point source model (PSM). This paper presents an analysis of the B-RISK predictions compared to the experimental measurements. Due to the mathematical formulation of the PSM and FTP method, it is found that the predicted ignition time is sensitive to the distance between the radiative source and the item. Predicted ignition times of armchairs constructed of polyurethane foam were within 14% of the ISO 9705 room experimental results. However, for the furniture calorimeter experiments it is found that to get reasonable predictions of the ignition times for the mock-up armchair and TV items there is a need to account for the burner flame movement by adjusting the radial distance by 10–30 mm. Direct flame contact was required to ignite the mock-up cabinetry items and B-RISK was unable to successfully predict this ignition time.

  • 34.
    Schmid, Joachim
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Just, Alar
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad. Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Klippel, Michael
    ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Fragiacomo, Massimo
    University of Sassari, Italy.
    The reduced cross-section method for evaluation of the fire resistance of timber members: Discussion and determination of the zero-strength layer2015Ingår i: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 51, nr 6, s. 1285-1309Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The reduced cross-section method (RCSM) is included in Eurocode 5 (EN-1995-1-2) for the design of timber members in fire conditions. The method considers the strength and stiffness reduction beneath the charred layer by adding an additional depth (known as the ‘zero-strength’ layer) to the charring depth. The zero-strength layer is one of the key parameters for the fire design of timber members. Recently, some concerns have been raised that the zero-strength layer might be non-conservative in some applications. This paper presents the background to the RCSM, followed by a short discussion on the mechanical assumptions, simplifications and possible limitations of the method itself. Further, it discusses determination of the zero-strength layer thickness for members in bending, tension and compression, and provides guidelines on the use of standard experimental tests to determine this quantity. For demonstration of the determination procedure, the results of fire tests in bending, tension and compression were analysed following the described procedure. Results show that the zero-strength layer exceeds the value used in practice, indicate that the method of Eurocode 5 may be non-conservative and should be revised.

  • 35.
    Schmid, Joachim
    et al.
    ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Klippel, Michael
    ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Just, Alar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety. Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Frangi, Andrea
    ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Tiso, Mattia
    Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Simulation of the Fire Resistance of Cross-laminated Timber (CLT)2018Ingår i: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 54, nr 5, s. 1113-1148Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cross-laminated timber, typical abbreviations CLT or XLAM, is currently one of the most innovative product in building with wood. This solid engineered timber product provides advantages compared to other solid timber slabs as the dimension stability, i.e. swelling and shrinkage, is controlled by the crosswise laminations. As for other components, the fire resistance has to be verified for this type of product. While fire testing is time consuming and costly, simulations provide flexibility to optimize the product or to develop simplified design models for structural engineers. In this paper, a simulation technique is presented which can be used to determine the fire resistance of CLT. The technique was then used to develop simplified design equations to be used by engineers to predict the behavior of CLT in fire resistance tests and verify its fire resistance. Following existing models, the simplified design model aims for a two-step process whereby in a (i) first step the residual cross section and in (ii) a second step the load bearing capacity of the partly heated residual cross section is determined. The presented simulations consider the effective thermal–mechanical characteristics of wood exposed to standard fire and perform an advanced section analysis using a temperature profile corresponding to the actual protection and the location of the centroid together with the possibility of plasticity on the side of compression. It was shown that simulation results agree well with test results and that they can be used to determine layup specific modification factors used by the reduced properties method or zero-strength layers used by the effective cross section method. It was shown that the use of the zero-strength layers is favorable compared to the modification factors to calculate the resistance of the residual cross section. This is due to the large range of modification factors answering the typical layup of CLT comprising layers with their fiber direction cross the span direction. Subsequently, the methodology was used to determine design equations for initially unprotected and protected three-, five- and seven-layer CLT in bending and buckling. While the zero-strength layer for glulam beams in bending is assumed to be 7 mm (0.3 in), for CLT the corresponding value is in most of the cases between 5 mm and 12 mm but is different for other loading modes such as buckling (wall elements) and depending on the applied protection.

  • 36.
    Schmid, Joachim
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Menis, Agnese
    University of Sassari, Italy.
    Fragiacomo, Massimo
    University of Sassari, Italy.
    Clemente, Isaia
    University of Trieste, Italy.
    Bochicchio, Giovanna
    CNR Ivalsa Trees and Timber Institute, Italy.
    Behaviour of loaded cross-laminated timber wall elements in fire conditions2015Ingår i: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 51, nr 6, s. 1341-1370Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cross-laminated timber (CLT) is increasingly being used in medium-rise timber buildings for a number of reasons, such as rapidity of construction, cost effectiveness and robustness. Like for other building materials, verification of the load-bearing performance in fire conditions is an important issue. Experimental fire tests have been performed on loaded CLT wall elements at research institutes in Sweden and Italy. In total, three large-scale and four medium-scale tests have been carried out. The aim was to gain information about initially protected and unprotected elements, to be used for classification and also for validation of calculation models. In the test series, reference tests at normal temperature were included to obtain information (e.g. stiffness, strength) about the material tested in fire conditions. In addition, model-scale fire tests were performed to investigate the loss in stiffness resulting from fire exposure and the effect of different protection types. Loaded fire tests varied in the range of 41.8 min to 120 min, depending on the CLT structure, the level of load, and the type of protection. Data on temperature within specimens and residual cross-sections were collected. Charring rates evaluated from experimental results were comparable with values proposed by Eurocode for the design of timber structures. Conservative solutions were obtained by using simplified design methods and comparing their results to test results and results of advanced modelling. It was shown that the load-bearing performance of CLT may show abrupt changes due to its layered structure. It is strongly recommended that a minimum residual depth depending on the CLT structure should be required in order to ensure robust building products.

  • 37.
    Simonson, Margaret
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Fire and the Environment: Guest Editorial2014Ingår i: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 51, nr 1, s. 1-2Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 38.
    Simonson McNamee, Margaret
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Andersson, Petra
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Application of a Cost–benefit Analysis Model to the Use of Flame Retardants2014Ingår i: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 51, nr 1, s. 67-83Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    For the past 30 to 40 years, regulation of the environment has been governed by Environmental Protection Agencies worldwide. During this time we have learned that regulations have significant costs, not just benefits, and that analysis of the cost and benefit of proposed rules is an indispensable component of responsible regulation. Despite present-day recognition of the importance of cost benefit analysis prior to enacting regulations, this is still a controversial issue, especially in light of moral issues such as establishing the value of a statistical life and whether net benefit is always necessary before invoking regulation. In this paper, real and perceived risks associated with exposure to flame retardants and to fires are discussed and a monetary value placed on the costs and benefits associated with these chemicals. The model developed has been called the Fire-CBA model and is applied to a case study comparing CRT TV sets where one model contains flame retardant in the outer enclosure and the other does not. In all, a total of 9 scenarios were tested for the TV set application of the Fire-CBA model. In all cases, the benefits of a high level of fire performance in a TV set far outweigh the costs associated with obtaining that high level of fire safety. The net benefit is a function of the choices made in the various scenarios but ranges from US$49 to 1073 million per year. The various scenarios were chosen to illustrate the significance of the parameters included in the study, as the specific value chosen for each parameter can vary depending on the assumptions made in the model.

  • 39.
    Sjöström, J.
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Lange, David
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Jansson Mcnamee, Robert
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Boström, Lars
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Anisotropic Curvature and Damage of Unbonded Post-tensioned Concrete Slabs During Fire Testing2017Ingår i: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 53, nr 3, s. 1333-1351Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Two furnace tests, using two different fire exposures, on unbonded post-tensioned concrete slabs (1700 × 1200 mm) are reported. Local curvature is measured along two lines approximately in the middle of the slabs both parallel (longitudinal) and orthogonal (transverse) to the prestressing direction. More pronounced curvature in the transverse direction is accompanied by the formation of cracks running predominantly in the longitudinal direction. While the transverse curvature relaxes back to the original state after the cooling phase the curvature in the longitudinal direction ultimately exhibits upward deflection due to the hogging moment caused by the prestress in the tendons acting on a cross section with temperature reduced mechanical properties at the fire exposed side. The effect on crack formation due to the prestressing can additionally be detected by ultrasonic pulse velocity measurements in the different directions through the depth of the slab, where a reduction of 5–25% is observed in the transverse direction compared to the longitudinal direction. The phenomenological mechanical behaviour of the slabs is captured in a finite element model which describes the evolution of stress in the prestressing tendons. This model additionally suggests that the curvature in the transverse direction is independent of the prestressing in the longitudinal direction. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York

  • 40.
    Sjöström, Johan
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Wickström, Ulf
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut. Luleå Technical University, Sweden.
    Superposition with Non-linear Boundary Conditions in Fire Sciences2015Ingår i: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 51, nr 3, s. 513-521Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Linear response theory is widely used in science and engineering but its use in fire sciences is rare. This communication reviews shortly the Duhamel superposition technique for solving problems in fire sciences where the response of a material maybe assumed linear but the boundary conditions (BC) are non-linear. The method can be used as an alternative to e.g. finite element methods for problems where analytical solutions are not available. Examples include temperature distribution in solids with time-varying and non-linear heat flux boundaries using a simple spreadsheet solution technique. Supplementary material contains an Excel spreadsheet solving problems with non-linear BC.

  • 41.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge. Stord/Haugesund University College, Norway.
    Jensen, Ulla Eidissen
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Smouldering Combustion inLoose-Fill Wood Fibre Thermal Insulation: An Experimental Study2018Ingår i: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 54, nr 6, s. 1585-1608Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A bench-scale experimental setup has been used to study the conditions necessary

    for smouldering ignition in four types of loose-fill wood fibre thermal insulation, and

    to study the development of the smouldering process. The products varied with regard to

    wood species, grain size and fire retardant chemical additives. The test material was

    placed in an insulated open top container and heated from below. Temperatures within

    the sample and mass loss were measured during the tests. Both the fibre size and the level

    of added fire retardant seem to influence the smouldering ignition. Two different types of

    smouldering were identified in this study. Materials undergoing smouldering Type 1

    obtained maximum temperatures in the range 380C to 440C and a total mass loss of

    40 wt% to 50 wt%. Materials undergoing smouldering Type 2 obtained maximum temperatures

    in the range 660C to 700C and a total mass loss of 80 wt% to 90 wt%. This

    implies that Type 2 smouldering involves secondary char oxidation, which represents a

    risk for transition to flaming combustion and thereby a considerable fire hazard. This has

    been an exploratory project and the results must therefore be considered as indicative.

    The findings may, however, have implications for fire safety in the practical use of loosefill

    wood fibre insulation in buildings, and further experimental studies should be performed

    with this in mind to obtain more knowledge about the topic.

  • 42.
    Strömgren, Michael
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Jönsson, Robert
    FSFPE Brandexperten, Sweden.
    Professional Recognition of Fire Safety Engineering is Needed in the European Construction Sector2015Ingår i: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 51, nr 5, s. 1029-1031Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 43.
    Sun, P.
    et al.
    Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong.
    Bisschop, Roeland
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Säkerhetsforskning.
    Niu, H.
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.
    Huang, X.
    Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong.
    A Review of Battery Fires in Electric Vehicles2020Ingår i: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 56, s. 1361-1410Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last decade, the electric vehicle (EV) has significantly changed the car industry globally, driven by the fast development of Li-ion battery technology. However, the fire risk and hazard associated with this type of high-energy battery has become a major safety concern for EVs. This review focuses on the latest fire-safety issues of EVs related to thermal runaway and fire in Li-ion batteries. Thermal runaway or fire can occur as a result of extreme abuse conditions that may be the result of the faulty operation or traffic accidents. Failure of the battery may then be accompanied by the release of toxic gas, fire, jet flames, and explosion. This paper is devoted to reviewing the battery fire in battery EVs, hybrid EVs, and electric buses to provide a qualitative understanding of the fire risk and hazards associated with battery powered EVs. In addition, important battery fire characteristics involved in various EV fire scenarios, obtained through testing, are analysed. The tested peak heat release rate (PHHR in MW) varies with the energy capacity of LIBs (EB in Wh) crossing different scales as PHRR=2EB0.6. For the full-scale EV fire test, limited data have revealed that the heat release and hazard of an EV fire are comparable to that of a fossil-fuelled vehicle fire. Once the onboard battery involved in fire, there is a greater difficulty in suppressing EV fires, because the burning battery pack inside is inaccessible to externally applied suppressant and can re-ignite without sufficient cooling. As a result, an excessive amount of suppression agent is needed to cool the battery, extinguish the fire, and prevent reignition. By addressing these concerns, this review aims to aid researchers and industries working with batteries, EVs and fire safety engineering, to encourage active research collaborations, and attract future research and development on improving the overall safety of future EVs. Only then will society achieve the same comfort level for EVs as they have for conventional vehicles. 

  • 44.
    Sun, P.
    et al.
    Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong.
    Bisschop, Roeland
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Säkerhetsforskning.
    Niu, H.
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, China.
    Huang, X.
    Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong.
    Correction: A Review of Battery Fires in Electric Vehicles (Fire Technology, (2020), 10.1007/s10694-019-00944-3)2020Ingår i: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 56, nr 4, s. 1411-Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The original version of this article unfortunately contained an incorrect unit of PHRR for Eq. (3), which appears in abstract and conclusion, and an incorrect version of Fig. 23. (Figure presented

  • 45.
    Vylund, Lotta
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet. Greater Gothenburg Fire and Rescue Service, Sweden.
    Frykmer, Tove
    Lund University, Sweden.
    McNamee, Margaret
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Kerstin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Understanding Fire and Rescue Service Practices Through Problems and Problem-Solving Networks: An Analysis of a Critical Incident2024Ingår i: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores how the Fire and Rescue Service can better prepare for solving complex problems in emergencies by using the concept of problems and problem-solving networks. Primary and secondary data from an extensive fire incident were analysed, including semi-structured interviews and incident assessment reports. Complex problems that arise during emergencies can be challenging to define, and solutions can be difficult to identify. However, this study demonstrates that breaking down complex problems into sub-problems can facilitate the identification of what kind of problem-solving network is needed to be able to solve problems in emergencies. Overall, this study contributes to a deeper understanding of the rationale behind problem-solving network in emergency situations and highlights the importance of relationships in problem-solving network to address complex problems during emergencies. 

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  • 46.
    Östman, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Boström, Lars
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Fire protection ability of wood coverings2015Ingår i: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 51, nr 6, s. 1475-1493Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The low thermal conductivity and slow charring rate of wood products may protect underlying products from being heated and ignited. A literature survey shows that such fire protective behaviour of wood coverings has been verified by different methodologies in several countries in and outside Europe. A new European system with K classes for the fire protection ability of coverings has been utilised for wood products. The classes are based on full-scale furnace testing, and the main parameter is the temperature behind the fire-exposed panel after different time intervals. Three levels are defined: 10, 30 and 60 min. An extensive test program has been performed according to the new European system. The results demonstrate that all K classes may be achieved for wood-based panels (particle board, plywood, solid wood panels, OSB—Oriented Strand Board and hardboard), and for solid wood panelling and cladding. The criteria for wood products are based mainly on panel thickness. The thickness for achieving each K class may vary slightly, depending on the wood product type and on mounting conditions and fixing means. Typical thickness to reach 10 min fire protection is 10–15 mm, for 30 min 24–30 mm, and for 60 min protection 52–54 mm. The end-use applications of wood products with K classes are mainly as wall and ceiling coverings and for protection of underlying materials and structures. Examples are protection of combustible insulation materials from being ignited, timber structures from becoming charred, and steel structures from reaching high temperatures. K classification is required by building regulations in some countries, e.g. Germany, Denmark and Sweden.

  • 47.
    Östman, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Tsantaridis, Lazaros
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Fire scenarios for multi-storey façades with emphasis on full-scale testing of wooden façades2015Ingår i: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 51, nr 6, s. 1495-1510Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper briefly reviews the main fire scenarios for exterior façade claddings on multi-storey buildings, together with available full-scale test procedures and performance requirements in different countries. It is obvious that there is no international agreement or approach on how to evaluate the fire safety of façade claddings. Two series of full-scale fire tests of wooden façades, in accordance with the Swedish SP Fire 105 test, are presented: one series for different proportions of untreated wood (partial wood and structural fire protection with a fire shield above the window), and another series for fire-retardant-treated wood. The results are compared with data from the intermediate scale Single Burning Item test and the small scale cone calorimeter test. A main conclusion is that SP Fire 105 is a useful tool to evaluate the fire behaviour of façade claddings, but it should be complemented with more objective measurements. Claddings with partial wood and the use of a fire shield above the window fulfil the requirements. Wood claddings treated with fire retardants (FR) may fulfil the requirements, if the amount of FR is high enough. It is also essential to demonstrate the weather durability of the FR treatment. Good agreement has been found with the other test methods used. The need to use fire stops behind multi-storey façade claddings to avoid the spread of fire in cavities is underlined.

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