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  • 1.
    Anderson, Johan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Boström, Lars
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Jansson McNamee, Robert
    Brandskyddslaget, Sweden.
    Milovanović, Bojan
    University of Zagreb, Croatia.
    Experimental comparisons in façade fire testing considering SP Fire 105 and the BS 8414‐12018In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 42, no 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A comparison between full‐scale façade fire tests where SP Fire 105 and BS 8414‐1 were used regarding repeatability and the use of modeling to discern changes in the setups is presented. Two test series according to BS 8414‐1 were repeated outside using the same façade systems on 2 different days, whereas for the SP Fire 105 a set of common façade systems in Sweden were tested indoors. In particular, the results show that the wind around the test setup may have a significant impact on the tests and that the heat exposure to the façade surface will depend on the thickness of the test specimen where an increased temperature in front of the façade, and a decreased temperature on the façade 2.1 m above the fire room, is observed experimentally. The heat exposure to the test specimen varies to a more limited extent when an uncontrollable free burning fire source is used (in this study heptane and wood, respectively) and that this variation increases when wind is present.

  • 2.
    Anderson, Johan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Boström, Lars
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Jansson McNamee, Robert
    Brandskyddslaget AB, Sweden.
    Milovanović, Bojan
    University of Zagreb, Croatia.
    Modeling of fire exposure in facade fire testing2017In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 42, no 5, p. 475-483Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a comparative simulation study on 3 large‐scale facade testing methods, namely,the SP Fire 105, BS 8414‐1, and the ISO 13785‐2 methods, is presented. Generally goodcorrespondence between simulations and experimental data has been found, provided thatthermal properties of the facade material and heat release rates are known; however, thecorrespondence deviates in close proximity of the fire source. Furthermore, a statistical ensemblefor evaluating the effects stemming from uncertainty in input data is used. Here, it wasfound using this statistical ensemble that the variability was smaller in the ISO 13785‐2compared to the BS 8414‐1 method. The heat release rates (HRR) used in the simulations wereadopted from measurements except for the ISO method where the information in the standardwas used to approximate the HRR. A quantitative similarity between the HRR in the ISOmethod and the British method was found.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Petra
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Blomqvist, P
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Lorén, A
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Larsson, F
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut. Department of Applied Physics Chalmers University of Technology.
    Using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to determine toxic gases in fires with lithium-ion batteries2016In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, p. 999-1015Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Batteries, in particular lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries, are seen as an alternative to fossil fuels in the automotive sector. Li-ion batteries, however, have some safety issues including possible emissions of toxic fluorine-containing compounds during fire and other abuse situations. This paper demonstrates the possibilities to use the Fourier transform infrared technique to assess some of the most important compounds, including hydrogen fluoride and the far less often measured POF3 and PF5. The study is conducted in the cone calorimeter with different solvents used in Li-ion batteries. The measurements show that, in addition to hydrogen fluoride, with a known high toxicity, POF3 is emitted and can be quantified using Fourier transform infrared. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Petra
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Loren, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Larsson, Fredrik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Using FTIR to determine toxic gases in fires with Li-ion batteries2016In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 40, no 8, p. 999-1015Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Batteries, in particular lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries, are seen as an alternative to fossil fuels in the automotive sector. Li-ion batteries, however, have some safety issues including possible emissions of toxic fluorine-containing compounds during fire and other abuse situations. This paper demonstrates the possibilities to use the Fourier transform infrared technique to assess some of the most important compounds, including hydrogen fluoride and the far less often measured POF3 and PF5. The study is conducted in the cone calorimeter with different solvents used in Li-ion batteries. The measurements show that, in addition to hydrogen fluoride, with a known high toxicity, POF3 is emitted and can be quantified using Fourier transform infrared. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 5.
    Andersson, Petra
    et al.
    Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Holmstedt, Göran
    Heat sensing manikin test probe2000In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 24, p. 195-199Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Blomqvist, Per
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Andersson, Petra
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    A study of fire performance of textile membranes used as building components2012In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 36, no 8, p. 648-660Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Delin, Mattias
    et al.
    DeBrand Sverige AB, Sweden.
    Norén, Johan
    Briab Brand & Riskingenjörerna AB, Sweden.
    Ronchi, Enrico
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Kuklane, Kalev
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Halder, Amitava
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Fridolf, Karl
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Ascending stair evacuation: walking speed as a function of height2017In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 41, no 5, p. 514-534Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is reason to believe that factors such as physical exertion and behavioural changes will influence the ascending walking speed and ultimately the possibility of satisfactory evacuation. To study these effects, a 2-year research project was initiated with the focus on effects of physical exertion on walking speeds, physiological performance and behaviours during long ascending evacuations. Two sets of experiments on human performance during ascending long stairs, with a height of 48 and 109 m, were performed. The results include aspects such as walking speeds, physical exertion (oxygen consumption, heart rates and electromyography data), perceived exertion and behavioural changes, showing that physical work capacity affects walking speeds in case of long ascending evacuation and should be considered while using long ascending evacuation. Analysis of both walking and vertical speeds is recommended because it provides additional insights on the impact of stair configuration on vertical displacement and the importance of not using the same value for walking speed for different stairs because the design of the stairs has an impact. The novel datasets presented in this paper are deemed to provide useful information for fire safety engineers both for assisting fire safety design as well as the calibration of evacuation modelling tools.

  • 8. Frangi, Andrea
    et al.
    König, Jürgen
    SP- Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Effect of increased charring on the narrow side of rectangular timber cross-sections exposed to fire on three or four sides2011In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 35, no 8, p. 593-605Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Fufa, Selamawit Mamo
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Jelle, Bjørn Petter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Hovde, Per Jostein
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Reaction to fire and water vapour resistance performance of treated wood specimens containing TiO2 and clay nanoparticles.2013In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 38, no 7, p. 717-724Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Försth, Michael
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Modin, Håkan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Sundström, Björn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    A comparative study of test methods for assessment of fire safety performance of bus interior materials2013In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 37, no 5, p. 350-357Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Försth, Michael
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Zhao, Shuxi
    Roos, Arne
    Spectrally selective and adaptive surfaces for protection against radiative heating: ITO and VO22014In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 38, no 1, p. 111-124Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Hertzberg, Tommy
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Tuovinen, Heimo
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Reconstruction of an arson hospital fire2007In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 225-240Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Just, Alar
    et al.
    SP- Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Schmid, Joachim
    SP- Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    König, Jürgen
    SP- Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Post-protection effect of heat-resistant insulations on timber-frame members exposed to fire2011In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 153-163Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    König, Jürgen
    SP - Sveriges provnings- och forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Effective thermal actions and thermal properties of timber members in natural fires2006In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 51-63Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    König, Jürgen
    SP - Sveriges provnings- och forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Structural fire design according to Eurocode 5 - Design rules and their background2005In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 147-163Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Larsson, Ida
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Persson, Henry
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Measurement of self‐heatingpotential of biomass pellets with isothermal calorimetry2017In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 41, no 8, p. 1007-1015Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to assess the risk for spontaneous combustion of biomass pellets during storage it is important to know how prone the fuel is to self-heating, i.e. to determine the reactivity. 

    This article presents the results from isothermal calorimetry tests performed on 31 different biomass pellet batches. The purpose of the tests has been to characterize pellets by measuring the reactivity and investigate how the pellet composition influences the heat release rate and thereby the self-heating potential of pellets. 

    The results from the tests clearly indicate that there is a significant difference in reactivity between different types of pellets. The tested high reactive pellet batches reached maximum specific heat release rates (HRRmax) of 0.61-1.06 mW/g while pellet batches with low reactivity showed HRRmax of 0.05-0.18 mW/g. The tested batches were primarily ranked based on HRRmax but an alternative ranking based on specific total heat release rate during the test period was also used for comparison. 

    The test results also indicate that pine/spruce mix pellets are significantly more reactive than all other types of pellets tested and that pellets consisting of 100 % pine are more reactive than pellets consisting of 100 % spruce. Pellets produced from wine pruning/grape pomace (winery wastes), straw or eucalyptus are not very reactive compared to pellets consisting of pine/spruce. 

    The results also show that the reactivity of the pellets can be reduced by either introducing certain kinds of anti-oxidants into the pellets or by extracting lipids from the raw material of pellets.

  • 17.
    Larsson, Ida
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Persson, Henry
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Bohlén, Haleh
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Development of a screening test based on isothermal calorimetry for determination of self-heating potential of biomass pellets2017In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For the risk for spontaneous combustion in storage of biomass pellets to be assessed, it is important to know how prone the fuel is to self-heating. There are traditional methods that are used to determine self-heating characteristics of fuels, eg, basket heating tests. The results from basket heating tests indirectly give the reactivity from a series of tests at high temperatures. This paper presents a sensitive screening test procedure for biomass pellets using isothermal calorimetry for direct measurement of the heat production rate at typical bulk storage temperatures. This method can be used to directly compare the reactivity of different batches of biomass pellets. The results could be used, eg, by storage security managers to gain better knowledge of their fuels propensity for self-heating and thereby for safer storage. A large number of tests have been performed to develop the test procedure presented. Different parameters, such as temperature, type of the test sample (powder/crushed or pellets), mass of test sample, and preheating time, have been varied. Furthermore, gas concentrations in the sample ampoule have been measured before and after some tests to study the oxygen consumption and the formation of CO and CO2. Three different types of pellets with different characteristics were tested to assess the variation in behaviour. Based on these tests, a screening test procedure is presented with a test temperature of 60°C, a sample size of 4 g, a 15-minute preheating period at the test temperature, and 24-hour test duration.

  • 18.
    Nilsson, Markus
    et al.
    Brandskyddslaget AB, Sweden.
    Husted, Bjarne
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Mossberg, Axel
    Brandskyddslaget AB, Sweden.
    Anderson, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Jansson McNamee, Robert
    Brandskyddslaget AB, Sweden.
    A numerical comparison of protective measures againstexternal fire spread2018In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 42, no 5, p. 493-507Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of different passive protective measures against external vertical firespread was investigated using the numerical tool Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS).The numerical study was divided into a validation study and a comparative analysis.The validation study was performed to evaluate FDS as a calculation tool for modellingexternal vertical fire spread and was conducted using experimental results from alarge‐scale fire test done on a SP FIRE 105 test rig at SP, Sweden. It was concludedthat FDS 6.2.0 could reproduce the experimental results with a reasonable level ofdetail. In the comparative analysis, the impact on the external fire from a smallerapartment was studied in FDS with different configurations of horizontal projectionsand spandrels in the building exterior. Also, the effects of an upper and lower facadeset‐back configuration were studied. The results show that facade solutions based ona horizontal projection or an upper facade set‐back configuration result in comparableor better protection compared with a defined spandrel height. The results also showthat a spandrel height of at least 1.2 m can be replaced by a 60‐cm‐deep horizontalprojection, given that the balcony is wider than the underlying opening.

  • 19.
    Norén, Joakim
    Trätek..
    Load-bearing capacity of nailed joints exposed to fire1996In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 20, p. 133-143Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Nussbaum, Ralph
    Trätek..
    Oxygen consumption measurements in the cone calori meter: a direct comparison between a paramagnetic cell and a high-temperature cell1987In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 11, p. 201-203Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Nussbaum, Ralph M
    et al.
    Trätek..
    Östman, Birgit
    Trätek..
    Larger specimens for determining rate of heat release in the cone calorimeter1986In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 10, p. 151-160Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Ochoterena, Raul
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Försth, Michael
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Pilot spark energy in the cone calorimeter: A source of measurement uncertainties2014In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 38, no 7, p. 760-764Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Ochoterena, Raul
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Försth, Michael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    The effect of thermochromic coatings of VO2 on the fire performance of windows2018In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 42, no 7, p. 873-876Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of thermochromic coatings of vanadium dioxide (VO2) on the fire performance of windows was experimentally tested. Prototypes were subjected to radiant heat and the radiation transmitted through the specimens was measured as a function of time. The results indicate that windows coated with VO2 can reduce radiative heat transfer from fires and thereby also reduce or prevent fire spread. The results clearly show that VO2coatings on BK7 substrates hinder approximately 30% of the transmission of radiation from fire sources when compared with the performance of uncoated windows. It is expected that VO2 will not be solely implemented for the purpose of increasing fire performance of windows, but it will rather provide a secondary positive effect if such windows are realized for energy‐saving purposes.

  • 24.
    Simonson, Margaret
    Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    The fire safety of TV set enclosure materials. A survey of European statistics2000In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, no 2Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Steen-Hansen, A
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Kristoffersen, B
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Prediction of Fire Classification for Wood Based products2007In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 31, p. 207-223Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26. Svensson, Gunilla
    et al.
    Östman, Birgit
    Trätek..
    Rate of heat release by oxygen consumption in an open test arrangement1984In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 206-216Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Tsantaridis, Lazaros
    et al.
    AB Trätek.
    Östman, Birgit
    AB Trätek.
    Charring of protected wood studs1998In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 22, p. 55-60Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Tsantaridis, Lazaros
    et al.
    Trätek..
    Östman, Birgit
    Trätek..
    Retainer frame effects on cone calorimeter results for building products1993In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 17, p. 43-46Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Tsantaridis, Lazaros
    et al.
    AB Trätek.
    Östman, Birgit
    AB Trätek.
    König, Jürgen
    AB Trätek.
    Short communication: Fire protection of wood by different gypsum plasterboards1999In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 23, p. 45-48Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Vermina Plathner, Frida
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety. Lund University, Sweden.
    Hees, Patrick
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Experimental assessment of bench-scale ignitability parameters2018In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Summary This work aims to explore possible ways of improving the precision of ignition measurements in the cone calorimeter. Both inherent repeatability of parts of the testing equipment and operator-dependent variations are considered. Inherent repeatability is indicated to be slightly improved if the test samples used are circular rather than square. Operator-dependent variation is discussed in terms of the method used for determining ignition. Four procedures are compared, namely, visual observation, usage of a light sensor, and looking at the peak of the second and first derivatives of the mass loss and heat release curves, respectively. Results indicate that the preferable operator-independent method depends on the test conditions; the derivative of the heat release rate is an alternative to the mass loss rate derivative when the scale is of standardised quality. A light sensor for ignition time observation is a good option when the surrounding light is not changed during the test.

  • 31.
    Wickström, Ulf
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Anderson, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Measuring incident heat flux and adiabatic surface temperature with plate thermometers in ambient and high temperatures2018In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 51-56, article id 2667Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new more insulated and faster responding plate thermometer (PT) is introduced,which has been developed for measurements particularly in air at ambient temperature.It is a cheaper and more practical alternative to water‐cooled heat flux meters(HFMs). The theory and use of PTs measuring incident radiation heat flux and adiabaticsurface temperature are presented. Comparisons of measurements with PTsand HFMs are made. Finally, it is concluded that incident radiation in ambient aircan be measured with HFMs as well as with the new insulated type of PT. In hot gasesand flames, however, only PTs can be recommended. At elevated gas temperatures,convection makes measurements with HFMs difficult to interpret and use for calculations.However, they can be used in standard or well‐defined configurations forcomparisons.

  • 32.
    Östman, Birgit
    et al.
    SP- Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Mikkola, Esko
    European classes for the reaction to fire performance of wood-based panels2010In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 34, no 6, p. 315–330-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Östman, Birgit
    et al.
    Trätek..
    Svensson, Gunilla
    Blomqvist, J
    Comparison of three test methods for measuring rate of heat release1985In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 176-184Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Östman, Birgit
    et al.
    Trätek..
    Tsantaridis, Lazaros
    Trätek..
    Heat release and classification of fire retardant wood products1995In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 19, p. 253-258Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Östman, Birgit
    et al.
    Trätek..
    Tsantaridis, Lazaros
    Trätek..
    Smoke data from the cone calorimeter for comparison with the room fire test1993In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 17, p. 191-200Article in journal (Refereed)
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