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  • 1.
    Anderson, Johan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport.
    Boström, Lars
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Chiva, Roman
    Efectis France, France.
    Guillaume, Eric
    Efectis France, France.
    Colwell, Sarah
    BRE, United Kingdom.
    Hofmann, Anja
    BAM, Germany.
    Toth, Peter
    ÉMI LLC for Quality Control and Innovation in Building, Hungary.
    European approach to assess the fire performance of façades2020Inngår i: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Several attempts have been made in the past to develop a European harmonized testing and assessment method for façades before the European commission decided to publish a call for tender on the topic. A project consortium from five countries (Sweden, UK, France, Germany and Hungary) applied to the call for tender and was contracted to develop a European approach to assess the fire performance of façades. 24 sub-contractors and 14 stakeholder entities were part of the project. The objective of the European project was to address a request from the Standing Committee of Construction (SCC) to provide EC Member States regulators with a means to regulate the fire performance of façade systems based on a European approach agreed by SCC. The initial stages of this project were focused on establishing a register of the regulatory requirements in all Member States in relation to the fire performance of façade systems, and to identify those Member States who have regulatory requirements for the fire performance façade systems which go beyond the current EN 13501 (reaction to fire and fire resistance) classification systems and to collate the details of these additional requirements. After having confirmed the regulatory needs a testing and classification methodology based on BS 8414 and DIN 4102-20 was developed to address the identified key performance and classification characteristics. This paper is a short overview of results the two-year development work, which Final Report published by the European Commission in 2018. © 2020 The Authors. Fire and Materials published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 2.
    Anderson, Johan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Boström, Lars
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Jansson McNamee, Robert
    Brandskyddslaget, Sweden.
    Milovanović, Bojan
    University of Zagreb, Croatia.
    Experimental comparisons in façade fire testing considering SP Fire 105 and the BS 8414‐12018Inngår i: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 42, nr 5Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A comparison between full‐scale façade fire tests where SP Fire 105 and BS 8414‐1 were used regarding repeatability and the use of modeling to discern changes in the setups is presented. Two test series according to BS 8414‐1 were repeated outside using the same façade systems on 2 different days, whereas for the SP Fire 105 a set of common façade systems in Sweden were tested indoors. In particular, the results show that the wind around the test setup may have a significant impact on the tests and that the heat exposure to the façade surface will depend on the thickness of the test specimen where an increased temperature in front of the façade, and a decreased temperature on the façade 2.1 m above the fire room, is observed experimentally. The heat exposure to the test specimen varies to a more limited extent when an uncontrollable free burning fire source is used (in this study heptane and wood, respectively) and that this variation increases when wind is present.

  • 3.
    Anderson, Johan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Boström, Lars
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Jansson Mcnamee, Robert
    Brandskyddslaget AB, Sweden.
    Milovanović, Bojan
    University of Zagreb, Croatia.
    Modelling of fire exposure in facade fire testing2017Inngår i: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 42, nr 5, s. 475-483Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a comparative simulation study on 3 large‐scale facade testing methods, namely,the SP Fire 105, BS 8414‐1, and the ISO 13785‐2 methods, is presented. Generally goodcorrespondence between simulations and experimental data has been found, provided thatthermal properties of the facade material and heat release rates are known; however, thecorrespondence deviates in close proximity of the fire source. Furthermore, a statistical ensemblefor evaluating the effects stemming from uncertainty in input data is used. Here, it wasfound using this statistical ensemble that the variability was smaller in the ISO 13785‐2compared to the BS 8414‐1 method. The heat release rates (HRR) used in the simulations wereadopted from measurements except for the ISO method where the information in the standardwas used to approximate the HRR. A quantitative similarity between the HRR in the ISOmethod and the British method was found.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 4.
    Anderson, Johan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Temple, Alastair
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Charlier, Marion
    ArcelorMittal Global R&D, Canada.
    Dai, Xu
    University of Edinburgh, UK.
    Welch, Stephen
    University of Edinburgh, UK.
    Rush, David
    University of Edinburgh, UK.
    FDS simulations and modelling efforts of travelling fires in a large elongated compartment2021Inngår i: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 45, nr 6, s. 699-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper investigates a travelling fire scenario in an elongated structure (Length 18 m × width 6 m × height 3 m) with a controlled fire source of six trays filled with diesel (width 4 m × length 0.5 m). The fire spread is controlled manually by initiating fires consecutively in the pools. Fire dynamics simulator (FDS) is used to a-priori investigate variations in geometry, material data and fire load, whereas simulations using the final design and measured heat release rates (HRR) were performed after the test. The input to the model beside fire source and geometry are thermal material data. The FDS simulations were used to determine the appropriate size of the downstands (2 m from the ceiling in the final design) on the side to create a sufficiently one-dimensional fire spread. The post-test simulations indicate that although there are a lot of variations not included in the model similar results were obtained as in the test.

  • 5.
    Andersson, Petra
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Loren, Anders
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Larsson, Fredrik
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to determine toxic gases in fires with lithium-ion batteries2016Inngår i: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 40, nr 8, s. 999-1015Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Batteries, in particular lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries, are seen as an alternative to fossil fuels in the automotive sector. Li-ion batteries, however, have some safety issues including possible emissions of toxic fluorine-containing compounds during fire and other abuse situations. This paper demonstrates the possibilities to use the Fourier transform infrared technique to assess some of the most important compounds, including hydrogen fluoride and the far less often measured POF3 and PF5. The study is conducted in the cone calorimeter with different solvents used in Li-ion batteries. The measurements show that, in addition to hydrogen fluoride, with a known high toxicity, POF3 is emitted and can be quantified using Fourier transform infrared.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 6.
    Andersson, Petra
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Holmstedt, Göran
    Heat sensing manikin test probe2000Inngår i: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 24, s. 195-199Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 7.
    Blomqvist, Per
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Andersson, Petra
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    A study of fire performance of textile membranes used as building components2012Inngår i: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 36, nr 8, s. 648-660Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The advantages of textile materials as building components include low weight, and in the case of textile membranes, the advantages include translucency and architectural possibilities. A common disadvantage, however, is the fire property of textile materials, which highlights the importance of fire safety assessments for building application of such materials. The work presented in this paper was conducted within the European project contex-T, 'Textile Architecture - Textile Structures and Buildings of the Future'. This paper presents the results of reaction-to-fire tests required for European Standard (EN) 13501-1 classification conducted with a number of textile membranes. The classification results are compared for a selection of these membranes with the information gained from a large-scale reference test that was designed within the project. The reference test was based on the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 9705 room test. It was seen that the reference test could separate the performance of the different types of membranes investigated and the repeatability of duplicate tests performed was acceptable. However, the classification of the materials by test results from the Single Burning Item (SBI) test (EN 13823) and the small flame test (EN ISO 11925-2) did not reflect the performance of the membranes in the large-scale test properly in all aspects important for fire safety. Most significantly, the 'burn-through' and the associated opening of a hole in the polyvinyl chloride/polyester membranes tested ventilated the hot smoke gases out of the reference room that resulted in limited flame spread and heat production. This mechanism is not modelled correctly by the SBI test, which leads to a discrepancy between classification and large-scale behaviour.

  • 8.
    Blomqvist, Per
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    McNamee, Margaret
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Stec, Anna A.
    University of Central Lancashire, UK.
    Gylestam, Daniel
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Daniel
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Detailed study of distribution patterns of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and isocyanates under different fire conditions2014Inngår i: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 38, nr 1, s. 125-144Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study has examined the distribution patterns between gas phase and particle phase of some chemical compounds produced in fires. It has also addressed the question of the distribution of individual particle-associated species between the different size-ranges of particles. The chemical compounds studied and discussed in this paper are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and isocyanates. The steady-state tube furnace, ISO/TS 19700, was chosen as the physical fire model in order to study the production of particles from different types of fire exposure, that is, oxidative pyrolysis, well-ventilated flaming fires and under-ventilated flaming post-flashover fires. Two materials were chosen for investigation, a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) carpet and a wood board. The particle production from the two materials investigated varied concerning both the amounts produced and the particle size distributions. The analysis of PAHs showed that volatile PAHs were generally dominant. However, when the toxicity of the individual species was taken into account, the relative importance between volatile and particle-associated PAHs shifted the dominance to particle-bound PAH for both materials. The substantial degradation in the tests of the low polyurethane content of the PVC carpet, and the (4,4′-methylenediphenyl diisocyanate)-based binder in the wood board resulted in no or very small amount of quantifiable diisocyanates.

  • 9.
    Blomqvist, Per
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Sandinge, Anna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik. DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    An experimental evaluation of the equivalence ratios in tests apparatus used for fire effluent toxicity studies2021Inngår i: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 45, nr 8, s. 1085-1095Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An experimental evaluation was conducted on the bench-scale test methods most commonly applied for generating data for fire toxicity assessments. The test methods evaluated were ISO/TS 19700, ISO 5660-1 with the controlled atmosphere box, and ISO 5659-2. Toxic gases were quantitatively analyzed using Fourier transfer infrared spectroscopy. Tests were made with 11 different insulation materials and polymethylmethacrylate as a reference material. The evaluation made was on the combustion conditions in the test apparatus, not generally on the precise yields measured. The evaluation focused on the ventilation conditions created in flaming combustion tests. It was seen that ISO/TS 19700 currently offers the best means among the three test methods evaluated for conducting tests at pre-determined and controlled equivalence ratios. The controlled-atmosphere cone calorimeter does not give a prolonged steady flaming combustion period for most materials and the influence of vitiation was difficult to predict and limiting in achieving higher equivalence ratios, with the test settings applied. ISO 5659-2 generally accumulates a mixture of gases from periods of both flaming and nonflaming combustion in a test, and the yields measured do not, in those cases, represent any specific combustion stage. For materials not showing flaming combustion, for example, mineral fiber products, the influence on the test conditions regarding oxygen consumption and heat generation from the material itself is limited compared to burning materials. However, there were specific properties and limitations of the different test methods observed that are important to consider. 

  • 10.
    Dahlbom, Sixten
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Anerud, Erik
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Pushp, Mohit
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    A theoretical evaluation of the impact of the type of reaction on heat production and material losses in biomass piles2023Inngår i: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 11, nr 12, s. 2693-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-heating during storage of biomass in piles causes material losses, leads to emissions to air, and poses a risk of fire. There are different techniques to assess a biomass material's propensity for self-heating, some of these are briefly reviewed. One of these techniques is isothermal calorimetry, which measures thermal power from materials and produces time-resolved curves. A recently developed and published test standard, ISO 20049-1:2020, describes how the self-heating of pelletized biofuels can be determined by means of isothermal calorimetry and how thermal power and the total heat produced during the test should be measured by isothermal calorimetry. This paper supports interpretation of the result obtained by isothermal calorimetry; the mentioned standard provides examples of peak thermal power and total heat but does not provide any assistance on how the result from isothermal measurements should be interpreted or how the result from measurements on different samples could be compared. This paper addresses the impact of different types of reactions, peak thermal power, total heat released (heat of reaction), activation energy, heat conductivity, and pile size on the temperature development in a generic pile of biomass. This paper addresses important parameters when the result from isothermal calorimetry is evaluated. The most important parameter, with respect to temperature development in large piles, was found to be the total heat released. It was also proposed that safe storage times, that is, the time until a run-away of the temperature in the pile, could be ranked based on the time to the peak thermal power.

  • 11.
    Delin, Mattias
    et al.
    DeBrand Sverige AB, Sweden.
    Norén, Johan
    Briab Brand & Riskingenjörerna AB, Sweden.
    Ronchi, Enrico
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Kuklane, Kalev
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Halder, Amitava
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Fridolf, Karl
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Ascending stair evacuation: walking speed as a function of height2017Inngår i: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 41, nr 5, s. 514-534Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There is reason to believe that factors such as physical exertion and behavioural changes will influence the ascending walking speed and ultimately the possibility of satisfactory evacuation. To study these effects, a 2-year research project was initiated with the focus on effects of physical exertion on walking speeds, physiological performance and behaviours during long ascending evacuations. Two sets of experiments on human performance during ascending long stairs, with a height of 48 and 109 m, were performed. The results include aspects such as walking speeds, physical exertion (oxygen consumption, heart rates and electromyography data), perceived exertion and behavioural changes, showing that physical work capacity affects walking speeds in case of long ascending evacuation and should be considered while using long ascending evacuation. Analysis of both walking and vertical speeds is recommended because it provides additional insights on the impact of stair configuration on vertical displacement and the importance of not using the same value for walking speed for different stairs because the design of the stairs has an impact. The novel datasets presented in this paper are deemed to provide useful information for fire safety engineers both for assisting fire safety design as well as the calibration of evacuation modelling tools.

  • 12.
    El Houssami, M.
    et al.
    Efectis, France.
    Försth, Michael
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Fredriksson, Henrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Drean, V.
    Efectis, France.
    Guillaume, E.
    Efectis, France.
    Hofmann-Böllinghaus, A.
    BAM Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und –prüfung, Germany.
    Sandinge, Anna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Fire safety of interior materials of buses2023Inngår i: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 47, nr 7, s. 910-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study provides an analysis on the fire safety of passengers and the fire protection of coaches and buses. A brief review of major bus fire incidents, an overview of current regulations in Europe, and their limitations are presented. The study finds that the current small-scale fire test methods described in UN ECE Reg No. 118 need to be replaced by test methods that can assess the reaction to fire of materials when exposed to ignition sources of varying sizes. To address these shortcomings, the study proposed an expert recommendation to update the material fire safety requirements and testing for buses. Additional measures are proposed, derived from objectives and strategies applied in other transport sectors, and can be tested through existing European and international standards, which are widely used by several industries. These measures aim to extend the time with tenable conditions for a safe evacuation in case of fire, reduce the degree of damage to buses, reduce the risk for fast and excessive thermal exposure on modern energy carriers needed for a more sustainable transport sector. © 2023 The Authors. 

  • 13. Frangi, Andrea
    et al.
    König, Jürgen
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Effect of increased charring on the narrow side of rectangular timber cross-sections exposed to fire on three or four sides2011Inngår i: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 35, nr 8, s. 593-605Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 14.
    Fufa, Selamawit Mamo
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Jelle, Bjørn Petter
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Hovde, Per Jostein
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Reaction to fire and water vapour resistance performance of treated wood specimens containing TiO2 and clay nanoparticles.2013Inngår i: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 38, nr 7, s. 717-724Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 15.
    Försth, Michael
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Modin, Håkan
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Sundström, Björn
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    A comparative study of test methods for assessment of fire safety performance of bus interior materials2013Inngår i: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 37, nr 5, s. 350-357Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 16.
    Försth, Michael
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Sundström, Björn
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    A comparative study of test methods for assessment of fire safety performance of bus interior materials2013Inngår i: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 37, nr 5, s. 350-357Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This work concerns the assessment of fire performance of interior materials in buses. The widely used test method ISO 3795/FMVSS 302 has received much criticism mainly based on the fact that the test is a small-scale method not suited for bus fires induced by for example fire in the engine compartment or fire in a tyre. Furthermore, test specimens are oriented horizontally, whereas much fire spread in a real bus fire occurs on vertically oriented products. Seventeen products were investigated: 11 textiles, four solids and two insulations. Three test methods were compared: ISO 3795, ISO 6941 and ISO 5658-2. Given the existing criteria for interior materials, it was found that ISO 6941 and ISO 5658-2 place harder requirements on the materials. When the three methods were compared, it was found that ISO 3795/FMVSS 302 and ISO 6941 are insufficient for simulating bus fires typically occurring today. Such fires are often initiated by a fire in the engine compartment or in a tyre and can hardly be simulated by small-scale methods as ISO 3795/FMVSS 302 or ISO 6941 even if the ISO 6941 method to some extent gives results similar to the established large-scale ISO 5658-2 method.

  • 17.
    Försth, Michael
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Zhao, Shuxi
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Roos, Arne
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Spectrally selective and adaptive surfaces for protection against radiative heating: ITO and VO22014Inngår i: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 38, nr 1, s. 111-124Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Two surface materials for reducing absorptivity of heat radiation from fires have been investigated. The first is VO2, which is a thermochromic material. When the temperature of a VO2 surfaceincreases over a certain temperature, it switches, ideally, from infrared (IR)-absorbing to IR-reflecting. VO2 window coatings are still on a research level, yet to be commercialized. In this study, VO2powder available on the market was investigated. The thermochromic effect could be identified but was not large enough to significantly improve the fire properties of treated surfaces. Some thoughts concerning how to improve the performance of VO2 are discussed. The second investigated material is indium tin oxide (ITO), which is a so called low-e coating, which means that it has low emissivity and absorptivity in the IR part of the spectrum. ITO is spectrally selective in the sense that it transmits visible light while reflecting a large fraction of the IR radiation, which is a rare property for surfaces in general but a typical property of thin electrically conducting non-metallic films. It is shown that the application of ITO to poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) significantly improves its fire properties. ITO coating is a mature technology already in widespread use today in the electronics industry.

  • 18.
    Gales, John
    et al.
    York University, Canada.
    McNamee, Robert
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Fire research for timber structures2023Inngår i: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 47, nr 4, s. 413-414Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 19.
    Gernay, Thomas
    et al.
    Johns Hopkins University, USA.
    Zehfuß, Jochen
    Technische Universität Braunschweig, Germany.
    Brunkhorst, Sven
    Technische Universität Braunschweig, Germany.
    Robert, Fabienne
    CERIB Fire Testing Centre, France.
    Bamonte, Patrick
    Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    McNamee, Robert
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet. Lund University, Sweden.
    Mohaine, Siyimane
    CERIB Fire Testing Centre, France.
    Franssen, Jean-Marc
    Liege University, Belgium.
    Experimental investigation of structural failure during the cooling phase of a fire: Timber columns2023Inngår i: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 47, nr 4, s. 445-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes fire tests on loaded glued laminated timber columns in which the structural response was measured during the heating and cooling phases. Identical columns with 280 × 280 mm2 cross-section and 3.7 m length were tested under various heating durations in a standard furnace to investigate integrity to full burnout. Two of the columns were subjected to ISO 834 heating until failure and their measured fire resistance was 55 and 58 min, respectively. Two columns were subjected to 15 min of ISO 834 heating followed by controlled cooling; these columns failed during the cooling phase, respectively after 98 and 153 min. Flame self-extinction occurred after approximately 40 min while smoldering continued locally. Two columns tested under 10 min of ISO 834 heating both survived the defined heating–cooling exposure. Thermocouples inside the columns show sustained temperature increases for hours after the end of the heating phase. These full-scale furnace experiments show that timber columns may fail during the cooling phase after exposure to standard heating for about 25% of the standard fire resistance duration. These results, in line with previous numerical predictions, highlight the need for further investigation into fire safety until full burnout for timber structures. 

  • 20.
    Hertzberg, Tommy
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Tuovinen, Heimo
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Reconstruction of an arson hospital fire2007Inngår i: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 31, nr 4, s. 225-240Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 21.
    Johansson, Nils
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Anderson, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    McNamee, Robert
    Brandskyddslaget AB, Sweden.
    Pelo, Christian
    Ramböll AB, Sweden.
    A Round Robin of fire modelling for performance-based design2021Inngår i: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 45, nr 8, s. 985-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Nine participants, representing eight different Swedish fire consultancy firms participated in a Round Robin study where two different cases were simulated with the Fire Dynamics Simulator. The first case included a large open warehouse where the activation of a sprinkler system was to be studied. In the second case time to critical conditions in a theatre was to be calculated. The participants were given clear instructions on the building layout and heat release rate for the two cases. Still, the results demonstrate a significant variation in time to sprinkler system activation (range of 110 seconds) and available safe escape time (range of 60 seconds), between the participants. It is important to emphasise that some degree of variation is unavoidable, as engineers can model things differently without the modelling solution necessarily being incorrect. Even though it is hard to isolate and specific cause of the variation, some of the variation seen in this study is related to modelling choices that are questionable and consequently problematic for the reliability of the fire safety design. © 2020 The Authors. 

  • 22.
    Just, Alar
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Schmid, Joachim
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    König, Jürgen
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Post-protection effect of heat-resistant insulations on timber-frame members exposed to fire2011Inngår i: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 36, nr 2, s. 153-163Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 23.
    König, Jürgen
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Effective thermal actions and thermal properties of timber members in natural fires2006Inngår i: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 30, nr 1, s. 51-63Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 24.
    König, Jürgen
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Structural fire design according to Eurocode 5 - Design rules and their background2005Inngår i: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 29, nr 3, s. 147-163Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 25.
    Larsson, Ida
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Persson, Henry
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Measurement of self‐heatingpotential of biomass pellets with isothermal calorimetry2017Inngår i: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 41, nr 8, s. 1007-1015Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to assess the risk for spontaneous combustion of biomass pellets during storage it is important to know how prone the fuel is to self-heating, i.e. to determine the reactivity. 

    This article presents the results from isothermal calorimetry tests performed on 31 different biomass pellet batches. The purpose of the tests has been to characterize pellets by measuring the reactivity and investigate how the pellet composition influences the heat release rate and thereby the self-heating potential of pellets. 

    The results from the tests clearly indicate that there is a significant difference in reactivity between different types of pellets. The tested high reactive pellet batches reached maximum specific heat release rates (HRRmax) of 0.61-1.06 mW/g while pellet batches with low reactivity showed HRRmax of 0.05-0.18 mW/g. The tested batches were primarily ranked based on HRRmax but an alternative ranking based on specific total heat release rate during the test period was also used for comparison. 

    The test results also indicate that pine/spruce mix pellets are significantly more reactive than all other types of pellets tested and that pellets consisting of 100 % pine are more reactive than pellets consisting of 100 % spruce. Pellets produced from wine pruning/grape pomace (winery wastes), straw or eucalyptus are not very reactive compared to pellets consisting of pine/spruce. 

    The results also show that the reactivity of the pellets can be reduced by either introducing certain kinds of anti-oxidants into the pellets or by extracting lipids from the raw material of pellets.

  • 26.
    Larsson, Ida
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Persson, Henry
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Bohlén, Haleh
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Development of a screening test based on isothermal calorimetry for determination of self-heating potential of biomass pellets2017Inngår i: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 41, nr 8, s. 940-952Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    For the risk for spontaneous combustion in storage of biomass pellets to be assessed, it is important to know how prone the fuel is to self-heating. There are traditional methods that are used to determine self-heating characteristics of fuels, eg, basket heating tests. The results from basket heating tests indirectly give the reactivity from a series of tests at high temperatures. This paper presents a sensitive screening test procedure for biomass pellets using isothermal calorimetry for direct measurement of the heat production rate at typical bulk storage temperatures. This method can be used to directly compare the reactivity of different batches of biomass pellets. The results could be used, eg, by storage security managers to gain better knowledge of their fuels propensity for self-heating and thereby for safer storage. A large number of tests have been performed to develop the test procedure presented. Different parameters, such as temperature, type of the test sample (powder/crushed or pellets), mass of test sample, and preheating time, have been varied. Furthermore, gas concentrations in the sample ampoule have been measured before and after some tests to study the oxygen consumption and the formation of CO and CO2. Three different types of pellets with different characteristics were tested to assess the variation in behaviour. Based on these tests, a screening test procedure is presented with a test temperature of 60°C, a sample size of 4 g, a 15-minute preheating period at the test temperature, and 24-hour test duration.

  • 27.
    McNamee, Robert
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Boström, Lars
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Reduction of fire spalling of concrete with small doses of polypropylene fibres2021Inngår i: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 45, nr 7, s. 943-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The addition of polypropylene (PP) fibres has been shown to reduce the fire spalling propensity of concrete. When including this type of fibres in the concrete, the concrete mix becomes less robust, and small deviations in the constitutes change the workability and properties of the concrete. So, from a manufacturing perspective as small dosages as possible of PP fibres are desirable. Very few large-scale fire resistance tests of concrete loaded in compression exist showing the function of PP fibres at low dosages on concrete mixes sensitive to spalling if no fibres are added. In this paper, results from 26 fire tests are presented and analysed. The test results are from four different experimental campaigns, but all the mixes have in common that the water-to-cement ratio is 0.40. The results show that an amount of only 0.6 kg/m3 PP fibres has a significant effect on the spalling propensity and that even lower amounts reduce the spalling although they do not eliminate it entirely. During one of the fire tests on large slabs loaded in compression, unloaded small cubes of the same mixes were also included in the furnace. None of the small specimens spalled, whereas some of the corresponding large slabs spalled beyond the layer of reinforcement. This illustrates that tests on small, unloaded specimens are not relevant when assessing fire spalling of larger cross-sections loaded in compression.

  • 28.
    Mohaine, Siyimane
    et al.
    CERIB Fire Testing Centre, France.
    Boström, Lars
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Lion, Maxime
    EDF, France.
    McNamee, Robert
    Brandskyddslaget, Sweden.
    Robert, Fabienne
    CERIB Fire Testing Centre, France.
    Cross-comparison of screening tests for fire spalling of concrete2021Inngår i: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 45, nr 7, s. 929-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Concrete spalling is an important phenomenon to consider when evaluating the fire behavior of concrete, as this can sometimes have an impact on the structural capacity of the studied element. Spalling can be assessed experimentally using screening tests although it is influenced by the size, geometry, and boundary conditions of the tested element, among other factors. No standardized and systematic methods are yet available to assess concrete spalling sensitivity by testing. Plus, comparative results between screenings tests (small and medium scale) and full-scale tests to evaluate their representativity remain scarce in the literature. In this study, five different spalling tests—with different geometries and boundary conditions—that are used as screening tests were investigated. A concrete mix known to be sensitive to spalling was used to evaluate the representativity of two types of screening tests (material screening tests and intermediate-scale screening tests). The representativity of these test setups was evaluated by comparing the measured spalling depths to the spalling measured on a full-scale slab test using the same concrete mix. This comparative study confirmed that the presence of load and/or restraint was essential for a good representativity for a screening test but should always be implemented in large enough specimens.

  • 29.
    Nilsson, Markus
    et al.
    Brandskyddslaget AB, Sweden.
    Husted, Bjarne
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Mossberg, Axel
    Brandskyddslaget AB, Sweden.
    Anderson, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Jansson Mcnamee, Robert
    Brandskyddslaget AB, Sweden.
    A numerical comparison of protective measures againstexternal fire spread2018Inngår i: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 42, nr 5, s. 493-507Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of different passive protective measures against external vertical firespread was investigated using the numerical tool Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS).The numerical study was divided into a validation study and a comparative analysis.The validation study was performed to evaluate FDS as a calculation tool for modellingexternal vertical fire spread and was conducted using experimental results from alarge‐scale fire test done on a SP FIRE 105 test rig at SP, Sweden. It was concludedthat FDS 6.2.0 could reproduce the experimental results with a reasonable level ofdetail. In the comparative analysis, the impact on the external fire from a smallerapartment was studied in FDS with different configurations of horizontal projectionsand spandrels in the building exterior. Also, the effects of an upper and lower facadeset‐back configuration were studied. The results show that facade solutions based ona horizontal projection or an upper facade set‐back configuration result in comparableor better protection compared with a defined spandrel height. The results also showthat a spandrel height of at least 1.2 m can be replaced by a 60‐cm‐deep horizontalprojection, given that the balcony is wider than the underlying opening.

  • 30.
    Norén, Joakim
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek..
    Load-bearing capacity of nailed joints exposed to fire1996Inngår i: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 20, s. 133-143Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 31.
    Nussbaum, Ralph
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek..
    Oxygen consumption measurements in the cone calori meter: a direct comparison between a paramagnetic cell and a high-temperature cell1987Inngår i: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 11, s. 201-203Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 32.
    Nussbaum, Ralph M
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek..
    Östman, Birgit
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek..
    Larger specimens for determining rate of heat release in the cone calorimeter1986Inngår i: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 10, s. 151-160Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 33.
    Ochoterena, Raul
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Försth, Michael
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Pilot spark energy in the cone calorimeter: A source of measurement uncertainties2014Inngår i: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 38, nr 7, s. 760-764Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This work presents measurements meant to study the influence of the spark energy on the time to ignition of a given material in the cone calorimeter. For this purpose, square slabs of particle board were tested under two radiation intensities until ignition occurred using two spark energies for each intensity level. Results show that increasing the spark energy leads to a reduction inthe ignition time regardless of the radiation intensity. However, the influence of the spark energy on the time to ignition is, in absolute numbers, larger for the low radiation intensity case than for the high radiation intensity case. Nonetheless, the proportional difference is nearly 10% for both levels of heat radiation. Results from this work confirm that there is an influence of the spark energyon the time to ignition of a given material suggesting that a narrower and more specific definition of the ignition circuits allowed in the cone calorimeter would be highly beneficial for ensuring repeatable results among laboratories.

  • 34.
    Ochoterena, Raul
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Försth, Michael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    The effect of thermochromic coatings of VO2 on the fire performance of windows2018Inngår i: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 42, nr 7, s. 873-876Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of thermochromic coatings of vanadium dioxide (VO2) on the fire performance of windows was experimentally tested. Prototypes were subjected to radiant heat and the radiation transmitted through the specimens was measured as a function of time. The results indicate that windows coated with VO2 can reduce radiative heat transfer from fires and thereby also reduce or prevent fire spread. The results clearly show that VO2coatings on BK7 substrates hinder approximately 30% of the transmission of radiation from fire sources when compared with the performance of uncoated windows. It is expected that VO2 will not be solely implemented for the purpose of increasing fire performance of windows, but it will rather provide a secondary positive effect if such windows are realized for energy‐saving purposes.

  • 35.
    Otxoterena, Paul
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Säkerhetsforskning.
    Björnstig, Ulf
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Lindkvist, Mats
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Post-collision fires in road vehicles between 2002 and 20152020Inngår i: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 44, nr 6, s. 767-775Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The loss of human lives and body injuries due to post-crash fires, either by smoke inhalation or due to burn injuries, are unfortunately not uncommon. The literature indicates that fire events related to crashes are still a significant problem. The increased combustible load in newer vehicles is an important factor to be taken into account for the fire safety, as well as their potential to release toxic fumes while burning. Trends indicate that the survivable collision energy will continue to increase, and, at the same time, the probability of post-crash fires rises with the collision energy. This means that the occupants of a vehicle may probably survive a high-energy collision but might sustain severe injuries or death due to a post-collision fire. This work reports a literature and interview study about post-crash fires including statistics on the causes and dynamics of post-crash fires in road vehicles based on the literature, crash and incident reports, as well as on interviews with medicine specialists. Results from this study indicate that fires in vehicles which originated by a collision event are a problem that remains to be solved. 

  • 36.
    Sandinge, Anna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik. DTU Technical University of Denmark, denmark.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Rahm, Michael
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Säkerhetsforskning.
    A modified specimen holder for cone calorimeter testing of composite materials to reduce influence from specimen edges2022Inngår i: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 46, nr 1, s. 80-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    ISO 5660-1 specifies the cone calorimeter method for characterizing the ignition and surface burning behavior of materials. The specimen is irradiated through a square opening in the frame of the specimen holder. The frame is intended to protect the edges of the specimen from irradiation but covers the edges with only a few mm. In tests with products such as composite laminates and sandwich wall panels, the production of pyrolysis gases from the edges and, in many cases, burning have been observed. Early contribution from the edges in the test is not representative for surface burning. A modified specimen holder was developed with a larger specimen size to allow better protection of the edges. The opening for exposure to irradiance of the retainer frame is circular and of the same area as that of the original frame. The distance between the exposed surface and the specimen edges is larger in order to prevent early exposure of edges. Tests using the standard specimen holder resulted in pyrolysis and burning from edges that took place outside of the specimen holder. Comparative tests using the modified specimen holder showed that it prevented the exposure and pyrolysis from edges for an extended time. However, the influence on ignition time and peak heat release due to the increased size of the modified specimen holder has not been characterized fully, and test results should not be used for direct comparison with those of the standard holder.

  • 37.
    Sandinge, Anna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Fredriksson, Henrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Evaluation of smoke gas toxicity and smoke density of bus interior materials2023Inngår i: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 47, nr 2, s. 270-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Materials used for interior parts in buses are today fire classified according to UNECE Regulation 118, evaluating the horizontal and vertical burning rates and the melting behaviour. However, in recent accidents, the smoke has been identified as the critical parameter for deaths. An evaluation has been made of six materials used as interior parts in busses and is presented in this paper. Fire testing was conducted according to UNECE R 118 and smoke production including smoke gas toxicity was further evaluated with the smoke chamber test, EN ISO 5659-2 and EN 17084. All six tested materials fulfilled the requirements of UNECE R 118; however, most materials showed fire properties which are not desirable, such as dark smoke and melting of large burning pieces. The tests with the smoke chamber showed that all materials gave a very high smoke production, in fact a smoke density value of the highest possible for the equipment to measure. This occurred only after a few minutes of test time. Thus, it can be concluded that this high smoke production will, in case of fire in a bus, reduce the visibility, and limit the ability of the passengers to safely evacuate. In addition, several toxic gases were detected in the smoke, both irritants and suffocating gases. © 2022 The Authors.

  • 38.
    Sesseng, Christian
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Reitan, Nina Kristine
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Storesund, Karolina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik. Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg, Germany; Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Hagen, Bjarne
    Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Effect of particle granularity on smoldering fire in wood chips made from wood waste: An experimental study2020Inngår i: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 44, nr 4, s. 540-556Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Fires in wood waste storages cause financial losses, are difficult to extinguish, and emit large amounts of fire effluents. The mechanisms related to fires in wood chip piles are not well elucidated. To find suitable preventive measures for handling such fires in wood waste, a better understanding of the physical properties of wood waste is needed. The present study investigates how granularity affects mechanisms of smoldering fire and transition to flaming in wood chip piles. Eighteen experiments with samples inside a top-ventilated, vertical cylinder were conducted. Heating from underneath the cylinder induced auto-ignition and smoldering fire, and temperatures and mass loss of the sample were measured. The results showed that granularity significantly affects the smoldering fire dynamics. Material containing larger wood chips (length 4-100 mm) demonstrated more irregular temperature development, higher temperatures, faster combustion, and higher mass losses than material of smaller wood chips (length <4 mm). The larger wood chips also underwent transition to flaming fires. Flaming fires were not observed for small wood chips, which instead demonstrated prolonged and steady smoldering propagation. The differences are assumed to be partly due to the different bulk densities of the samples of large and small wood chips affecting the ventilation conditions. Increased knowledge about these combustion processes and transition to flaming is vital to develop risk-reducing measures when storing wood chips made from wood waste in piles.

  • 39.
    Simonson, Margaret
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    The fire safety of TV set enclosure materials. A survey of European statistics2000Inngår i: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, nr 2Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 40.
    Sjöström, Johan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Temple, Alastair
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Anderson, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    McNamee, Robert
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    External fire plumes from mass timber compartment fires—Comparison to test methods for regulatory compliance of façades2023Inngår i: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 47, s. 433-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Post-flashover fires inherently lead to external fire plumes, constituting a hazard for rapid fire spread over façades. As multi-storey mass timber buildings with internal visible timber surfaces become more common, there are concerns that such buildings would produce larger external plumes and hazards (assuming all other parameters equal). The literature reveals only indications of this, and how the actual exposure relates to different test methods for assessment is unknown. Here we utilise a series of full-scale mass timber compartment tests to quantify the exposure to the external façade. An incombustible external façade is instrumented with gauges at positions corresponding to reference data from several different assessment methods. The results show that there is an increase in plume duration, height, and temperatures when increasing the areas of exposed timber, but that this increase is less for normal- to large-opening compartments, than was previously seen in small-opening compartments. Also, normal variations in external wind speed have a larger influence on plume heights than the effect of doubling exposed timber surfaces. Test methods used for regulatory compliance differ significantly not only in exposure but also in pass/fail criteria. The proposed European large exposure method and the BS8414 method exhibit exposures on par with the severe end of what could be expected from mass timber compartments, whereas methods like SP Fire 105 and Lepir II produce significantly less severe plumes. However, the safety level is always a combination of exposure and assessment criteria. This data can help justify assessment criteria from a performance perspective. © 2023 The Authors. 

  • 41.
    Steen-Hansen, A
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Kristoffersen, B
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Prediction of Fire Classification for Wood Based products2007Inngår i: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 31, s. 207-223Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 42.
    Storesund, Karolina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Amon, Francine
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Haghighatpanah, Shayesteh
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Larsson, Ida
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Fire safe, sustainable loose furnishing2021Inngår i: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, s. 181-190Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this exploratory study has been to investigate the fire properties and environmental aspects of different upholstery material combinations, mainly for domestic applications. An analysis of the sustainability and circularity of selected textiles, along with lifecycle assessment, is used to qualitatively evaluate materials from an environmental perspective. The cone calorimeter was the primary tool used to screen 20 different material combinations from a fire performance perspective. It was found that textile covers of conventional fibres such as wool, cotton and polyester, can be improved by blending them with fire resistant speciality fibres. A new three-dimensional web structure has been examined as an alternative padding material, showing preliminary promising fire properties with regard to ignition time, heat release rates and smoke production. 

  • 43. Svensson, Gunilla
    et al.
    Östman, Birgit
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek..
    Rate of heat release by oxygen consumption in an open test arrangement1984Inngår i: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 8, nr 4, s. 206-216Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 44.
    Tsantaridis, Lazaros
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, AB Trätek.
    Östman, Birgit
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, AB Trätek.
    Charring of protected wood studs1998Inngår i: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 22, s. 55-60Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 45.
    Tsantaridis, Lazaros
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek..
    Östman, Birgit
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek..
    Retainer frame effects on cone calorimeter results for building products1993Inngår i: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 17, s. 43-46Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 46.
    Tsantaridis, Lazaros
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, AB Trätek.
    Östman, Birgit
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, AB Trätek.
    König, Jürgen
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, AB Trätek.
    Short communication: Fire protection of wood by different gypsum plasterboards1999Inngår i: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 23, s. 45-48Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 47.
    Ullah, Saif
    et al.
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmak.
    Mindykowski, Pierrick
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Säkerhetsforskning. DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmak.
    Leisted, Rolff
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmak.
    Chernyy, Sergey
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmak.
    Tordrup, Sie
    DTI Danish Technological Institute, Denmark; Business Academy Aarhus, Denmark.
    Jomaas, Grunde
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmak; University of Edinburgh, UK.
    Almdal, Kristoffer
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmak.
    Synergistic fire-retardancy properties of melamine coated ammonium poly(phosphate) in combination with rod-like mineral filler attapulgite for polymer-modified bitumen roofing membranes2020Inngår i: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 44, nr 7, s. 966-974Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel intumescent (carbonization, acid donor and foaming) fire retardant that mimics carbon nanotubes was introduced into bitumen roofing and characterized using cone calorimetry as the main analytical tool. The experimental results indicate that 18% (by mass) attapulgite mineral (ATTP) mixed with base bitumen decreased the peak heat release rate per unit area (pHRRPUA) by 10%. Further, incorporation of melamine coated ammonium polyphosphate (MAPP) decreased the pHRRPUA by 52% and a mixture of these (3:1, ATTP:MAPP) decreased the pHRRPUA by 25% as compared to adding CaCO3 as a filler. The residual mass loss after the cone test was also improved with up to 3%. The indication of a positive synergistic flame retardant effect of the ATTP-MAPP mixture is supported by thermogravimetric analysis. The addition of this rod-like mineral improved the general fire retardant properties of the base bitumen and increased the viscosity. Therefore, the polymer-modified bitumen with both fire retardant and rheological properties (providing mechanical strength) is a promising novel approach in the design of bitumen roofing membranes. 

  • 48.
    Vermina Plathner, Frida
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety. Lund University, Sweden.
    Hees, Patrick
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Experimental assessment of bench-scale ignitability parameters2019Inngår i: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 43, nr 2, s. 123-130Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Summary This work aims to explore possible ways of improving the precision of ignition measurements in the cone calorimeter. Both inherent repeatability of parts of the testing equipment and operator-dependent variations are considered. Inherent repeatability is indicated to be slightly improved if the test samples used are circular rather than square. Operator-dependent variation is discussed in terms of the method used for determining ignition. Four procedures are compared, namely, visual observation, usage of a light sensor, and looking at the peak of the second and first derivatives of the mass loss and heat release curves, respectively. Results indicate that the preferable operator-independent method depends on the test conditions; the derivative of the heat release rate is an alternative to the mass loss rate derivative when the scale is of standardised quality. A light sensor for ignition time observation is a good option when the surrounding light is not changed during the test.

  • 49.
    Wickström, Ulf
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Anderson, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Measuring incident heat flux and adiabatic surface temperature with plate thermometers in ambient and high temperatures2019Inngår i: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 43, nr 1, s. 51-56, artikkel-id 2667Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A new more insulated and faster responding plate thermometer (PT) is introduced,which has been developed for measurements particularly in air at ambient temperature.It is a cheaper and more practical alternative to water‐cooled heat flux meters(HFMs). The theory and use of PTs measuring incident radiation heat flux and adiabaticsurface temperature are presented. Comparisons of measurements with PTsand HFMs are made. Finally, it is concluded that incident radiation in ambient aircan be measured with HFMs as well as with the new insulated type of PT. In hot gasesand flames, however, only PTs can be recommended. At elevated gas temperatures,convection makes measurements with HFMs difficult to interpret and use for calculations.However, they can be used in standard or well‐defined configurations forcomparisons.

  • 50.
    Östman, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Mikkola, Esko
    European classes for the reaction to fire performance of wood-based panels2010Inngår i: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 34, nr 6, s. 315–330-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
12 1 - 50 of 53
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