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  • 1.
    Allen, D.H.
    et al.
    Texas AandM University.
    Holmberg, Anders
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Ericson, M.
    Volvo Car Components Corporation.
    Lans, L.
    Volvo Car Corporation.
    Svensson, N.
    Xdin AB.
    Holmberg, S.
    Volvo Car Components Corporation.
    Modeling the viscoelastic response of GMT structural components2001In: Composites Science And Technology, ISSN 0266-3538, E-ISSN 1879-1050, Vol. 61, no 4, p. 503-515Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A glass-mat-reinforced thermoplastic (GMT) composite material has been fabricated from randomly oriented continuous glass fibers embedded in a polypropylene matrix. The mechanical constitution of this composite has been characterized by using a linear viscoelastic micromechanically based material model. This material model has subsequently been implemented to several finite-element computer codes for analysis of structural components fabricated from polypropylene GMT. In this paper several example problems have been studied in order to determine the applicability of this modeling approach to predicting time-dependent deformations due to creep in GMT components. These example problems have been solved by utilizing two commercially available codes: ABAQUS, and ANSYS. Furthermore, results obtained with the codes have been compared to both analytic and experimental results, with varying degrees of success. The paper details these results for each of the example problems considered herein. © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 2.
    Andersson, B.
    et al.
    Aeronautical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Sjögren, Anders
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Berglund, L.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Micro- and meso-level residual stresses in glass-fiber/vinyl-ester composites2000In: Composites Science And Technology, ISSN 0266-3538, E-ISSN 1879-1050, Vol. 60, no 10, p. 2011-2028Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Residual stresses in glass-fiber composites were studied on the micro and meso scales by computational and experimental methods. Transmitted polarized light images of thin sections were compared with 3D finite-element solutions of a sample containing 1410 fibers. Calculated point-wise stresses were derived from a linear thermoelastic model with negligibly small numerical errors. Regions with calculated maximum compressive stresses showed good agreement with experimentally observed optical bands. A material with poor interfacial adhesion showed weaker optical effects indicating fiber/matrix debonding. On the basis of these results it seems likely that irreversible matrix deformation and debonding can take place in the curing phase. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.Residual stresses in glass-fiber composites were studied on the micro and meso scales by computational and experimental methods. Transmitted polarized light images of thin sections were compared with 3D finite-element solutions of a sample containing 1410 fibers. Calculated point-wise stresses were derived from a linear thermoelastic model with negligibly small numerical errors. Regions with calculated maximum compressive stresses showed good agreement with experimentally observed optical bands. A material with poor interfacial adhesion showed weaker optical effects indicating fiber/matrix debonding. On the basis of these results it seems likely that irreversible matrix deformation and debonding can take place in the curing phase.

  • 3.
    Ansari, Farhan
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Lindh, Erik L.
    RISE, Innventia. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Furo, Istvan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Johansson, Mats K. G.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Berglund, Lars A.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Interface tailoring through covalent hydroxyl-epoxy bonds improves hygromechanical stability in nanocellulose materials2016In: Composites Science And Technology, ISSN 0266-3538, E-ISSN 1879-1050, Vol. 134, p. 175-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wide-spread use of cellulose nanofibril (CNF) biocomposites and nanomaterials is limited by CNF moisture sensitivity due to surface hydration. We report on a versatile and scalable interface tailoring route for CNF to address this, based on technically important epoxide chemistry. Bulk impregnation of epoxide-amine containing liquids is used to show that CNF hydroxyls can react with epoxides at high rates and high degree of conversion to form covalent bonds. Reactions take place inside nanostructured CNF networks under benign conditions, and are verified by solid state NMR. Epoxide modified CNF nanopaper shows significantly improved mechanical properties under moist and wet conditions. High resolution microscopy is used in fractography studies to relate the property differences to structural change. The cellulose-epoxide interface tailoring concept is versatile in that the functionality of molecules with epoxide end-groups can be varied over a wide range. Furthermore, epoxide reactions with nanocellulose can be readily implemented for processing of moisture-stable, tailored interface biocomposites in the form of coatings, adhesives and molded composites.

  • 4.
    Asp, Lars Erik
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, SICOMP. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Greenhalgh, Emile S.
    Imperial College London, United Kingdom.
    Structural power composites2014In: Composites Science And Technology, ISSN 0266-3538, E-ISSN 1879-1050, Vol. 101, p. 41-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces the concept of structural power composite materials and their possible devices and the rationale for developing them. The paper presents a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art, highlighting achievements related to structural battery and supercapacitor devices. The research areas addressed in detail for the two types of material devices include: carbon fibre electrodes, structural separators, multifunctional matrix materials, device architectures and material functionalization. Material characterisation, fabrication and validation are also discussed. The paper culminates in a detailed description of scientific challenges, both generic as well as device specific, that call for further research. Particular reference is given to work performed in national and European research projects under the leadership of the authors, who are able to provide a unique insight into this newly emerging and exciting field.

  • 5.
    Asp, Leif
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Juntikka, Rickard
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    High velocity impact on NCF reinforced composites2009In: Composites Science And Technology, ISSN 0266-3538, E-ISSN 1879-1050, Vol. 69, no 9, p. 1478-1482Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the current paper, a series of high velocity impact tests using φ{symbol}50 and φ{symbol}25 mm ice spheres and 0.32 g granite stones on non-crimp fabric (NCF) composite plates are reported. The impact tests were performed using an air gun and velocities between 100 m/s and 199 m/s. The impact events were monitored using a high-speed camera, with a 20 million frames per second capacity, as well as by a displacement transducer for out-of-plane displacement measurements of the impacted plates. NCF composite plates of two different thicknesses were impacted. The composites were manufactured from carbon fibre and epoxy resin by vacuum infusion. Engineering type models were employed to predict impact response and impact damage formation. Comparison between predicted and resulting damage for the impact test validates the application of a semi-empirical model for predicting impact velocity thresholds for damage formation. Analytical models relying on the assumption of solid impact bodies cannot be employed for these types of impact. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 6.
    Carlson, Tony
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Ordéus, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Wysocki, Maciej
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Asp, Leif
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Structural capacitor materials made from carbon fibre epoxy composites2010In: Composites Science And Technology, ISSN 0266-3538, E-ISSN 1879-1050, Vol. 70, no 7, p. 1135-1140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, an approach towards realising novel multifunctional polymer composites is presented. A series of structural capacitor materials made from carbon fibre reinforced polymers have been developed, manufactured and tested. The structural capacitor materials were made from carbon fibre epoxy pre-preg woven laminae separated by a paper or polymer film dielectric separator. The structural capacitor multifunctional performance was characterised measuring capacitance, dielectric strength and interlaminar shear strength. The developed structural CFRP capacitor designs employing polymer film dielectrics (PA, PC and PET) offer remarkable multifunctional potential. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 7.
    Carlstedt, David
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Marklund, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, SICOMP. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Asp, Leif
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Effects of state of charge on elastic properties of 3D structural battery composites2019In: Composites Science And Technology, ISSN 0266-3538, E-ISSN 1879-1050, Vol. 169, p. 26-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of state of charge (SOC) on the elastic properties of 3D structural battery composites are studied. An analytical model based on micromechanical models is developed to estimate the effective elastic properties of 3D structural battery composite laminae at different SOC. A parametric study is performed to evaluate how different design parameters such as volume fraction of active materials, stiffness of constituents, type of positive electrode material, etc. affect the moduli of the composite lamina for extremes in SOC. Critical parameters and configurations resulting in large variations in elastic properties due to change in SOC are identified. As the extreme cases are of primary interest in structural design, the effective elastic properties are only estimated for the electrochemical states corresponding to discharged (SOC = 0) and fully charged (SOC = 1) battery. The change in SOC is simulated by varying the volume and elastic properties of the constituents based on data from literature. Parametric finite element (FE) models for square and hexagonal fibre packing arrangements are also analysed in the commercial FE software COMSOL and used to validate the analytical model. The present study shows that the transverse elastic properties E2 and G23 and the in-plane shear modulus G12 are strongly affected by the SOC while the longitudinal stiffness E1 is not. Fibre volume fraction and the properties of the coating (such as stiffness and Poisson's ratio) are identified as critical parameters that have significant impact on the effect of SOC on the effective elastic properties of the composite lamina. For configurations with fibre volume fraction Vf ≥ 0.4 and Young's modulus of the coating of 1 GPa or higher, the transverse properties E2 and G23 change more than 30% between extremes in SOC. Furthermore, for configurations with high volume fractions of electrode materials and coating properties approaching those of rubber the predicted change in transverse stiffness E2 is as high as +43%. This shows that it is crucial to take effects of SOC on the elastic properties into account when designing 3D structural battery composite components. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd

  • 8.
    Castro, Daniele
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019). KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Karim, Zoheb
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019). KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Medina, Lilian
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Häggström, J. -O
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019).
    Carosio, Federico
    Politecnico di Torino, Italy.
    Svedberg, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019).
    Wågberg, Lars Göran
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Söderberg, Daniel L.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Berglund, Lars A.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    The use of a pilot-scale continuous paper process for fire retardant cellulose-kaolinite nanocomposites2018In: Composites Science And Technology, ISSN 0266-3538, E-ISSN 1879-1050, Vol. 162, p. 215-224Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanostructured materials are difficult to prepare rapidly and at large scale. Melt-processed polymer-clay nanocomposites are an exception, but the clay content is typically below 5 wt%. An approach for manufacturing of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC)/kaolinite nanocomposites is here demonstrated in pilot-scale by continuous production of hybrid nanopaper structures with thickness of around 100 μm. The colloidal nature of MFC suspensions disintegrated from chemical wood fiber pulp offers the possibility to add kaolinite clay platelet particles of nanoscale thickness. For initial lab scale optimization purposes, nanocomposite processing (dewatering, small particle retention etc) and characterization (mechanical properties, density etc) were investigated using a sheet former (Rapid Köthen). This was followed by a continuous fabrication of composite paper structures using a pilot-scale web former. Nanocomposite morphology was assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Mechanical properties were measured in uniaxial tension. The fire retardancy was evaluated by cone calorimetry. Inorganic hybrid composites with high content of in-plane oriented nanocellulose, nanoclay and wood fibers were successfully produced at pilot scale. Potential applications include fire retardant paperboard for semi structural applications and as reinforcement mats in molded thermoset biocomposites. 

  • 9.
    Costa, Sergio
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Fagerström, Martin
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Olsson, Robin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Development and validation of a finite deformation fibre kinking model for crushing of composites2020In: Composites Science And Technology, ISSN 0266-3538, E-ISSN 1879-1050, Vol. 197, article id 108236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A mesoscale model for fibre kinking onset and growth in a three-dimensional framework is developed and validated against experimental results obtained in-house as well as from the literature. The model formulation is based on fibre kinking theory i.e. the initially misaligned fibres rotate due to compressive loading and nonlinear shear behaviour. Furthermore, the physically-based response is computed in a novel and efficient way using finite deformation theory. The model validation starts by correlating the numerical results against compression tests of specimens with a known misalignment. The results show good agreement of stiffness and strength for two specimens with low and high misalignment. Fibre kinking growth is validated by simulating the crushing of a flat coupon with the fibres oriented to the load direction. The numerical results show very good agreement with experiments in terms of crash morphology and load response.

  • 10.
    Edgren, Fredrik
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Asp, Leif
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Joffe, Roberts
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Failure of NCF composites subjected to combined compression and shear loading2006In: Composites Science And Technology, ISSN 0266-3538, E-ISSN 1879-1050, Vol. 66, no 15, p. 2865-2877Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Earlier studies have shown that formation of kink bands is the mechanism that is likely to govern failure of compression loaded non-crimp fabric (NCF) composite laminates. Because of this, a failure criterion for prediction of failure caused by kinking under multiaxial (axial compression and shear) loading has been adapted to a NCF composite system. The criterion has been validated for compression tests of quasi-isotropic laminates tested in uniaxial compression. By performing compression tests of the laminate at different off-axis angles, it was possible to vary the ratio of compressive axial stress/shear stress in the specimens. The test results proved that the criterion works well for predictions of kinking governed failure for the present material system. Detailed fractographic studies confirmed that formation of kink bands was the mechanism responsible for specimen failure. Kink bands were also found to develop at loads significantly lower than load at specimen failure. © 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 11.
    Edgren, FRedrik
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Mattsson, D.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Asp, Leif
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Varna, J.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Formation of damage and its effects on non-crimp fabric reinforced composites loaded in tension2004In: Composites Science And Technology, ISSN 0266-3538, E-ISSN 1879-1050, Vol. 64, no 5, p. 675-692Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-crimp fabric (NCF) composites, manufactured by resin infusion techniques are one of the most promising next generation composite materials. They offer large potential for application in primary structures as they give excellent performance at low production costs. However, before NCF composites will be efficiently used in design, detailed understanding of governing micro mechanisms must be accumulated and described by predictive models. In the present study, NCF cross-ply laminates have been tested in tension. Intralaminar cracks caused in the 90° fibre bundle layers and their effect on laminate mechanical properties have been monitored. Occurrence of 'novel' type of cracks propagating in the load direction (longitudinal cracks) is explained by a thorough FE analysis using an Representative Volume Element (RVE) approach, revealing stress concentrations caused by 0° fibre bundle waviness. Effects of damage on mechanical properties are modelled using modified micro mechanical models developed for analysis of conventional laminated composites. The analysis reveals mechanical degradation to be ruled by the crack opening displacement (COD). However, unlike traditional composites, transverse cracks do not generally extend through the entire thickness of the 90° layer, but are rather contained in single fibre bundles, limiting the COD. © 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 12.
    Edgren, Fredrik
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Soutis, C.
    The University of Sheffield.
    Asp, Leif
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Damage tolerance analysis of NCF composite sandwich panels2008In: Composites Science And Technology, ISSN 0266-3538, E-ISSN 1879-1050, Vol. 68, no 13, p. 2635-2645Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper concerns development and validation of impact damage representations in carbon fibre non-crimp fabric reinforced face sheets for damage tolerance analysis of sandwich panels loaded in compression. For this purpose, experimental data accompanied by fractographic observations have been employed to scrutinize numerical predictions by state-of-the-art notch strength models. As a result, equivalent hole representations of visible impact damage (VID) and, more surprisingly, of the subtle barely visible impact damage (BVID) are recommended for reliable damage tolerance prediction of the compression after impact (CAI) load case for the investigated panels. This recommendation relies on the identification of the mechanisms controlling failure resulting in reliable damage tolerance predictions employing a linear cohesive zone model. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 13.
    Fernberg, Patrik
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Jekabsons, N.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Determination of bridging laws for SMC materials from DENT tests2003In: Composites Science And Technology, ISSN 0266-3538, E-ISSN 1879-1050, Vol. 63, no 15, p. 2143-2153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A bridging law (or cohesive zone law) approach is employed to evaluate the fracture of double edge notched tensile (DENT) specimen from two SMC materials (Std-SMC and Flex-SMC) with considerable difference in fracture characteristics. Linear- and non-linear FEM was used to separate volumetric body contributions and true crack opening from measured displacements (measured with extensometer) over the cracked region. We found that extrinsic non-linear material response gave a significant contribution to measured displacements. The paper also considers the influence of specimen dimensions on the characteristics of fracture. This is of great importance since stable crack growth is required in order to allow a complete determination of the bridging law in a single experiment. By applying corrections for volumetric displacements in the data reduction scheme we were able to estimate the bridging laws of the two SMCs respectively. They were found to be of decreasing nature and two distinct regions were identified. For small δ, a steeply decreasing part where debonding and fiber fracture are major micro-scale failure mechanism, is identified. At larger δ, a transition to a less steep bridging law response is observed. Pullout friction governs the bridging law at that stage. © 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 14.
    Gutkin, Renaud
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, SICOMP.
    Costa, Sergio
    RISE, Swerea, SICOMP.
    Olsson, Robin
    RISE, Swerea, SICOMP.
    A physically based model for kink-band growth and longitudinal crushing of composites under 3D stress states accounting for friction2016In: Composites Science And Technology, ISSN 0266-3538, E-ISSN 1879-1050, Vol. 135, p. 39-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A material model to predict kink-band formation and growth under a 3D stress state is proposed. 3D kinking theory is used in combination with a physically based constitutive law of the material in the kink-band, accounting for friction on the microcracks of the damaged material. In contrast to existing models, the same constitutive formulation is used for fibre kinking and for the longitudinal shear and transverse responses, thereby simplifying the material identification process. The full collapse response as well as a crush stress can be predicted. The model is compared with an analytical model, a micromechanical finite element analysis and crushing tests. In all cases the present model predicts well the different stages of kink-band formation and crushing.

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  • 15.
    Henriksson, Marielle
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Fogelström, Linda
    Berglund, Lars
    Johansson, Mats
    Hult, Anders
    Novel nanocomposite concept based on cross-linking of hyperbranched polymers in reactive cellulose nanopaper templates2011In: Composites Science And Technology, ISSN 0266-3538, E-ISSN 1879-1050, Vol. 71, no 1, p. 13-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cellulosic fibers offer interesting possibilities for good interfacial adhesion due to the high density of hydroxyl groups at the surface. In the present study, the potential of a new nanocomposite concept is investigated, where a porous cellulose nanofiber network is impregnated with a solution of reactive hyperbranched polyester. The polymer is chemically cross-linked to form a solid matrix. The resulting nanocomposite structure is unique. The matrix surrounds a tough nanopaper structure consisting of approximately 20 nm diameter nanofibers with an average interfiber distance of only about 6 nm. The cross-linked polymer matrix shows strongly altered characteristics when it is cross-linked in the confined space within the nanofiber network, including dramatically increased Tg, and this must be due to covalent matrix–nanofiber linkages.

  • 16.
    Huang, Hui
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Dobryden, Illia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Thorén, P -A
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ejenstam, Lina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Pan, J.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Fielden, M. L.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Haviland, D. B.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Claesson, Per M.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Local surface mechanical properties of PDMS-silica nanocomposite probed with Intermodulation AFM2017In: Composites Science And Technology, ISSN 0266-3538, E-ISSN 1879-1050, Vol. 150, p. 111-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mechanical properties of polymeric nanocomposites are strongly affected by the nature of the interphase between filler and matrix, which can be controlled by means of surface chemistry. In this report, we utilize intermodulation atomic force microscopy (ImAFM) to probe local mechanical response with nanometer-scale resolution of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) coatings with and without 20 wt% of hydrophobic silica nanoparticles. The data evaluation is carried out without inferring any contact mechanics model, and is thus model-independent. ImAFM imaging reveals a small but readily measurable inhomogeneous mechanical response of the pure PDMS surface layer. The analysis of energy dissipation measured with ImAFM showed a lowering of the viscous response due to the presence of the hydrophobic silica nanoparticles in the polymer matrix. An enhanced elastic response was also evident from the in-phase stiffness of the matrix, which was found to increase by a factor of 1.5 in presence of the nanoparticles. Analysis of dissipation energy and stiffness in the immediate vicinity of the nanoparticles provides an estimate of the interphase thickness. Because the local stiffness varies significantly near the nanoparticle, AFM height images contain artifacts that must be corrected in order to reveal the true surface topography. Without such a correction the AFM height images erroneously show that the stiff particles protrude from the surface, whereas corrected images show that they are actually embedded in the matrix and likely covered with a thin layer of polymer.

  • 17.
    Jekabsons, N.
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Fernberg, Patrik
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Prediction of progressive fracture of SMC by application of bridging laws2003In: Composites Science And Technology, ISSN 0266-3538, E-ISSN 1879-1050, Vol. 63, no 15, p. 2133-2142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Experimentally obtained load vs. displacement curves from compact tension tests (CT) of two different SMC materials are analyzed in this paper. Three different CT specimen geometries are considered. Progressive fracture is attained in all tests. This gives rise to a long post-peak tail part in the load vs. displacement curve. By implementing bridging laws and volumetric stiffness degradation of bulk SMC in an FEM model we are able to reproduce the two larger geometries considered (50 mm × 50 mm and 100 mm × 100 mm) with high accuracy. Discrepancy between model predictions and experiments for the smallest geometry considered (20 × 20 mm) was observed. This was due to premature compressive failure on the side opposite to the CT specimen precrack. The successful use of bridging laws strongly suggests that they are intrinsic properties governing fracture behavior of SMC materials. The fact that our bridging laws were determined based on independent tests on different specimen geometry is adding strong arguments to preceding conclusion. © 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 18.
    Joffre, Thomas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Miettinen, Arttu
    University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Berthold, Fredrik
    RISE, Innventia.
    Gamstedt, Erik Kristofer
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    X-ray micro-computed tomography investigation of fibre length degradation during the processing steps of short-fibre composites2014In: Composites Science And Technology, ISSN 0266-3538, E-ISSN 1879-1050, Vol. 105, p. 127-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mechanical properties of composites in the fibre direction are mainly attributed to the fibre slenderness, or aspect ratio. A trade-off between performance and processability is usually required, and dependent on the intended application. If the fibre length could be retained or not severely degraded during various processing steps towards the injection-moulded component, a stiffer and stronger composite product could be obtained. The processing steps for injection moulded wood-fibre composites here include: pulping, commingling, extrusion, pelletizing, and injection moulding. To tune the processing parameters systematically for retained fibre length, it would be useful to investigate the degradation of the original fibre length distribution throughout the processing chain. The fibre length degradation has been monitored by X-ray micro-computed tomography through the processing steps in wood pulp-fibre reinforced polylactide. A significant fibre-length degradation was found. In particular, the extrusion step was found to result in a drastic fibre length reduction.

  • 19.
    Leijonmarck, Simon
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Carlson, Tony
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, SICOMP.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Asp, Leif
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, SICOMP.
    Maples, Henry A.
    Imperial College London, United Kingdom.
    Bismarck, Alexander
    Imperial College London, United Kingdom; University of Vienna, Austria.
    Solid polymer electrolyte-coated carbon fibres for structural and novel micro batteries2013In: Composites Science And Technology, ISSN 0266-3538, E-ISSN 1879-1050, Vol. 89, p. 149-157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report a method to deposit a thin solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) coating around individual carbon fibres for the realization of novel battery designs. In this study an electrocoating method is used to coat methacrylate-based solid polymer electrolytes onto carbon fibres. By this approach a dense uniform, apparently pinhole-free, poly(methoxy polyethylene glycol (350) monomethacrylate) coating with an average coating thickness of 470. nm was deposited around carbon fibres. Li-triflate, used as supporting electrolyte remained in the coating after the electrocoating operation. The Li-ion content in the solid polymer coating was found to be sufficiently high for battery applications. A battery device was built employing the SPE coated carbon fibres as negative electrode demonstrating reversible specific capacity of 260. mA. h/g at low currents (C/10), suggesting that these coated carbon fibres can be employed in future structural composite batteries.

  • 20.
    Licea-Jiménez, L.
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Henrio, P.-Y.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lund, Anja
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Laurie, T.M.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Pérez-García, S.A.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Nyborg, L.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hassander, H.
    Lund Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Bertilsson, H.
    University College Borås, Sweden.
    Rychwalski, R.W.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    MWNT reinforced melamine-formaldehyde containing alpha-cellulose2007In: Composites Science And Technology, ISSN 0266-3538, E-ISSN 1879-1050, Vol. 67, no 5, p. 844-854Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Lund, Anja
    et al.
    University of Borås, Sweden; Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Cornelia
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Bertilsson, Hans
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Rychwalski, Rodney W.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Enhancement of β phase crystals formation with the use of nanofillers in PVDF films and fibres2011In: Composites Science And Technology, ISSN 0266-3538, E-ISSN 1879-1050, Vol. 71, no 2, p. 222-229Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Marklund, Erik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, SICOMP.
    Eitzenberger, J.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Varna, J.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Nonlinear viscoelastic viscoplastic material model including stiffness degradation for hemp/lignin composites2008In: Composites Science And Technology, ISSN 0266-3538, E-ISSN 1879-1050, Vol. 68, no 9, p. 2156-2162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In repeating tensile tests with increasing maximum strain for every loading cycle the hemp/lignin composites clearly showed a nonlinear behavior and hysteresis loops in loading and unloading. The explanation for this behavior is the inherent viscoelastic nature for this type of material, but also noticeable stiffness degradation with increasing strain level. Creep tests performed at different stress levels revealed a nonlinear viscoelastic response and after recovery viscoplastic strain was detected for high stress levels. It is demonstrated that Schapery's model is suitable to model nonlinear viscoelasticity whereas viscoplastic strain may be described by a nonlinear functional presented by Zapas and Crissman. In a creep test this functional leads to a power law with respect to time and stress. In order to include stiffness reduction due to damage Schapery's model has been modified by incorporating a maximum strain-state dependent function reflecting the elastic modulus reduction with increasing strain measured in tensile tests. A generalized incremental model of the constitutive equation for viscoelastic case has been used to validate the developed material model in a linear stress controlled loading and unloading ramp. The model successfully describes the main features for the investigated material and shows good agreement with test data within the considered stress range. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 23.
    Marklund, Erik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, SICOMP.
    Varna, J.
    Lulea University of Technology.
    Modeling the hygroexpansion of aligned wood fiber composites2009In: Composites Science And Technology, ISSN 0266-3538, E-ISSN 1879-1050, Vol. 69, p. 1108-1114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of wood fiber ultrastructure and cell wall hygroelastic properties on wood fiber composite hygroexpansion has been analyzed. An analytical concentric cylinder model extended to include also free hygroexpansion of orthotropic phase materials has been used on several length scales. Using properties of the three main wood polymers, cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin the longitudinal and transverse hygroexpansion coefficients for the microfibril unit cell were obtained and the volume fraction change of the wood polymers in the microfibril unit cell depending on relative humidity was calculated. The fiber cell wall was modeled regarding each individual S1, S2 and S3 layer and the cell wall longitudinal hygroexpansion coefficient was determined depending on microfibril angle in the S2 layer. A homogenization procedure replacing the S1, S2 and S3 layers with one single layer was found not to influence the results significantly for low microfibril angles. Finally the hygroexpansion coefficients of an aligned softwood fiber composite were calculated. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 24.
    Miettinen, Arttu
    et al.
    University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Hendriks, Cris L.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Gamsted, Erik Kristofer
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Kataja, Markku
    University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    A non-destructive X-ray microtomography approach for measuring fibre length in short-fibre composites2012In: Composites Science And Technology, ISSN 0266-3538, E-ISSN 1879-1050, Vol. 72, no 15, p. 1901-1908Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An improved method based on X-ray microtomography is developed for estimating fibre length distribution of short-fibre composite materials. In particular, a new method is proposed for correcting the biasing effects caused by the finite sample size as defined by the limited field of view of the tomographic devices. The method is first tested for computer generated fibre data and then applied in analyzing the fibre length distribution in three different types of wood fibre reinforced composite materials. The results were compared with those obtained by an independent method based on manual registration of fibres in images from a light microscope. The method can be applied in quality control and in verifying the effects of processing parameters on the fibre length and on the relevant mechanical properties of short fibre composite materials, e.g. stiffness, strength and fracture toughness.

  • 25.
    Oksman, K.
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Mathew, A.P.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Långström, Runar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, SICOMP.
    Nyström, Birgitha
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, SICOMP.
    Joseph, K.
    Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology.
    The influence of fibre microstructure on fibre breakage and mechanical properties of natural fibre reinforced polypropylene2009In: Composites Science And Technology, ISSN 0266-3538, E-ISSN 1879-1050, Vol. 69, p. 1847-1853Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of fibre morphology of different natural fibres on the composites mechanical properties and on the fibre breakage due to extrusion process. The composite materials were manufactured using LTF (long fibre thermoplastic) extrusion and compression moulding and the used fibres were sisal, banana, jute and flax, and the matrix was a polypropylene. The results showed that sisal composites had the best impact properties and the longest fibres after the extrusion. Generally, the composites flexural stiffness was increased with increased fibre content for all fibres, being highest for flax composites. The flexural strength was not affected by the addition of fibres because of the low compatibility. The addition of 2 wt.% maleated polypropylene significantly improved the composites properties. Unlike the other three fibres, flax fibres were separated into individual elementary fibres during the process due to enzymatic retting and low lignin content. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 26.
    Oksman, K.
    et al.
    NTNU, Norwegian Univ.of Sci./Technology.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Selin, J.-F.
    Fortum Oyj.
    Natural fibres as reinforcement in polylactic acid (PLA) composites2003In: Composites Science And Technology, ISSN 0266-3538, E-ISSN 1879-1050, Vol. 63, no 9, p. 1317-1324Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus in this work has been to study if natural fibres can be used as reinforcement in polymers based on renewable raw materials. The materials have been flax fibres and polylactic acid (PLA). PLA is a thermoplastic polymer made from lactic acid and has mainly been used for biodegradable products, such as plastic bags and planting cups, but in principle PLA can also be used as a matrix material in composites. Because of the brittle nature of PLA triacetin was tested as plasticizer for PLA and PLA/flax composites in order to improve the impact properties. The studied composite materials were manufactured with a twin-screw extruder having a flax fibre content of 30 and 40 wt.%. The extruded compound was compression moulded to test samples. The processing and material properties have been studied and compared to the more commonly used polypropylene flax fibre composites (PP/flax). Preliminary results show that the mechanical properties of PLA and flax fibre composites are promising. The composite strength is about 50% better compared to similar PP/flax fibre composites, which are used today in many automotive panels. The addition of plasticizer does not show any positive effect on the impact strength of the composites. The study of interfacial adhesion shows that adhesion needs to be improved to optimise the mechanical properties of the PLA/flax composites. The PLA/flax composites did not show any difficulties in the extrusion and compression moulding processes and they can be processed in a similar way as PP based composites. © 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 27.
    Olsson, R.
    et al.
    Swedish Defence Res. Agency.
    Iwarsson, J.
    Swedish Defence Res. Agency.
    Melin, L.G.
    Swedish Defence Res. Agency.
    Sjögren, Anders
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Solti, J.
    Swedish Defence Res. Agency.
    Experiments and analysis of laminates with artificial damage2003In: Composites Science And Technology, ISSN 0266-3538, E-ISSN 1879-1050, Vol. 63, no 2, p. 199-209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quasi-isotropic carbon/epoxy laminates with holes, polymer plugs and cut fibres are studied experimentally and analytically. Strain fields are measured using digital speckle photography. The results are used to validate an inverse method, where elastic properties of inclusions are determined by matching computed and measured displacements. Tensile and compressive strength is measured and the applicability of notch failure criteria to soft inclusions is examined. Available closed form solutions agree well with measured strains. The elastic properties predicted by the inverse method are in fairly good agreement with data from coupon tests although predictions are sensitive to measuring errors. The laminate toughness in compression was higher than in tension, as expected from the di.erent failure mechanisms (fibre kinking versus fibre tearing). Laminates with inclusions were tougher than laminates with holes, which may indicate that inclusions restrain in-plane fibre kinking. Higher toughness was reflected in larger characteristic lengths. © 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 28.
    Olsson, Robin
    RISE, Swerea, SICOMP.
    A survey of test methods for multiaxial and out-of-plane strength of composite laminates2011In: Composites Science And Technology, ISSN 0266-3538, E-ISSN 1879-1050, Vol. 71, no 6, p. 773-783Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This review paper gives an overview of test methods for multiaxial and out-of-plane strength of composite laminates, with special consideration of non-crimp fabrics (NCF) and other textile systems. Tubular and cruciform specimens can provide arbitrary in-plane loading, while off-axis and angle-ply specimens provide specific biaxial loadings. Tensile and compressive out-of-plane strength may be determined by axial loading of specimens with a waisted gauge section, while bending of curved specimens allow determination of the out-of-plane tensile strength. Tests suited for out-of-plane shear strength include the short beam shear test, the inclined double notch test and the inclined waisted specimen. Testing of arbitrary tri-axial stress states using tubular or cruciform specimens with superimposed through-the-thickness loading is highly complex and significant problems have been reported in achieving the intended stress states and failure modes. Specific tri-axial stress states can be obtained by uniaxial loading of specimens with constrained expansion, as in the die channel test. 

  • 29.
    Singh, Vivekendra
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Larsson, Ragnar
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Olsson, Robin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Marklund, Erik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    A micromechanics based model for rate dependent compression loaded unidirectional composites2023In: Composites Science And Technology, ISSN 0266-3538, E-ISSN 1879-1050, Vol. 232, article id 109821Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Strain-rate effects in a unidirectional non-crimp fabric carbon/epoxy composite are addressed. To allow for kink-band formation including strain-rate effects and damage in such composites, the paper advances a recent model focused on compression loading at small off-axis angles. The model is based on computational homogenization with a subscale represented by matrix and fibre constituents at finite deformation. The fibre constituent is assumed to be elastic transversely isotropic and the matrix is viscoelastic–viscoplastic with damage degradation. Novel model improvements of special importance to small off-axis loading relate to the isostress formulation of the homogenized response in transverse shear. In this context, an enhanced homogenized elastic response is proposed based on Halpin–Tsai corrections to account for the nonuniform stress distribution on the microscale. The model captures the strongly rate sensitive kink-band formation due to localized matrix shearing and fibre rotation, confirming the experimentally observed increase in compressive strength for high strain rates. © 2022 The Author(s)

  • 30.
    Toll, Staffan
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Second order shear lag theory2012In: Composites Science And Technology, ISSN 0266-3538, E-ISSN 1879-1050, Vol. 72, no 12, p. 1313-1317Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The standard shear lag theory for elastic aligned short-fibre composites is extended to allow for a gradient of overall strain. The result is a one-dimensional strain gradient theory of the Toupin-Mindlin type. All parameters are the same as in the standard theory, and in the limits of weak strain gradients, large fibre aspect ratios or low elastic modulus ratios, the standard theory is recovered. The gradient effect is illustrated by a simple one-dimensional boundary value problem: a vertical composite rod fixed at both ends and loaded by gravity. The fibre length significantly affects the solution when the fibres are rigid and their length is near the rod length; but otherwise the effect is weak. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 31.
    Wysocki, Maciej
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP.
    Toll, S.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Larsson, R.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Press forming of commingled yarn based composites: The preform contribution2007In: Composites Science And Technology, ISSN 0266-3538, E-ISSN 1879-1050, Vol. 67, p. 515-524Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The process of press forming commingled yarn composites is studied and modelled based on the theory of porous media. Two sub processes are considered: (1) the wetting and compaction of individual bundles and (2) the overall preform deformation. An experimental method is introduced, to study these two sub processes separately. The experiment suppresses the fluid pressure build-up, and thus the process of wetting and bundle compaction, by draining the resin into a porous wall. In consequence, the measured response consists only of the preform contribution. Finally, the total response is simulated and tested against independent consolidation experiments. It was demonstrated that the present approach gives better predictions compared to models based on the bundle response only. © 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 32.
    Yücel, Yasemin
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Adolfsson, Erik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Dykhoff, Henrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Pettersson, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production.
    Trey, Stacy
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Wysocki, Maciej
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Zenkert, D.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wreland Lindström, R.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Powder-impregnated carbon fibers with lithium iron phosphate as positive electrodes in structural batteries2023In: Composites Science And Technology, ISSN 0266-3538, E-ISSN 1879-1050, Vol. 241, article id 110153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A structural battery is a multifunctional battery that can carry a load while storing energy. Structural batteries have been a cutting-edge research focus in the last decade and are mainly based on polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-carbon fibers (CFs). In this work, positive electrodes based on PAN-carbon fibers were manufactured with powder impregnation (siphon impregnation) technique using a water-based slurry containing lithium iron phosphate (LFP) as the active electrode material and the water-soluble binder polyethylene glycol (PEG). Different coating compositions, electrode-drying temperatures, and coating parameters were investigated to optimize the coating uniformity and the electrochemical performances. Scanning electron microscopy results showed that the electrode materials coat the CFs uniformly, conformably, and individually. Electrochemical characterization of pouch cells shows that the electrodes containing 6 wt% PEG dried at 140 °C have the best battery performance, delivering a first discharge capacity of 151 mAh g−1 and capacity retention higher than 80% after 100 cycles. Moreover, excellent capacity reversibility was achieved when the electrodes were cycled at multiple C-rates attesting to their stability. The results demonstrate that CFs perform excellently as current collectors in positive electrodes. 

  • 33.
    Yücel, Yasemin Duygu
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Adolfsson, Erik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Dykhoff, Henrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Pettersson, Jocke
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Trey, Stacy
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Wysocki, Maciej
    Widenkvist Zetterström, Erika
    Graphmatech AB, Sweden.
    Zenkert, Dan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wreland Lindström, Rakel
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Lindbergh, Goran
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Enhancing structural battery performance: Investigating the role of conductive carbon additives in LiFePO4-Impregnated carbon fiber electrodes2024In: Composites Science And Technology, ISSN 0266-3538, E-ISSN 1879-1050, Vol. 251, article id 110571Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study centers on investigating the influence of conductive additives, carbon black (Super P) and graphene, within the context of LiFePO4 (LFP)-impregnated carbon fibers (CFs) produced using the powder impregnation method. The performance of these additives was subject to an electrochemical evaluation. The findings reveal that there are no substantial disparities between the two additives at lower cycling rates, highlighting their adaptability in conventional energy storage scenarios. However, as cycling rates increase, graphene emerges as the better performer. At a rate of 1.5C in a half-cell versus lithium, electrodes containing graphene exhibited a discharge capacity of 83 mAhgLFP−1; those with Super P and without any additional conductive additive showed a capacity of 65 mAhgLFP−1 and 48 mAhgLFP−1, respectively. This distinction is attributed to the structural and conductivity advantages inherent to graphene, showing its potential to enhance the electrochemical performance of structural batteries. Furthermore, LFP-impregnated CFs were evaluated in full cells versus pristine CFs, yielding relatively similar results, though with a slightly improved outcome observed with the graphene additive. These results provide valuable insights into the role of conductive additives in structural batteries and their responsiveness to varying operational conditions, underlining the potential for versatile energy storage solutions. © 2024 The Authors

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