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  • 1.
    Ecco, L. G.
    et al.
    University of Trento, Italy.
    Fedel, M.
    University of Trento, Italy.
    Ahniyaz, Anwar
    Deflorian, F.
    University of Trento, Italy.
    Influence of polyaniline and cerium oxide nanoparticles on the corrosion protection properties of alkyd coating2014In: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 77, no 12, p. 2031-2038Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A study of the anticorrosive properties of an alkyd coating loaded with polyaniline and cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles is presented in this paper. Investigated by means of Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy and accelerated salt spray test, the blank alkyd coating has been loaded with PAni, ceria nanoparticles and the combination of both with 1.0 wt.% content. Through the monitoring of open circuit potential, an ennoblement effect was detected for the systems in the presence of a mild solution. Moreover, EIS evolution of the alkyd containing polyaniline revealed a stable performance of the system in the presence of sulphate solution, whereas for those containing ceria nanoparticles a considerable raise in the |Z|0.015 Hz, from 107 to 108 Ω cm2 in the course of 24 h of immersion, an increasing trend of the charge transfer resistance during the equivalent period of exposure was observed. Furthermore, the anticorrosive contribution given by the ceria nanoparticlesis supported by the accelerated salt spray test which revealed lower delamination rates. In the case of the alkyd loaded with polyaniline and ceria nanoparticles simultaneously the evidences are less perceived by means of electrochemical analysis, however, from salt spray tests it can be seen that the influence of the mixture is promising at a certain extent.

  • 2.
    Hellgren, A-C
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Probing polymer interdiffusion in carboxylated latices with force modulation atomic force microscopy1998In: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 34, p. 91-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interdiffusion of polymer chains between latex particles is a prerequisite for the development of good mechanical strength and homogeneity in a latex film. This process may be retarded in carboxylated latices if the particles are surrounded by a hard cell wall consisting of ionoc groups on the particle surface. The presence of an ionic cell wall can be indirectly detected by atomic force microscopy (AFM) because surfactant migration to the film/air interface is retarded compared with a non-ionic case. In this paper we have used force modulation atomic force microscopy to directly probe the relative polymer density across the film surface during annealing thereby qualitatively monitoring the interdiffusion process. The applicability of this method to study polymer interdiffusion will be discussed.

  • 3.
    Hellgren, A-C
    et al.
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Wallin, M
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Weissenborn, P
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Glover, PM
    McDonald, PJ
    Keddie, JL
    New techniques for determining the extent of crosslinking in coatings2001In: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 43, p. 85-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Crosslinking reactions in latex and alkyd systems offer an attractive way to achieve film formation at low temperatures while also achieving a final hard coating. There is a strong need for techniques to characterise the extent of crosslinking as a function of time and depth in this type of coating. Here magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (using a magnet specifically designed for coatings) and a quartz crystal microbalance with energy dissipation are both used as non-invasive techniques for this purpose. The crosslinking in alkyd films containing a cobalt drier is found to be non-uniform with depth. In a latex, crosslinking depth profiles are likewise non-uniform, most likely as a result of oxygen inhibition of the initiator

  • 4. Hellgren, A-C
    et al.
    Weissenborn, P
    Holmberg, K
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Surfactants in water-borne paints1999In: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 35, p. 79-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main uses of surfactants in water-borne coatings are discussed. Special attention is put on the use of surfactants in latex polymerization and in post-emulsification of binders, such as alkyd resins. The advantage of polymerizable surfactants as emulsifier is pointed out and the use of atomic force microscopy (AFM) to observe differences in film properties between formulations based on polymerizable surfactants and on conventional surfactants is illustrated. The paper further discusses the problem of competitive adsorption between surfactants and between surfactant and associative thickener in paint formulations.

  • 5.
    Holmberg, K
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet. Berol Nobel, Sweden.
    Polymerizable surfactants1992In: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 20, p. 325-337Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many applications surfactants are needed at one stage but unwanted at a later stage. For instance, surfactants are needed in paints as emulsifiers, dispersants and wetting agents. In the dried film the surfactant migrates to the surface and impairs properties such as hardness and water resistance. A way to overcome these problems is to use a surfactant that can polymerize, either through homopolymerization or by reaction with the binder. This paper discusses the design of polymerizable surfactants and demonstrates their applicability in selected applications, such as alkyd emulsions, micro-emulsions of alkyds, emulsion polymerization and surface modification. Surface modification includes the polymerization of a monolayer adsorbed from aqueous solution and the crosslinking of surfactants that have migrated to the surface of a lacquer film.

  • 6. Jafarzadeh, Shadi
    et al.
    Adhikari, Arindam
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Sundall, Per-Erik
    Pan, Jinshan
    Study of PANI-MeSA conducting polymer dispersed in UV-curing polyester acrylate on galvanized steel as corrosion protection coating2011In: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 70, no 2-3, p. 108-115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polyaniline (PANI) was synthesized by chemical oxidative polymerization using methane sulfonic acid (MeSA) as dopant and ammonium peroxodisulfate as oxidizer. Coatings of PANI-MeSA dispersed in polyester acrylate resin were applied on galvanized steel and UV-cured. The UV-curing resin base was studied to provide high performance and environmental friendly coating system. Morphology and mechanical properties of the coatings were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and microindentation hardness tests. Long-term open-circuit potential (OCP) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements were performed in 3 wt.% NaCl solution. SEM images show dispersion of the PANI particles in the coating, and electrochemical studies show long term active anodic ennoblement introduced to the protective system in the presence of PAN!, shifting OCP value to nobler region. The changes in impedance value of the system during long-term exposure to the electrolyte give useful information about the PANI mechanism of action in corrosion protection and indicate the redox action (changing of states) of PANI under the defects healing process.

  • 7.
    Jafarzadeh, Shadi
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Claesson, Per M.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Sundell, Per-Erik
    SSAB EMEA AB, Sweden.
    Tyrode, Eric
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Pan, Jinshan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Active corrosion protection by conductive composites of polyaniline in a UV-cured polyester acrylate coating2016In: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 90, p. 154-162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polyaniline doped with phosphoric acid (PANI-PA) was synthesized and characterized by impedance and Raman spectroscopy. Exposure to UV-light resulted in a slight decrease in the PANI's electrical conductivity and no significant change in the oxidation state (of an emeraldine salt). Composite coatings containing 0, 1, 3 and 5 wt.% PANI-PA in a UV-curable polyester acrylate (PEA) resin were prepared and applied on polished carbon steel. Closely packed PANI-PA particles of several tens of nanometers were observed inside the composite coating by scanning electron microscopy, and a connected conductive network across the film was detected by Peak Force TUNA atomic force microscopy. The evolution of open circuit potential and impedance data during long-term exposure to 3 wt.% NaCl electrolyte revealed that the short-term barrier-type corrosion protection provided by the insulating PEA coating can be turned into a long-term and active protection by addition of as little as 1 wt.% PANI-PA to the formulation. Stable ennoblement in the corrosive media was observed for the coatings containing conducting polymer up to 3 wt.%. However, higher content of PANI-PA (5 wt.%) led to poorer protective properties, probably due to the hydrophilicity of PANI-PA facilitating water transport in the coating and the presence of potentially weaker spots in the film. An iron oxide layer was found to fully cover the metal surface beneath the coatings containing PANI-PA after final failure observed by electrochemical testing.

  • 8.
    Karlsson, Mikael
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Abbas, Zareen
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bordes, Romain
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Cao, Yu
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Larsson, Anders
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation.
    Rolland, Antonin
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Taylor, Phil
    AkzoNobel Decorative Paints, UK.
    Steenari, Britt-Marie
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Surface properties of recycled titanium oxide recovered from paint waste2018In: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 125, p. 279-286Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aluminium oxide coated rutile pigment was extracted from a paint matrix by means of a thermal recycling process. The objective was to investigate the effect of the recycling process on the surface properties of the pigment. The pigment was analysed using powder x-ray diffraction (XRD), surface area measurements (BET), laser diffraction for particle size analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) before and after the recycling process. Investigations on the zeta potential and the surface charge were performed as well. It was concluded that the rutile crystalline core and the aluminium oxide coating of the pigment were still intact after the recycling process. The particle size distribution of the recycled pigment was slightly broader compared to the virgin pigment. The measured magnitude in zeta potential of the recycled pigment was lower than for the virgin pigment. This difference is thought to be caused by alteration in the surface hydroxyl concentration. Surface charge titrations showed differences between the virgin and the recycled pigment at alkaline pH and at low salt concentrations.

  • 9.
    Li, Jing.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ecco, Luiz
    University of Trento, Italy.
    Ahniyaz, Anwar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Pan, Jinshan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, School .
    Probing electrochemical mechanism of polyaniline and CeO 2 nanoparticles in alkyd coating with in-situ electrochemical-AFM and IRAS2019In: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 132, p. 399-408Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The corrosion protection and electrochemical mechanism of solvent-borne alkyd composite coating containing 1.0 wt.% polyaniline (PANI) and 1.0 wt.% CeO 2 nanoparticles (NPs) for carbon steel in 3.0 wt.% NaCl solution were investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ex-situ, in-situ and electrochemical controlled (EC) atomic force microscopy (AFM), open circuit potential (OCP) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) methods. The SEM and ex-situ AFM results revealed the micro- and nanostructure of the composite coating. The in-situ sequential AFM images and line profiling analysis indicated electrochemical activity of the NPs and a high stability of the composite coating in NaCl solution. The results of EC-AFM combined with cyclic voltammetry (CV) demonstrated volume change of the PANI NPs upon reduction and oxidation at certain applied potentials on the coating. The redox reactions between the different forms of PANI and the effect of the CeO 2 NPs on the polymerization of the composite polymer were further confirmed by infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRAS). The OCP and EIS results revealed that the composite coating provided an improved corrosion protection for carbon steel within several days of exposure, which was attributed to the barrier protection of CeO 2 NPs and the passivation ability of PANI.

  • 10. Molenaar, F
    et al.
    Svanholm, T
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Toussaint, A
    Rheological behaviour of latexes in-can and during film drying1997In: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 30, p. 141-158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In-can rheology was studied for sixteen model acrylate laticies and a commercial vinyl/acrylate copolymer latex. Following the model of Quemada the shear thinning behaviour, the effects of latex neutralisation and the copolymer composition could be described. Furthermore, the rheological effects of coalescing agents and thickeners (a cellulose and hydrophobically modified types thereof (HEC and HMEC), as well as associative urethanes (HEUR)) were studied. A special apparatus (the TNO Filmviscometer) was shown to be suitable to follow the rheological changes during drying of latex films. Effects of binder type, coalescent and thickener were investigated. The rheological effects of coalescents during drying could be related to the evaporation kinetics and latex particle swelling, while the effects of thickeners reflect the initial in-can rheology. The rheological changes during drying correlate to sagging and levelling behaviour and to the adsorption behaviour of associatice thickeners onto latex particles.

  • 11.
    Nazarov, Andrej
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Le Bozec, Nathalie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Assessment of steel corrosion and deadhesion of epoxy barrier paint by scanning Kelvin probe2018In: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 114, p. 123-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Marine paints are complex polymeric systems containing layers of different nature that significantly delay the corrosion failures. In order to obtain a rapid ranking in the corrosion protection provided by the paints, it is important to apply sensitive and non-invasive methods for early detection of under paint corrosion. Scanning Kelvin Probe (SKP) was used to determine the mechanism(s) of corrosion and paint de-adhesion. This technique is sensitive to the metal-polymer interface and gives a quick assessment of cathodic delamination or anodic undermining. Depending on the type of exposure the mode of corrosion de-adhesion was evaluated and compared with SKP data obtained under polarization experiments by impressed current in aqueous electrolyte. After exposure, pull off test and Scanning Electron Microscopy – Energy Dispersive X ray Spectrometry (SEM-EDX technique) were applied to determine the paint adhesion stability around the defect and to analyse the steel-paint interface. 

  • 12.
    Nazarov, Andrej
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Le Bozec, Nathalie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Scanning Kelvin Probe assessment of steel corrosion protection by marine paints containing Zn-rich primer2018In: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 125, p. 61-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Zinc rich primers provide corrosion protection of steel constructions under heavy corrosive conditions such as offshore environments. In general, the paint contains different polymeric layers including the zinc-rich primer with a total thickness larger than 00 μm that significantly delays the degradation of the paint and the observation of corrosion failures. For prediction of corrosion failure and a quick ranking of paint systems, a new sensitive and non-invasive method for assessment has to be developed. Two commercial coatings with different corrosion protection ability were selected for the study. Scanning Kelvin Probe (SKP) was used to determine the sacrificial protection of steel by multilayer paint systems containing zinc rich primer during exposure to accelerated corrosion tests under atmospheric or under immersed conditions. Scanning Electron Microscopy - Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometer (SEM-EDX) techniques were applied to analyse the cross sections after exposure. It is shown that SKP could quickly access the level of cathodic protection of the steel substrate underneath of industrial thick marine paints.

  • 13.
    Ovaska, Sami-Seppo
    et al.
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland.
    Hiltunen, Salla
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland.
    Ernstsson, Marie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Schuster, Erich
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Structure Design.
    Altskär, Annika
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Structure Design.
    Backfolk, Kaj
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland.
    Characterization of rapeseed oil/coconut oil mixtures and their penetration into hydroxypropylated-starch-based barrier coatings containing an oleophilic mineral2016In: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 101, p. 569-576Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A study was conducted that demonstrated that the blending of edible oils leads to changes in surface tension, thermal properties, viscosity, and oil penetration times through a barrier-coated paperboard. The results emphasize the significance of testing the oil and grease resistance (OGR) oil blends in order-to verify the suitability of the packaging material for real-life end-use applications. The results of the OGR determinations suggest that hydroxypropylated-starch-based composite coatings containing an oleophilic high aspect ratio mineral can be tailored for food shaving different fatty acid compositions by varying the pigmentation level. Compared to standard OGR tests, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM)-based techniques make it possible to evaluate the oil penetration time and its diffusion behavior very accurately, both inside the coating layer and in the bulk matrix. It was found that, at room temperature, coconut oil tends to crystallize inside the substrate, inducing swelling of the coating layer, which probably has an influence on the physicomechanical properties of the packaging material.

  • 14.
    Prosek, Tomas
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, KIMAB.
    Nazarov, Andrej
    RISE, Swerea, KIMAB.
    Le Gac, Anne
    RISE, Swerea, KIMAB.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE, Swerea, KIMAB.
    Coil-coated Zn-Mg and Zn-Al-Mg: Effect of climatic parameters on the corrosion at cut edges2015In: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 83, p. 26-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied the effect of temperature, wet/dry cycling, pH, and the type and concentration of the corrosion activator on cut edge corrosion of painted Zn-15Mg and Zn-1.5Al-1.5Mg coated steel. In most accelerated tests, paint delamination and red rust formation were reduced compared to hot dip galvanised steel (HDG), and Zn-15Mg outperformed Zn-1.5Al-1.5Mg; however, Zn-1.5Al-1.5Mg showed better results when exposed outdoors. The alloyed materials were particularly resistant when HDG was prone to elevated corrosion, i.e. under permanent wetness, at higher temperatures, with high chloride loadings and in the presence of sulphate. Oxygen reduction on steel cut edges was inhibited by the alloying elements.

  • 15.
    Prosek, Tomas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Nazarov, Andrej
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Olivier, Marie Georges Marjorie
    Polytechnique de Mons, Belgium.
    Vandermiers, Catherine
    Polytechnique de Mons, Belgium.
    Koberg, Dorothe
    BASF Coatings AG, Germany.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    The role of stress and topcoat properties in blistering of coil-coated materials2010In: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 68, no 4, p. 328-333Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of topcoat properties on the tendency of painted materials to blistering was studied. Six topcoats were applied on identical panels of hot-dip galvanized steel painted with a polyester primer. The tendency to blistering was assessed under the conditions of permanent condensation in a Q-panel condensation test at 60 °C. Internal tensile stress and stress development in organic coatings during temperature and relative humidity cycling were investigated by the cantilever curvature method. Although blisters originated from the metal/polymer interface, the extent of blistering was strongly influenced by the topcoat. Available data suggest that it may increase with the coating thickness, glass transition temperature (Tg) and thermal expansion properties. Connection was found between the internal tensile stress formed in topcoats during the paint film preparation and the extent of blistering. A hypothesis that stress-assisted interfacial bond hydrolysis was responsible for blister initiation is proposed. Other experiments suggested that local paint buckling over non-adherent sites can be caused by plastic deformation of the paint due to relief of compressive stress generated at elevated temperature or by ingress of water.

  • 16.
    Prosek, Tomas
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, KIMAB.
    Nazarov, Andrej
    RISE, Swerea, KIMAB.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE, Swerea, KIMAB.
    Role of steel and zinc coating thickness in cut edge corrosion of coil coated materials in atmospheric weathering conditions; Part 2: Field data and model2016In: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 101, p. 45-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Paint delamination from cut edges of model coil coated hot dip galvanized materials exposed at a marine test site for 5 years increased with steel thickness and decreased with zinc coating thickness. It was larger in sheltered locations than for openly exposed cut edges whereas red rust protection was more efficient on sheltered edges due to higher electric conductivity of deposits. The rate of paint delamination increased or decreased in time depending on the relative amount of zinc ions available for formation of the protective film on steel controlled by the initial steel substrate and zinc coating thicknesses. 

  • 17.
    Prosek, Tomas
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, KIMAB.
    Nazarov, Andrej
    RISE, Swerea, KIMAB.
    Xue, HB
    Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal.
    Lamaka, S.
    Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal; Institute of Materials Research, Germany.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE, Swerea, KIMAB.
    Role of steel and zinc coating thickness in cut edge corrosion of coil coated materials in atmospheric weathering conditions; Part 1: Laboratory study2016In: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 99, p. 356-364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cathode surface area and its ability to reduce oxygen controlled the rate of zinc dissolution and paint delamination from cut edges of hot dip galvanised steel sheets. Zinc corrosion products deposited on steel in atmospheric exposure conditions inhibited oxygen reduction decreasing galvanic current and zinc dissolution and paint delamination. The opposite effect was observed for iron corrosion products. The initial steel substrate and zinc coating thicknesses affected the availability of zinc ions for formation of the protective film.

  • 18.
    Rentzhog, M
    et al.
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Fogden, A
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Print quality and resistance for water-based flexography on polymer-coated boards: Dependence on ink formulation and substrate pretreatment2006In: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 57, p. 183-194Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Svanholm, T
    et al.
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Kronberg, B
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Molenaar, F
    Adsorption studies of associative interactions between thickener and pigment particles1997In: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 30, p. 167-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adsorption of a HEUR thickener and a HMHEC thickener have been studied on two titanium dioxide pigment grades with and without dispersant previously adsorbed. One of the pigments had an acidic surface, mainly silica, and the other a more basic alumina/zirconia surface. Both associative thickeners adsorbed on pigments having a partially hydrophobic (alpha-olefinic maleic acid co-polymer) dispersant preadsorbed on the surface. No adsorption takes place when sodiumhexametaphosphate, a highly charged low molecular weight inorganic dispersant, was used. The alpha-olefinic-maleic acid co-polymer dispersant is shown to adsorb on a negatively charged silica surface. This is assigned to hydrogen bonding between unionised carboxylic groups from the dispersant and oxide ions on the pigment surface.

  • 20.
    Svanholm, T
    et al.
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Molenaar, F
    Toussaint, A
    Associative thickeners: their adsorption behaviour onto latexes and the rheology of their solutions1997In: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 30, p. 159-165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interaction between an associative thickeners in solution and an anionic surfactant has been studied with rheology and surface tension measurements. Both a HEUR thickener and low molecular weight HMHEC thickener interacted strongly with the surfactant. The addition of surfactant leads in both cases to a reinforced transient network at low and moderate levels of surfactant, whereas the structure is destroyed at higher levels. The HMHEC thickener was found more sensitive to high surfactant concentrations than the HEUR one. Surface tension measurements are complementary to the rheology studies and showed hydrophobic interaction between HEUR thickener and surfactant to be dominant over polyethylene oxide - surfactant interaction. Adsorption of thickener to latex was studied with monitoring of isotherms from depletion concentration, electrokinetic measurements and ellipsometry. The HEUR thickener used was found to adsorb more strongly to the latex than the surfactant in contrast to the HMHEC thickener.

  • 21.
    Tondi, Gianluca
    et al.
    Salzburg University of Applied Sciences, Austria.
    Johansson, Mats
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Leijonmarck, Simon
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Trey, Stacy
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Tannin based foams modified to be semi-conductive: Synthesis and characterization2015In: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 78, p. 488-493Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to modify highly insulative and lightweight biorenewable foam thermosets to be semi-conductive for primarily building material applications. The foams were formed and then post-treated with in-situ polymerization of polyaniline, both doped and undoped, adsorbing and possibly absorbing (observed by SEM-EDX) to the foam structure at levels of 100–120 wt%.

    The modified tannin foams were shown to be semi-conductive in comparison to the highly insulative structure prior to polyaniline modification. While the 50% protonated polyaniline modified foams, or doped foams, had a higher conductivity than the undoped polyaniline modified foams, the acid used in fabrication of the foams provided some degree of conductivity to the undoped PANI modified foams. Moreover, the modified foams had an increased volume of 15% after modification, were more sensitive to moisture, and the polyaniline did not affect the degradation temperature of the foams.

  • 22. van Hamersveld, EMS
    et al.
    van Es, JJGS
    German, AL
    Cuperus, FP
    Weissenborn, PK
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Hellgren, A-C
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Oil-acrylic hybrid latexes as binders for water-borne coatings1999In: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 35, p. 235-246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The combination of the characteristics of oil, or alkyd, emulsions and acrylic latexes in a waterborne binder has been the object of various studies in the past. Strategies for combining the positive properties of alkyds, e.g. autoxidative curing, gloss and penetration in wood, with the fast drying and gloss and color retention properties of acrylic latexes have mainly been directed towards the modification of the alkyd with an acrylate during alkyd synthesis followed by emulsification. This paper describes the preparation and application of oil-acrylic hybrid latexes as binders for waterborne coatings. The hybrid latexes were prepared using hydroperoxidized triglycerides as initiators for the mini-emulsion polymerization of acrylates in an Fe(II)/EDTA/SFS redox system, The particle morphology of-hybrids initiated by fatty-acid hydroperoxides was compared with tert-butyl hydroperoxide-initiated systems. Cryo-TEM analysis indicated that, whereas tert-butyl hydroperoxide initiation resulted in the formation of heterogeneous particles, fatty-acid hydroperoxide-initiated hybrid particles showed no intra-particle heterogeneity. an AFM study of the film formation process of the oil/alkyd-acrylic hybrid latexes showed that phase separation occurred between the oil and the acrylic phases upon drying, resulting in films that consist of deformed acrylic particles embedded in a continuous matrix of oil. This results in a very smooth surface of the film.

  • 23.
    Weissenborn, PK
    et al.
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Motiejauskaite, A
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Emulsification, drying and film formation of alkyd emulsions2000In: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 40, p. 253-266Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method was developed and optimised for the emulsification of a conventional short oil alkyd resin which was solid at room temperature. The method was based on the emulsion inversion point (EIP) method whereby hot water (90°C) was added to molten alkyd resin (90°C) containing the emulsifier. Under slow mixing and addition of water, a point was reached where the emulsion instantaneously phase inverted from a water in oil emulsion (W/O) to an oil in water emulsion (O/W). Using optimum conditions, emulsions with droplet of diameters less than 0.8 m were obtained. The drying and film formation of long oil alkyd emulsions were investigated with emphasis on loss of dry upon storage. The main reason for loss of dry was adsorption of the cobalt (drier) on pigment surfaces as a precipitated hydroxide. Titanium dioxides with alumina surface treatment and organic pigments were most detrimental to drying. Acrylate- and phosphate-based dispersants also deactivated cobalt presumably due to complexation and precipitation of cobalt. Emulsions prepared with an emulsifiable cobalt drier containing 2,2'-bipyridyl (complexing agent for cobalt) showed the best resistance to loss of dry. Films formed from the emulsions showed that surfactant migrated to the film surface which when washed with water leaves holes or pits in film. The pits were arranged in a hexagonal pattern, characteristic of Bénard cells which form due to interfacial tension gradients generated in the film during evaporation of water.

  • 24.
    Öhman, Maria
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Persson, Dan
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    Jacobsson, Dan
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea KIMAB.
    In situ studies of conversion coated zinc/polymer surfaces during exposure to corrosive conditions2011In: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 70, no 1, p. 16-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work investigates the hidden interface between a conversion-coated zinc surface and a polymer coating upon exposure to an electrolyte by simultaneous in situ ATR-FTIR and EIS. Various system properties were distinguished, such as the ingress of electrolyte constituents, and an active process of water-induced alterations of the conversion layer. The interface between a polymer film and a surface treated metal surface is of considerable fundamental and technical interest in many areas of application, and the results obtained open up the use of this method for a wide range of important applications. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 25. Östberg, G
    et al.
    Huldén, M
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Bergenståhl, B
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Holmberg, K
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Alkyd emulsions1994In: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 24, p. 281-297Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Various aspects of alkyd emulsion technology have been investigated. Firstly, the influence of alkyd oil length, acid value and hydroxyl number, as well as the type of surfactant used as emulsifier, on shear stability of alkyds emulsions have been studied. It was found that the acid value was the most important alkyd parameter, the stability increasing with increasing oil length. It is also shown that anionic surfactants give emulsions with small droplet sizes down at lower concentrations than nonionics. Secondly, polymerizable nonionic surfactants have been tested as emulsifiers and compared with conventional surfactants of the same HLB. It was found that surfactants capable of participating in the autoxidative curing process give faster drying and improved film hardness compared with non-reactive surfactants. Thirdly, the distribution of driers between the alkyd phase and the water phase has been investigated. It was found that low pH and the use of hydrophilic anionic surfactants, such as SDS, favour partitioning of cobalt into the aqueous phase which is unfavourable with respect to drying properties.

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