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  • 1.
    Ayagou, Martien
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Joshi, G. R.
    IFP Energies Nouvelles, France.
    Tran, T. T. M.
    Sorbonne Université, France.
    Sutter, E.
    Sorbonne Université, France.
    Tribollet, B.
    Sorbonne Université, France.
    Mendibide, Christophe
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Duret-Thual, Claude
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Ferrando, N.
    IFP Energies Nouvelles, France.
    Kittel, J.
    IFP Energies Nouvelles, France.
    Corrosion and hydrogen permeation in H 2 S environments with O 2 contamination, Part 2: Impact of H 2 S partial pressure2019Inngår i: Corrosion, ISSN 0010-9312, E-ISSN 1938-159X, Vol. 75, nr 4, s. 389-397Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Materials selection in the oil and gas industry relies on engineering standards, such as NACE TM0177 and NACE TM0284, which stipulate that oxygen contamination should be avoided during materials testing in H 2 S-containing media. In this second paper, as part of a series of articles that evaluates how traces of oxygen modify the corrosion of pure iron and hydrogen permeation across iron membranes in H 2 S-containing solutions, the impact of changing the H 2 S partial pressure from 100 kPa to 0.1 kPa was investigated. It was found that bulk solution chemistry for all H 2 S partial pressures changes with time, due to the formation of H 2 S–O 2 reaction products (sulfates, sulfites, and thiosulfates), which results in bulk solution acidification. Electrochemical and weight-loss measurements confirm that Fe corrosion rates in baseline well-deaerated H 2 S-containing solutions decrease with decreasing H 2 S partial pressure, although these are observed to be much higher under continuous oxygen contamination. With decreasing H 2 S partial pressure, hydrogen uptake in Fe also decreases, due to lower and lower concentrations of dissolved H 2 S and the associated increase in pH. However, even at 1 kPa and 0.1 kPa H 2 S, permeation effciencies remain close to 100% when no O 2 contamination is present. The hydrogen uptake is always relatively lower in Fe exposed to oxygen-polluted H 2 S solutions. Permeation efficiencies decrease continuously. From electrochemical data and surface characterization, these observations at lower H 2 S partial pressures are attributed to the disruptive effect of oxygen on the nature of sulfide corrosion products, and hydrogen entry promotion, along with the contribution of an additional cathodic reaction that does not result in hydrogen entry into the metal

  • 2.
    Ayagou, Martien
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Mendibide, Christophe
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Duret-Thual, Claude
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Kittel, J.
    IFP Energies Nouvelles, France.
    Belkhadiri, K.
    IFP Energies Nouvelles, France.
    Tran, T. T. M.
    Sorbonne Université, France.
    Sutter, E.
    Sorbonne Université, France.
    Tribollet, B.
    Sorbonne Université, France.
    Ferrando, N.
    IFP Energies Nouvelles, France.
    Corrosion and hydrogen permeation in h2S environments with o2 contamination, 1: Tests on pure iron at high h2S concentration2018Inngår i: Corrosion, ISSN 0010-9312, E-ISSN 1938-159X, Vol. 74, nr 11, s. 1192-1202Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Materials selection in the oil and gas industry relies on engineering standards, such as NACE TM0177 and NACE TM0284, which stipulate that oxygen pollution should be avoided during materials testing in H2S-containing media. In this paper, we explore the manner in which traces of oxygen can modify the test solution chemistry and the corrosion of/hydrogen permeation across iron membranes in H2S-containing solutions. Oxygen pollution is shown to strongly influence solution chemistry, through the introduction of sulfur-oxygen reaction products resulting in bulk acidification. Weight loss, electrochemical methods, and solution chemistry measurements conclude that iron corrosion rates in the presence of oxygen pollution are doubled, when compared against the control system (without oxygen pollution). Unexpectedly, despite a lower pH and higher corrosion rates in the oxygen-polluted H2S-containing solutions, the hydrogen permeation rate decreases monotonically, relative to the control. We discuss how this observation is most likely related to a disruption of sulfur adsorbates involved in hydrogen entry promotion. 

  • 3.
    Han, J.
    et al.
    PSL Research University, France.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Ogle, K.
    PSL Research University, France.
    Temperature dependence of the passivation and dissolution of Al, Zn, and α-phase Zn-68Al2019Inngår i: Corrosion, ISSN 0010-9312, E-ISSN 1938-159X, Vol. 75, nr 1, s. 69-79Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The reactivity of the α-phase of Al-Zn (Zn-68 wt% Al, Al 5.2 Zn) in deaerated 0.1 M NaOH solution (simulating industrial pretreatments) was investigated and compared with that of pure Al and Zn. The elementary phenomena of metal oxidation, dissolution, oxide formation, and hydrogen evolution were decoupled using atomic emission spectroelectrochemistry. At the open-circuit potential, the Al 5.2 Zn phase reacted similarly as pure Al, undergoing selective Al dissolution to form a Zn(0) enriched layer. The Zn in the alloy shifted the potential to just below the onset of Zn dissolution. Elementary polarization curves showed that Zn dissolution was similar for the Al 5.2 Zn phase as for pure Zn. Near the open-circuit potential, Zn dissolution was faradaic limited by the formation of surface Zn(OH) 2 . At higher temperature, significant amounts of ZnO formed resulting in passivation. For the Al 5.2 Zn phase, the rates of Al and Zn dissolution were determined by a charge transfer mechanism across the ZnO film. Kinetic parameters (activation energies and Tafel slopes) were measured for some of the elementary processes. 

  • 4.
    LeBozec, Nathalie
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Jönsson, Martin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Atmospheric corrosion of magnesium alloys: Influence of temperature, relative humidity, and chloride deposition2004Inngår i: Corrosion, ISSN 0010-9312, E-ISSN 1938-159X, Vol. 60, nr 4, s. 356-361Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Laboratory tests have been performed to determine how climatic parameters, e.g., relative humidity, temperature, and the amount of sodium chloride (NaCl), influence the corrosion rate of magnesium alloys AZ91D (UNS M 11916) and AM50 (UNS M 10500). The effect of the surface state also has been investigated. The exposures were performed at 75%. 85%. and 95% relative humidity (RH) and at 25°C and 35°C. The amount of NaCl ranged from 14 μg cm-2 to 240 μg cm-2 . The corrosion rate of both materials increased as a function of temperature, RH, and amount of NaCl. A strong influence of the surface state, i.e., as-cast or polished, was observed mainly due to the combined effect of an active surface layer and the roughness of as-cast surfaces. © 2004, NACE International.

  • 5.
    LeBozec, Nathalie
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Persson, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Axelsen, Sten B.
    Statoil ASA, Norway.
    Effect of climatic parameters on filiform corrosion of coated aluminum alloys2004Inngår i: Corrosion, ISSN 0010-9312, E-ISSN 1938-159X, Vol. 60, nr 6, s. 584-593Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of temperature, relative humidity, and wet-dry transition on initiation and propagation of filiform, corrosion on coated aluminum alloy 6016 (AA6016 [UNS A96016]) have been studied. Corrosion products formed in the filament were analyzed using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR)- microspectroscopy. The aluminum surfaces were tested in both milled finish and grinded conditions with chromium, phosphate, and titanium-zirconium-based pretreatment. An electrodeposited coat (ED coat) and a full paint system used for automotive applications (ED coat + topcoat) were investigated for the different combinations of mechanical finish, surface pretreatment, and coating system. In the temperature range between 5°C and 50°C, filiform corrosion, or underfilm corrosion in general, increased significantly. The effect of relative humidity and wet-dry cycling, on the other hand, seems to be strongly influenced by parameters like pretreatment, coating system, and temperature. Filiform corrosion was the highest in the range from 75% to 95% relative humidity (RH), and a distinct maximum was observed at 85% RH for some coating systems. However, filiform. corrosion propagated at humidity down to 40% to 50% RH. For specimens with chromate- and phosphate-based surface pretreatments, filiform, corrosion was lower after exposure to tests with wet-dry cycles. The samples with titanium-zirconium-based pretreatments, on the other hand, had a very poor filiform corrosion resistance in the cyclic test compared to exposures at constant relative humidity. © 2004, NACE International.

  • 6.
    Nazarov, Andrej
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Prosek, Tomas
    University of Chemistry and Technology Prague, Czech Republic.
    Formation of galvanic cells and localized corrosion of zinc and zinc alloys under atmospheric conditions2017Inngår i: Corrosion, ISSN 0010-9312, E-ISSN 1938-159X, Vol. 73, nr 1, s. 77-86Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Atmospheric corrosion of Zn and Zn alloys with local NaCl contaminations was studied in situ by scanning Kelvin probe. The corrosion process was accompanied by the formation of clearly separated anodic and cathodic locations and local galvanic cells on the surface. The corrosion activity correlated to variations in Volta potential during air to nitrogen transients. The effect of dielectric and semiconducting solids on the efficiency of cathodic reaction on zinc was investigated. The rate of oxygen reduction was high on semiconducting ZnO films with defective structure, as they are effective donors of electrons. Mg, Ti, Cr, and Al were alloyed to zinc to modify the composition of surface oxide films. The addition of Mg provided the most effective corrosion inhibition, blocking completely the spreading of the cathodic area from NaCl contamination. The other elements had minor influence, but might be applied for further improvement of the Zn-Mg system. The effect of Mg is believed to be connected to semiconducting properties of the formed surface oxide film.

  • 7.
    Prosek, Tomas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Iversen, Anna K.
    Outokumpu Stainless AB, Sweden.
    Taxen, Claes
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Low-temperature stress corrosion cracking of stainless steels in the atmosphere in the presence of chloride deposits2009Inngår i: Corrosion, ISSN 0010-9312, E-ISSN 1938-159X, Vol. 65, nr 2, s. 105-117Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Several cases of ceiling collapses and other failed elements have been reported in indoor swimming pool halls in the last two decades. The collapses were caused by stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of stainless steel fastening elements covered with chloride deposits at temperatures as low as room temperature. The goal of this study was to assess the application limits of different austenitic and austenitic-ferritic (duplex) stainless steels subject to tensile stress and contaminated with chloride deposits in atmospheric non-washing conditions as a function of temperature (20°C to 50°C), relative humidity (15% to 70% RH), and deposit composition. Austenitic stainless steels Type 304 (UNS S30400) and Type 316L (UNS S31603) were susceptible to SCC in the presence of magnesium and calcium chlorides at temperatures of 30°C and higher and at low relative humidity. The tendency to SCC increased with increasing temperature and decreasing relative humidity. The corrosivity of chloride deposits under given exposure conditions decreased in thefollowing order: calcium chloride (CaCl2) > magnesium chloride (MgCl2) > sodium chloride (NaCl). It was governed by the equilibrium chloride concentration in the surface electrolyte formed as a result of interaction of a given salt with water vapor in the air. Threshold values of the minimum chloride concentration and relative humidity intervals leading to SCC were established for Type 304 and Type 316L. Duplex stainless steels S32101 (UNS S32101), 2304 (UNS S32304), 2205 (UNS S32205), and 2507 (UNS S32750) were resistant to SCC but corroded selectively with the maximum depth of 200 μm. Austenitic stainless steels Type 904L (UNS N08904) and Type S31254 (UNS S31254) showed no tendency to SCC.

  • 8.
    Prosek, Tomas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Le Gac, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Le Manchet, Sandra
    ArcelorMittal, France.
    Lojewski, Christian
    ArcelorMittal, France.
    Fanica, Amelie
    ArcelorMittal, France.
    Johansson, Elisabeth
    Outokumpu Stainless, Sweden.
    Canderyd, Carolina
    Outokumpu Stainless, Sweden.
    Dupoiron, Francois
    Total Petrochemicals, France.
    Snauwaert, Tom
    Stolt Tankers, The Netherlands.
    Maas, Fleur
    Belgisch Instituut voor lastechniek, Belgium.
    Droesbeke, Benny
    Belgisch Instituut voor lastechniek, Belgium.
    Low-temperature stress corrosion cracking of austenitic and duplex stainless steels under chloride deposits2014Inngår i: Corrosion, ISSN 0010-9312, E-ISSN 1938-159X, Vol. 70, nr 10, s. 1052-1063Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Corrosion performance of austenitic-ferritic (duplex) stainless steels UNS S32101, S32202, S32304, and S32205 and austenitic stainless steels UNS S30403 and S31603 was studied in the presence of chloride deposits simulating non-rinsing atmospheric conditions. The effect of temperature, relative humidity, concentration, and composition of the chloride deposits on the tendency for atmospheric, low-temperature, chloride-induced stress corrosion cracking (SCC), pitting, and selective corrosion was assessed using prestressed samples with a circular weld. In the presence of calcium chloride, SCC was observed at temperatures as low as 20°C and 30°C on the austenitic stainless steels UNS S30403 (Type 304L) and UNS S31603 (Type 316L), respectively. The only cases of SCC of tested duplex stainless steel grades were found at 70°C, which otherwise suffered mainly selective dissolution of the ferrite phase with one order lower depth of attack. The initiation of SCC and selective/pitting corrosion was governed by the equilibrium chloride concentration in a solution formed by contact with chloride-containing deposits and with air at a given relative humidity. Threshold levels of critical chloride concentrations, critical relative humidity in the presence of specific deposits, and maximum temperatures for safe applications of the studied grades were established.

  • 9.
    Prosek, Tomas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Mobility and mode of inhibition of chromate at defected areas of organic coatings under atmospheric conditions2004Inngår i: Corrosion, ISSN 0010-9312, E-ISSN 1938-159X, Vol. 60, nr 12, s. 1122-1133Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability of chromate as an anticorrosive pigment incorporated into primer coatings to inhibit the corrosion of galvanized steel has been studied using cell modeling conditions at defects of painted sheets. The experiments were performed at different temperatures (4, 22, and 40° C) and chloride concentrations (1 mmol/L and 10 mmol/L) with coatings releasing from 20 mg/m2 to 100 mg/m2 chromate per 48 h. After 1 h to 48 h of exposure, the solutions were analyzed by ion chromatography (IC) and the metal samples were studied using Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR), energy-dispersive x-ray (EDX), and x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The XANES measurements detected the presence of a Cr(III)/Cr(VI) layer containing approximately 15% of Cr(VI) on the initially bare zinc surface. Corrosion of the samples exposed with the chromated primers was clearly inhibited in comparison with blank samples, with an inhibition efficiency ranging from 50% to 95% according to the exposure conditions. Thus, the results showed that chromate was transported from the pigmented primer to the bare metal surface and formed a protective layer on it. Moreover, an enrichment of the pit centers with chromium wasfound with EDX, suggesting the ability of chromate to seek the active, or formerly active, corrosion sites and preferentially adsorb at these locations. The extent of corrosion deterioration of the samples and chromate consumption was regarded with respect to temperature, chloride concentration, total amount of released chromate, and the kinetics of the release. The developed experimental technique was tested on a vanadate system as well. The experimental setup proved to be a simple and efficient tool for future testing of paints, inhibitors, materials, or aggressiveness of environment, as well as for fundamental studies. © 2004, NACE International.

  • 10.
    Prosek, Tomas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Olsson, Mikael Kharrazi
    Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Bexell, Ulf
    Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Effect of chloride-to-chromate ratio on the protective action of zinc surface films under atmospheric weathering conditions2007Inngår i: Corrosion, ISSN 0010-9312, E-ISSN 1938-159X, Vol. 63, nr 3, s. 258-267Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The formation and the corrosion protection of newly formed chromium-rich layers on bare zinc surfaces were studied to model the conditions in defected areas of both organic and conversion chromate coatings that are in contact with water environments contaminated with different amounts of chloride ions. Composition of the layers was identified with Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES), and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). The presence of chloride in the range from 0.06 mM to 1,000 mM in the chromate treating solution had almost no effect on the amount of chromate adsorbed on zinc. Three independent technique showed that a more than 4-order increase in chloride concentration results in the drop of the chromate content in the surface film only by 20% to 25%. Cr(VI)-to-total Cr surface ratio was close to 0.3 and constant under present experimental conditions. More chromium was detected in the outer region of the film, whereas chloride accumulated in the inner region. As a result of the linear increase of the surface chloride concentration with the chloride concentration in the chromate treating solution, the chloride-to-chromate surface molar ratio increased sharply. The rate of reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) and the corrosion rate of zinc exposed to atmospheric weathering conditions increased significantly with the chloride-to-chromate ratio. The chromate coatings showed good stability and a high level of corrosion protection, up to the ratio of approximately 2. It represented a threshold value below which relatively low rates of the chromate reduction and zinc corrosion were observed, since the significant part of the chloride ions was inactivated in the first hours of exposure by the formation of insoluble corrosion products. A negative effect of the increasing chloride-to-chromate surface molar ratio on corrosion can be seen in the increasing ability to reduce oxygen on the zinc surface measured by the scanning Kelvin probe (SKP) technique. Inhibition of the cathodic reaction by chromate was less effective at higher ratios.

  • 11.
    Thierry, Dominique
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Leballeur, Charles
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Larché, Nicolas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, KIMAB.
    Galvanic series in seawater as a function of temperature, oxygen content, and chlorination2018Inngår i: Corrosion, ISSN 0010-9312, E-ISSN 1938-159X, Vol. 74, nr 2, s. 147-152Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The open-circuit potential is one of the main driving forces of galvanic corrosion when two dissimilar metals are in electrical continuity in an electrolyte. From the existing literature, the galvanic series which provides averaged potential of metallic materials in seawater is generally restricted to ambient/ standard conditions or to a limited number of alloys. However, advanced materials have been developed in the last decade and the corrosion potential of any alloy immersed in seawater may be strongly affected by environmental factors. There is a lack of information on these purposes (e.g., effect of dissolved oxygen content, temperatures, chlorination at different levels, or recently developed alloys, etc.). In this work, the open-circuit potential of different stainless steel grades, as well as nickel-based and copper-based alloys, has been systematically measured in seawater under different experimental conditions. In particular, the effect of temperature (from 30°C to 70°C), oxygen content (from 10 ppb to saturation), and chlorination level (from 0 ppm to 0.5 ppm) have been studied. The work can also be used for material selection in terms of risk of bi-metallic corrosion when coupling two materials under these conditions. 

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