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  • 1.
    Alipour, Yousef
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Talus, Annika
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Henderson, Pamela
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Vattenfall AB, Sweden.
    Norling, Rikard
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    The effect of co-firing sewage sludge with used wood on the corrosion of an FeCrAl alloy and a nickel-based alloy in the furnace region2015In: Fuel processing technology, ISSN 0378-3820, E-ISSN 1873-7188, Vol. 138, p. 805-813Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of digested sewage sludge as a fuel additive to reduce corrosion of furnace walls has been studied. The nickel base alloy Alloy 625 and the iron-chromium-aluminium alloy Kanthal APMT™ were exposed for 14.25. h at the furnace wall in a power boiler burning 100% used (also known as waste or recycled) wood. The test was then repeated with the addition of sewage sludge to the waste wood. The samples were chemically analysed and thermodynamically modelled and the corrosion mechanisms were investigated. The results showed that the co-firing of sewage sludge with recycled wood leads to a reduction in the corrosion. Attack by a potassium-lead combination appeared to be the main corrosion mechanism in Alloy 625 during waste wood combustion, while attack by alkali chloride was found to be dominant in APMT alloy.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Viktor
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Soleimanisalim, Amir H
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Kong, Xiangrui
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hildor, Fredrik
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Leion, Henrik
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Mattisson, Tobias
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Jan B.C.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Alkali-wall interactions in a laboratory-scale reactor for chemical looping combustion studies2021In: Fuel processing technology, ISSN 0378-3820, E-ISSN 1873-7188, Vol. 217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alkali metal-containing compounds are readily released during thermal conversion of solid fuels, and may have both detrimental and beneficial effects on chemical looping combustion. Here, we characterize alkali interactions with the inner walls of a laboratory-scale reactor under oxidizing, reducing and inert conditions at temperatures up to 900 °C. KCl aerosol particles are continuously introduced to the stainless steel reactor and the alkali concentration is measured on-line with a surface ionization detector. Aerosol particles evaporate at temperatures above 500 °C and KCl molecules rapidly diffuse to the reactor wall. Up to 92% of the alkali reaching the wall below 700 °C remains adsorbed, while re-evaporation is important at higher temperatures, where up to 74% remains adsorbed. Transient changes in alkali concentration are observed during repeated redox cycles, which are associated with changes in chemical composition of the wall material. Metal oxides on the reactor wall are partially depleted under reducing conditions, which allow for the formation of a new potassium-rich phase that is stable in a reducing atmosphere, but not under inert conditions. The observed wall effects are concluded to be extensive and include major transient effects depending on gas composition, and the implications for laboratory studies and improved experimental methodology are discussed. 

  • 3.
    Andersson, Viktor
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Soleimanisalim, Amir H
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Kong, Xiangrui
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Leion, Henrik
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Mattisson, Tobias
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Jan B.C.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Alkali interactions with a calcium manganite oxygen carrier used in chemical looping combustion2022In: Fuel processing technology, ISSN 0378-3820, E-ISSN 1873-7188, Vol. 227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemical-Looping Combustion (CLC) of biofuels is a promising technology for cost-efficient CO2 separation and can lead to negative CO2 emissions when combined with carbon capture and storage. A potential challenge in developing CLC technology is the effects of alkali metal-containing compounds released during fuel conversion. This study investigates the interactions between alkali and an oxygen carrier (OC), CaMn0.775Ti0.125Mg0.1O3-δ, to better understand the fate of alkali in CLC. A laboratory-scale fluidized bed reactor is operated at 800–900 °C in oxidizing, reducing and inert atmospheres to mimic CLC conditions. Alkali is fed to the reactor as aerosol KCl particles, and alkali in the exhaust is measured online with a surface ionization detector. The alkali concentration changes with gas environment, temperature, and alkali loading, and the concentration profile has excellent reproducibility over repeated redox cycles. Alkali-OC interactions are dominated by alkali uptake under most conditions, except for a release during OC reduction. Uptake is significant during stable reducing conditions, and is limited under oxidizing conditions. The total uptake during a redox cycle is favored by a high alkali loading, while the influence of temperature is weak. The implications for the understanding of alkali behavior in CLC and further development are discussed. 

  • 4.
    Berghel, Jonas
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Frodeson, Stefan
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Granström, Karin Maria
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Renström, Roger
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Ståhl, Magnus
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Nordgren, Daniel
    RISE, Innventia.
    Tomani, Per E.
    RISE, Innventia.
    The effects of kraft lignin additives on wood fuel pellet quality, energy use and shelf life2013In: Fuel processing technology, ISSN 0378-3820, E-ISSN 1873-7188, p. 64-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2011, the total consumption of pellets in Sweden amounted to 1.9 million tons, which represents an energy value of 9 TWh. The pellets are used in large-scale as well as in small-scale applications, and increased demands on pellet quality are likely to force pellet producers to improve on the pellet properties. One way of increasing pellet quality is by using additives. The purpose of this article, therefore, is to examine kraft lignin as an additive. Pellets were produced in a small industrial pellet press located at Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden, and 1-4% of kraft lignin was added to the pellets. The results indicate that the addition of an increased amount of kraft lignin to the pellets increases their mechanical durability and their lengths. The results also indicate that dry kraft lignin yields pellets with higher durability as compared to wet kraft lignin. The energy demand was unaffected by the increased use of kraft lignin. The general results presented in this paper are useful for producers of lignin, pellet producers and end-users of pellets, who are interested in developing their products and/or improving the production processes.

  • 5.
    Bergvall, Niklas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Cheah, You Wayne
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Bernlind, Christian
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Chemical Process and Pharmaceutical Development.
    Bernlind, Alexandra
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Chemical Process and Pharmaceutical Development.
    Olsson, Louise
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Creaser, Derek
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sandström, Linda
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Öhrman, Olov GW
    Preem AB, Sweden.
    Upgrading of fast pyrolysis bio-oils to renewable hydrocarbons using slurry- and fixed bed hydroprocessing2024In: Fuel processing technology, ISSN 0378-3820, E-ISSN 1873-7188, Vol. 253, article id 108009Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Liquefaction of lignocellulosic biomass through fast pyrolysis, to yield fast pyrolysis bio-oil (FPBO), is a technique that has been extensively researched in the quest for finding alternatives to fossil feedstocks to produce fuels, chemicals, etc. Properties such as high oxygen content, acidity, and poor storage stability greatly limit the direct use of this bio-oil. Furthermore, high coking tendencies make upgrading of the FPBO by hydrodeoxygenation in fixed-bed bed hydrotreaters challenging due to plugging and catalyst deactivation. This study investigates a novel two-step hydroprocessing concept; a continuous slurry-based process using a dispersed NiMo-catalyst, followed by a fixed bed process using a supported NiMo-catalyst. The oil product from the slurry-process, having a reduced oxygen content (15 wt%) compared to the FPBO and a comparatively low coking tendency (TGA residue of 1.4 wt%), was successfully processed in the downstream fixed bed process for 58 h without any noticeable decrease in catalyst activity, or increase in pressure drop. The overall process resulted in a 29 wt% yield of deoxygenated oil product (0.5 wt% oxygen) from FPBO with an overall carbon recovery of 68%.

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  • 6.
    Bäckström, Daniel
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Johansson, Robert
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Andersson, Klas
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Wiinikka, Henrik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Fredriksson, Christian
    LKAB, Sweden.
    On the use of alternative fuels in rotary kiln burners - An experimental and modelling study of the effect on the radiative heat transfer conditions2015In: Fuel processing technology, ISSN 0378-3820, E-ISSN 1873-7188, Vol. 138, p. 210-220, article id 4558Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract In this work, the radiative heat transfer conditions in a 400 kW<inf>fuel</inf> test furnace were studied. The test furnace is a scaled pilot of a rotary kiln furnace used in iron ore pellet production. In particular, the study focuses on the choice of fuel and the subsequent effect on temperature and radiative conditions in the flame. Several co-firing flames of coal and biomass were investigated and also other fuels such as heavy fuel oil and natural gas. The test furnace was used in the experiments, and radiative intensity was measured with a narrow angle radiometer. Detailed radiation modelling was performed using spectral models for gas and particle properties. The results show that all co-firing flames give a shorter radiating flame length. Based on the radiation modelling, it was also shown that the particle radiation dominates the heat transfer from the flames. Due to the high pre-heating temperature of the combustion air (1100°C), the flame temperatures were generally very high. The flame temperature in the natural gas flame was likely around 2000°C while the coal flame temperatures were estimated to 1500-1600°C. The two coals tested, having almost identical fuel specifications, resulted in a substantial difference in the radiation intensity emitted by the flame. This emphasizes the need of direct radiation measurements to evaluate fuel changes in industrial processes that are highly dependent on the heat transfer conditions.

  • 7.
    Celaya Romeo, Javier
    et al.
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Wernersson Brodin, Fredrik
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Toven, Kai
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Re-homogenization of phase separated forest residue pyrolysis oil by blending2016In: Fuel processing technology, ISSN 0378-3820, E-ISSN 1873-7188, Vol. 163, p. 60-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The wood processing industry generates large amounts of forest residues like branches and tops which represent a significant unexploited resource for sustainable biofuel production. A feasible thermochemical route to valorise these residues is fast pyrolysis. However, the main product of this technology, pyrolysis oil or bio-oil, shows several disadvantages in comparison with conventional fuels. One of the main drawbacks of bio-oil is its instability which results in liquid phase separation in many cases. The purpose of this study is to verify whether homogenous single-phase heating fuels for district heating etc. can be formed from aged, phase separated forest residue pyrolysis oils by blending. Aged, phase separated pyrolysis oils were blended with either methanol or 1-butanol and the amount of alcohol needed to form homogeneous and storage stable fuel blends was evaluated. Homogeneity of the fuel blends was analysed by water concentration profile analysis and image analysis. Storage stability was analysed by analysing homogeneity as function of storage time. Essential fuel characteristics were analysed. The results revealed that phase separated forest residue pyrolysis oil can be homogenized by adding moderate amounts of alcohol and that some of the blends are stable longer than two months. Alcohol addition also improves essential product properties for pyrolysis oils as heating fuels. This work forms part of the ReShip Project partly funded by the Research Council of Norway (The ENERGIX programme).

  • 8.
    Göktepe, Burak
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Umeki, Kentaro
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Gebart, Rikard
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Does distance among biomass particles affect soot formation in an entrained flow gasification process?2016In: Fuel processing technology, ISSN 0378-3820, E-ISSN 1873-7188, Vol. 141, p. 99-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Soot creates technical challenges in entrained flow biomass gasification processes, e.g. clogging of flow passages, fouling on system components and reduced efficiency of gasification. This paper demonstrates a novel soot reduction method in a laboratory-scale entrained flow reactor by forced dispersion of biomass particles. Gasification of small biomass particles was done in a flat flame burner where a steady stream of biomass was sent. The flat flame burner was operated with a premixed sub-stoichiometric methane-air flame to simulate the conditions in an entrained flow gasifier. The dispersion of biomass particles was enhanced by varying the flow velocity ratio between particle carrier gas and the premixed flame. Primary soot particles evolved with the distance from the burner exit and the soot volume fraction was found to have a peak at a certain location. Enhanced particle separation diminished the peaks in the soot volume fraction by 35-56% depending on the particle feeding rates. The soot volume fraction was found to decrease towards an asymptotic value with increasing inter-particle distance.

  • 9. Haggstrom, C.
    et al.
    Ohrman, O.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Rownaghi, A.A.
    Hedlund, J.
    Gebart, Rikard
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Catalytic methanol synthesis via black liquor gasification2012In: Fuel processing technology, ISSN 0378-3820, E-ISSN 1873-7188, Vol. 94, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biofuel production from gasified black liquor is an interesting route to decrease green house gas emissions. The only pressurised black liquor gasifier currently in pilot operation is located in Sweden. In this work, synthesis gas was taken online directly from this gasifier, purified from hydrocarbons and sulphur compounds and for the first time catalytically converted to methanol in a bench scale equipment. Methanol was successfully synthesised during 45 h in total and the space time yield of methanol produced at 25 bar pressure was 0.16-0.19 g methanol/(g catalyst h). The spent catalyst exposed to gas from the gasifier was slightly enriched in calcium and sodium at the inlet of the reactor and in boron and nickel at the outlet of the reactor. Calcium, sodium and boron likely stem from black liquor whereas nickel probably originates from the stainless steel in the equipment. A slight deactivation, reduced surface area and mesoporosity of the catalyst exposed to gas from the gasifier were observed but it was not possible to reveal the origin of the deactivation. In addition to water, the produced methanol contained traces of hydrocarbons up to C 4, ethanol and dimethyl ether. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 10.
    Hedayati, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sefidari, Hamid
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Boman, Christoffer
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Skoglund, Nils
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Kienzl, Norbert
    BEST Bioenergy and Sustainable Technologies GmbH, Austria.
    Öhman, Marcus
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ash transformation during single-pellet gasification of agricultural biomass with focus on potassium and phosphorus2021In: Fuel processing technology, ISSN 0378-3820, E-ISSN 1873-7188, Vol. 217, article id 106805Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Agricultural biomasses and residues can play an important role in the global bioenergy system but their potential is limited by the risk of several ash-related problems such as deposit formation, slagging, and particle emissions during their thermal conversion. Therefore, a thorough understanding of the ash transformation reactions is required for this type of fuels. The present work investigates ash transformation reactions and the release of critical ash-forming elements with a special focus on K and P during the single-pellet gasification of different types of agricultural biomass fuels, namely, poplar, grass, and wheat grain residues. Each fuel was gasified as a single pellet at three different temperatures (600, 800, and 950 °C) in a Macro-TGA reactor. The residues from different stages of fuel conversion were collected to study the gradual ash transformation. Characterization of the residual char and ash was performed employing SEM-EDS, XRD, and ICP with the support of thermodynamic equilibrium calculations (TECs). The results showed that the K and P present in the fuels were primarily found in the residual char and ash in all cases for all studied fuels. While the main part of the K release occurred during the char conversion stage, the main part of the P release occurred during the devolatilization stage. The highest releases – less than 18% of P and 35% of K – were observed at the highest studied temperature for all fuels. These elements were present in the residual ashes as K2Ca(CO3)2 and Ca5(PO4)3OH for poplar; K-Ca-rich silicates and phosphosilicates in mainly amorphous ash for grass; and an amorphous phase rich in K-Mg-phosphates for wheat grain residues. © 2021 The Author(s)

  • 11.
    Johansson, Ann-Christine
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Molinder, Roger
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Vikström, Therese
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Wiinikka, Henrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Particle formation during suspension combustion of different biomass powders and their fast pyrolysis bio-oils and biochars2021In: Fuel processing technology, ISSN 0378-3820, E-ISSN 1873-7188, Vol. 218, article id 106868Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fly ash formation during suspension combustion of five different biomass powders (stem wood, bark, forest residue, willow, and reed canary grass) and the corresponding products from fast pyrolysis (bio-oil and biochar) of the powders was investigated. The fifteen fuels were burned in a drop tube furnace under normal (20 vol-% O2) and oxygen-enriched combustion conditions (40 vol-% and 60 vol-% O2). The trends in the data were used to discuss differences in combustion behavior and devise recommendations for the use of the fuels. There was a general difference in fly ash formation mechanism between the solid fuels (biomass and biochar) and the bio-oil fuels, which was attributed to parts of the ash-forming elements in bio-oil being dissolved in the oil. Oxygen-enrichment did not affect the release of inorganic elements to the gas phase for bio-oil combustion. Since the bio-oils generate lower fly ash during combustion, ~100 times compared to the original biomasses, they should be reserved for combustion technologies demanding fuels with very low ash content, whereas the biochar should be used in large scale combustion facilities with advanced gas cleaning technology operated by teams with experience of handling ash related operational problems. © 2021 The Author(s)

  • 12.
    Johansson, Ann-Christine
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Wiinikka, Henrik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Sandström, Linda
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Marklund, Magnus
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Öhrman, Olov G. W.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Narvesjö, Jimmy
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Characterization of pyrolysis products produced from different Nordic biomass types in a cyclone pilot plant2016In: Fuel processing technology, ISSN 0378-3820, E-ISSN 1873-7188, Vol. 146, p. 9-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pyrolysis is a promising thermochemical technology for converting biomass to energy, chemicals and/or fuels. The objective of the present paper was to characterize fast pyrolysis products and to study pyrolysis oil fractionation. The products were obtained from different Nordic forest and agricultural feedstocks in a pilot scale cyclone pyrolysis plant at three different reactor temperatures. The results show that the main elements (C, H and O) and chemical compositions of the products produced from stem wood, willow, forest residue and reed canary grass are in general terms rather similar, while the products obtained from bark differ to some extent. The oil produced from bark had a higher H/Ceff ratio and heating value which can be correlated to a higher amount of pyrolytic lignin and extractives when compared with oils produced from the other feedstocks. Regardless of the original feedstock, the composition of the different pyrolysis oil fractions (condensed and aerosol) differs significantly from each other. However this opens up the possibility to use specifically selected fractions in targeted applications. An increased reactor temperature generally results in a higher amount of water and water insoluble material, primarily as small lignin derived oligomers, in the produced oil.

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  • 13.
    Jones, Frida
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi.
    Ryde, Daniel
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi.
    Hjörnhede, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi.
    Down-time corrosion in boilers2016In: Fuel processing technology, ISSN 0378-3820, E-ISSN 1873-7188, Vol. 141, p. 276-284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Down-time corrosion can occur on boiler surfaces, e.g. furnace walls, superheaters, or economizers that are covered with hygroscopic deposits, when the temperature drops under 100 °C. This scenario takes place when a boiler is shut-down for cleaning, maintenance, or other reasons, such as unplanned shut-downs. Initially, the dry deposits will absorb moisture from the surrounding air, potentially creating a corrosive environment. After this, corrosive acids can form in the deposits. In this study modified online-corrosion probes were used in combination with deposits taken from 6 different boilers at various locations (for example, from the furnace, the superheater, and the economizer), where the fuels have been waste, demolition wood or biomass. The deposits were ground and dried in an oven at 160 °C for several hours before exposed to a moist environment (RH 65%) during online measuring of the corrosion rate and the pitting activity. Four types of alloys were tested: low-alloy ST45.8-steel, 9% Cr ferritic P91-steel, austenitic stainless steel 304L, and Ni-based super Alloy 625. The results for ST45.8 show that in biomass boilers a corrosion rate from negligible values up to 0.7 mm/year can be reached within a week, while waste-fired boilers can have rates as high as 1.8 mm/year. Furthermore, for some samples from waste-fired boilers show a high pitting activity already after 24 h. The tests with the P91-steel show values up to 0.16 mm/year, for samples from different locations in the boiler. For 304L and Alloy 625 the down-time corrosion was negligible even after a two-week exposure. The ability to follow the down-time corrosion online has provided data that show that even though thought to be negligible, the risk of down-time corrosion is of significance, especially if the fuel is waste. Also, even if the initial corrosion rate is low, it increases during the first 24 h due to the exposure to moist environment, motivating immediate cleaning of the boilers after shut-down, especially on surfaces of lower steel quality.

  • 14.
    Lundberg, Louise
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Tchoffor, Placid A.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Pallares, David
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Johansson, Robert
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Thunman, Henrik
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Davidsson, Kent
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Influence of surrounding conditions and fuel size on the gasification rate of biomass char in a fluidized bed2016In: Fuel processing technology, ISSN 0378-3820, E-ISSN 1873-7188, Vol. 144, p. 323-333Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While the operational conditions of a fluidized bed are known to influence the fuel axial mixing, the effect of the resulting axial location of the fuel particles on the char gasification rate remains unexplored. In this work, a laboratory-scale bubbling fluidized bed was used to investigate how the gasification rate of biomass char was influenced by the fuel axial location (during pyrolysis and char gasification), the pyrolysis atmosphere, the fuel size, and the fuel concentration. When pyrolysis at the bed surface was followed by char gasification inside the dense bed the char gasification rate was up to 2-fold lower than the other combinations of the fuel axial location, which held similar rates. Cooling the char after pyrolysis decreased the char gasification rate in all cases studied. The gasification rate increased when the fuel particle size was decreased, and its dependence on the degree of char conversion was also affected. Thus, the operational conditions of a fluidized bed reactor, through modified fuel axial mixing, can influence the char gasification rate. Furthermore, experimental determination of reactivity data in laboratory-scale systems must account for the axial location of the fuel at the desired end-scale, using similar fuel particle sizes.

  • 15.
    Mei, Daofeng
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; Huazhong Agricultural University, China.
    Soleimanisalim, Amir H
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Linderholm, Carl
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lyngfelt, Anders
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Mattisson, Tobias
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Reactivity and lifetime assessment of an oxygen releasable manganese ore with biomass fuels in a 10 kWth pilot rig for chemical looping combustion2021In: Fuel processing technology, ISSN 0378-3820, E-ISSN 1873-7188, Vol. 215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Finding a suitable oxygen carrier is crucial for the development of Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC). A new manganese ore was tested with different biomass fuels in a recently commissioned 10 kWth unit. The ore maintains the capability of generating O2 gas in N2 after continuous operations with the fuels, however, the concentration was relatively low within 0.45–1.0 vol% at 820 to 975 °C. Influence of temperature, solids circulation and fuel power was examined for different fuels. Temperature increase enhances the carbon capture and reduces the oxygen demand, while the solids circulation and fuel power should be carefully controlled. Using biomass char the oxygen demand can be lowered to 2.6% while the carbon capture was close to 99%. The manganese ore showed a higher reactivity than the often-used ilmenite. Thus, a decrease of 8–10% in oxygen demand was achieved by using the manganese ore in comparison to ilmenite. During the 42 h of hot operation, defluidisation was not observed. Based on the analysis of the 35 fine samples collected, the initial attrition after first hours of operation was high, but gradually decreased to a relatively stable value of 0.27 and 0.12 wt%/h for hot and fuel operations, respectively, corresponding a lifetime of 370–830 h. 

  • 16.
    Moghaddam, Elham Ahmadi
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Ahlgren, Serina
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Hulteberg, Christian
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Nordberg, Åke
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik. SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Energy balance and global warming potential of biogas-based fuels from a life cycle perspective2015In: Fuel processing technology, ISSN 0378-3820, E-ISSN 1873-7188, Vol. 132, p. 74-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biogas is a multifunctional energy carrier currently used for co-generation or compressed biomethane as vehicle fuel. Gas-to-liquid (GTL) technology enables conversion of biogas into other energy carriers with higher energy density, facilitating fuel distribution.

    The energy efficiency and global warming potential (GWP) for conversion of biogas to compressed biogas (CBG), liquefied biogas (LBG), Fischer–Tropsch diesel (FTD), methanol and dimethyl ether (DME) were studied in a life cycle perspective covering the technical system from raw biogas to use in city buses.

    CBG, methanol and DME showed the best specific fuel productivity. However, when fuel distribution distances were longer, DME, LBG and methanol showed the best energy balance. Methanol, FTD and DME emitted half the GWP of LBG and CBG. Choice of electricity mix had a large impact on GWP performance. Overall, taking into account the different impact categories, combustion properties and fuel yield from raw biogas, DME showed the best performance of the fuel conversion scenarios assessed.

  • 17.
    Moradian, Farzad
    et al.
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Tchoffor, Placid A.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Davidsson, Kent O.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Pettersson, Anita
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Backman, Rainer
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Thermodynamic equilibrium prediction of bed agglomeration tendency in dual fluidized-bed gasification of forest residues2016In: Fuel processing technology, ISSN 0378-3820, E-ISSN 1873-7188, Vol. 154, p. 82-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dual fluidized-bed (DFB) gasification is one of the recently developed technologies for production of heat, power, transportation fuels and synthetic chemicals through steam gasification of biomass. Bed agglomeration is a serious ash-related problem that should be taken into account when biomass-based fuels are selected for fluidized-bed gasification and combustion. This study developed a thermodynamic equilibrium model to assess the risk of bed agglomeration in gasification and combustion reactors of a DFB gasifier using biomass (forest residues) as feedstock. The modelling approach combined thermodynamic equilibrium calculations with chemical fractionation technique to predict the composition and melting behaviour of the fuel-derived ash as well as bed particles coating layer in the gasification and combustion reactors. FactSage was employed for the thermodynamic equilibrium calculations. The modelling results were then compared with experimental data obtained from a full-scale DFB gasifier to estimate the reliability and validity of the predictive model. In general, a good agreement was found between the modelling results and experimental observations. For the forest residues as feedstock and olivine as bed material, the modelling results indicate a low risk of bed agglomeration in the DFB gasifier, as long as the dominant temperature in the combustion zone is below 1020 °C. In contrast, quartz as bed material in the DFB gasifier was shown to significantly increase the risk of bed agglomeration through coating-induced agglomeration mechanism.

  • 18.
    Nordgren, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hedman, Henry
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Padban, Nader
    Vattenfall Research and Development AB, Sweden.
    Bodstrom, Dan
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Öhman, Marcus
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ash transformations in pulverised fuel co-combustion of straw and woody biomass2013In: Fuel processing technology, ISSN 0378-3820, E-ISSN 1873-7188, Vol. 105, p. 52-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ash transformation processes have been studied during co-firing of wheat straw and pine stem wood and softwood bark. Pilot-scale trials in a 150kW pulverised-fuel-fired burner were performed. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations were made to support the interpretation of the results. The results show that reactions involving condensed phases are kinetically limited compared to reactions between gaseous ash compounds. Accordingly, the conditions promote gas phase reactions resulting in the formation of chlorides, sulphates and carbonates whereas reactions involving condensed reactants are suppressed. Both the slagging and fouling propensities of all co-firing mixes were reduced compared to that for pure straw. For the wood/straw mixes this was mainly due to a dilution of the ash forming elements of straw whereas for straw/bark, an additional effect from interaction between the fuel ash components was observed to reduce slagging. In general it can be concluded that under powder combustion conditions equilibrium is approached selectively and that the ash matter is strongly fractionated. The general results in this paper are useful for straw-fired power stations looking for alternative co-firing fuels.

  • 19.
    Pettersson, Anita
    et al.
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Niklasson, Fredrik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Förbrännings- och aerosolteknik.
    Moradian, Farzad
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Reduced bed temperature in a commercial waste to energy boiler: Impact on ash and deposit formation2013In: Fuel processing technology, ISSN 0378-3820, E-ISSN 1873-7188, Vol. 105, no Jan, p. 28-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Waste combustion for power production is associated with many problems due to the composition and inhomogeneity of the fuel stream. A reduction of alkaline and chlorine products in the superheater region should ease these problems significantly. Ashes and deposits from different combustion tests in a commercial 20 MW th bubbling fluidised bed (BFB) boiler were characterised by XRD and SEM-EDX. The fuel combusted was a mix of sorted municipal solid waste (MSW) and industrial waste, often referred to as RDF (refuse derived duel). These waste fuels often contain more alkali and chlorine than does biomass and are therefore considered risky fuels prone to causing bed agglomeration, deposit formation, and corrosion. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a lowered bed temperature could change alkali and chlorine distribution in the boiler to reduce corrosion and deposit formation. The boiler used was designed for a bed temperature in the range of 850-900 C, which in this investigation was decreased by approximately 150 C. Data were collected through deposit measurements and solid sampling. The lowered bed temperature resulted in reduced demand for fresh sand, decreased agglomeration, and reduced rates of deposit formation.

  • 20.
    Saeed, Muhammad Nauman
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Shahrivar, Mohammad
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Surywanshi, Gajanan Dattarao
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Kumar, Tharun Roshan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Mattisson, Tobias
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Soleimanisalim, Amir H
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Production of aviation fuel with negative emissions via chemical looping gasification of biogenic residues: Full chain process modelling and techno-economic analysis2023In: Fuel processing technology, ISSN 0378-3820, E-ISSN 1873-7188, Vol. 241, article id 107585Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The second-generation bio aviation fuel production via Chemical Looping Gasification (CLG) of biomass combined with downstream Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis is a possible way to decarbonize aviation sector. The CLG process has the advantage of producing undiluted syngas without the use of an air-separation unit (ASU) and improved syngas yield compared to the conventional gasification processes. This study is based on modelling the full chain process of biomass to liquid fuel (BtL) with LD-slag and Ilmenite as oxygen carriers using Aspen Plus software, validating the model results with experimental studies and carrying out a techno-economic analysis of the process. For the gasifier load of 80 MW based on LHV of fuel entering the gasifier, the optimal model predicts that the clean syngas has an energy content of 8.68 MJ/Nm3 with a cold-gas efficiency of 77.86%. The optimized model also estimates an aviation fuel production of around 340 bbl/day with 155 k-tonne of CO2 captured every year and conversion efficiency of biomass to FT-crude of 38.98%. The calculated Levelized Cost of Fuel (LCOF) is 35.19 $ per GJ of FT crude, with an annual plant profit (cash inflow) of 11.09 M$ and a payback period of 11.56 years for the initial investment.

  • 21.
    Sandström, Linda
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Johansson, Ann-Christine
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Wiinikka, Henrik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Öhrman, Olov G. W.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Marklund, Magnus
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Pyrolysis of Nordic biomass types in a cyclone pilot plant — Mass balances and yields2016In: Fuel processing technology, ISSN 0378-3820, E-ISSN 1873-7188, Vol. 152, p. 274-284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fast pyrolysis of biomass results in a renewable product usually denoted pyrolysis oil or bio-oil, which has been suggested to be used as a direct substitute for fuel oil or as a feedstock for production of transportation fuels and/or chemicals. In the present work, fast pyrolysis of stem wood (originated from pine and spruce), willow, reed canary grass, brown forest residue and bark has been performed in a pilot scale cyclone reactor. The experiments were based on a biomass feeding rate of 20 kg/h at three different reactor temperatures. At the reference condition, pyrolysis of stem wood, willow, reed canary grass, and forest residue resulted in organic liquid yields in the range of 41 to 45% w/w, while pyrolysis of bark resulted in lower organic liquid yields. Two fractions of pyrolysis oil were obtained, denoted as the condensed and the aerosol fraction. Most of the water soluble molecules were collected in the condensed fraction, whereas the yield of water insoluble, heavy lignin molecules was higher in the aerosol fraction. Based on the results of the present work, willow, reed canary grass and forest residue are considered as promising raw materials for production of pyrolysis oil in a cyclone reactor.

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  • 22.
    Sefidari, H.
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ma, C.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Fredriksson, C.
    LKAB, Sweden.
    Lindblom, B.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden; LKAB, Sweden.
    Wiinikka, Henrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Nordin, L. O.
    LKAB, Sweden; GTT Technologies, Germany.
    Wu, G.
    GTT Technologies, Germany; Institute of Energy and Climate Research, Germany.
    Yazhenskikh, E.
    Institute of Energy and Climate Research, Germany.
    Müller, M.
    Institute of Energy and Climate Research, Germany.
    Öhman, M.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden; Institute of Energy and Climate Research, Germany.
    The effect of co-firing coal and woody biomass upon the slagging/deposition tendency in iron-ore pelletizing grate-kiln plants2020In: Fuel processing technology, ISSN 0378-3820, E-ISSN 1873-7188, Vol. 199, article id 106254Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Woody biomass is being considered a potential co-firing fuel to reduce coal consumption in iron-ore pelletizing rotary kilns. An important consideration is the slagging inside the kiln caused by ash deposition that can lead to process disturbances or shutdowns. In terms of ash chemistry, co-firing woody biomass implies the addition of mainly Ca and K to the Si- and Al-dominated coal-ash (characteristic of high-rank coals) and Fe from the iron-ore that are both inherent to the process. An alkali-laden gaseous atmosphere is also present due to the accumulation of alkali via the recirculation of flue gas in the system. The slagging propensity of blending woody biomass with coal in the grate-kiln process was studied based on the viscosity of the molten phases predicted by global thermochemical equilibrium modeling. This was carried out for variations in temperature, gaseous KOH atmosphere, and fuel blending levels. Results were evaluated and compared using a qualitative slagging indicator previously proposed by the authors where an inverse relationship between deposition tendency and the viscosity of the molten fraction of the ash was established. The results were also compared with a set of co-firing experiments performed in a pilot-scale (0.4 MW) experimental combustion furnace. In general, the co-firing of woody biomass would likely increase the slagging tendency via the increased formation of low-viscosity melts. The fluxing behavior of biomass-ash potentially reduces the viscosity of the Fe-rich aluminosilicate melt and intensifies deposition. However, the results also revealed that there are certain conditions where deposition tendency may decrease via the formation of high-melting-point alkali-containing solid phases (e.g., leucite). 

  • 23.
    Sefidari, H.
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden; LKAB, Sweden.
    Wiinikka, Henrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, ETC Energy Technology Center. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lindblom, B.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden; LKAB, Sweden.
    Nordin, L. O.
    LKAB, Sweden.
    Wu, G.
    GTT Technologies, Germany; Institute of Energy and Climate Research, Germany.
    Yazhenskikh, E.
    Institute of Energy and Climate Research, Germany.
    Müller, M.
    Institute of Energy and Climate Research, Germany.
    Ma, C.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Öhman, M.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Comparison of high-rank coals with respect to slagging/deposition tendency at the transfer-chute of iron-ore pelletizing grate-kiln plants: A pilot-scale experimental study accompanied by thermochemical equilibrium modeling and viscosity estimations2019In: Fuel processing technology, ISSN 0378-3820, E-ISSN 1873-7188, Vol. 193, p. 244-262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Iron-ore pelletizing plants use high-rank coals to supply the heat necessary to process ores. Ash material from coal, in combination with iron-ore dust originating from the disintegration of the pellets, can cause deposition/slagging which often leads to severe production losses and damage. Deposition/slagging is most prominent in the hot areas of the grate-kiln setup and is more severe at the inlet of the rotary-kiln, i.e., the transfer-chute. Following on from our previous work, high-rank bituminous coals with potential for use in the pelletizing process were combusted in a pilot-scale (0.4 MW) pulverized-coal fired experimental combustion furnace (ECF). The fly-ash particles and short-term deposits were characterized to shed light on the observed difference in slagging/deposition tendencies of the coals. Global thermodynamic equilibrium modeling, in combination with viscosity estimates, was used to interpret the experimental findings and investigate the effect of the coal-ash composition upon deposition/slagging. This approach was carried out with and without the presence of Fe2O3-rich pellet-dust under oxidizing conditions within the temperature range at the transfer-chute of iron-ore pelletizing rotary-kilns. Based on the findings, a Qualitative Slagging Indicator (QSI) was proposed that can help pre-screen new solid fuels for potential slagging issues. The proposed QSI highlights the following: (1) an inverse relationship between viscosity and slagging/deposition tendency of the coals was observed (2) as viscosity decreases (either with increasing temperature or due to the change in the coal-ash composition), stronger deposits will form that will complicate the mechanical removal of the deposited layer. It was therefore inferred that low viscosity molten phases facilitate deposition/slagging, which is exacerbated by the presence of fluxing agents (e.g., CaO, MgO, K2O, Na2O, and Fe2O3) in the deposits. The low viscosity coal-ash-induced molten phases are also more likely to interact with the Fe2O3-rich pellet-dust that results in further decreases in viscosity, thereby intensifying depositions. The results from this work complement the on-going research by our group to elucidate and alleviate ash-related problems in industrial grate kilns.

  • 24.
    Sefidari, Hamid
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lindblom, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden ; LKAB, Sweden.
    Wiinikka, Henrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, ETC Energy Technology Center. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Nordin, Lars Olof
    LKAB, Sweden.
    Lennartsson, Andreas
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Mouzon, Johanne
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Bhuiyan, Iftehkar
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Öhman, Marcus
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    The effect of disintegrated iron-ore pellet dust on deposit formation in a pilot-scale pulverized coal combustion furnace. Part II: Thermochemical equilibrium calculations and viscosity estimations2018In: Fuel processing technology, ISSN 0378-3820, E-ISSN 1873-7188, Vol. 180, p. 189-206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fly ash particles from the combustion of solid-fuels together with disintegrated particles arising from iron-ore pellets result in accumulation of deposits on the refractory linings of the grate-kiln induration machine during the iron-ore pelletizing process. The deposits amass in the high-temperature regions of the induration furnace thus disturbing the flow of gas and pellets. Therefore, to tackle the above-mentioned issues, an understanding of deposit formation mechanism is of crucial importance. This study was conducted with the objective of addressing the effect of disintegrated iron-ore pellet dust on deposit formation and the mechanisms behind deposition (slagging) in the grate-kiln process. A comprehensive set of experiments was conducted in a 0.4 MW pilot-scale pulverized-coal- fired furnace where three different scenarios were considered as follows; Case 1 (reference case): Coal was combusted without the presence of pellet dust. Case 2: Natural gas was combusted together with simultaneous addition of pellet dust to the gas stream. Case 3: Coal was combusted together with the addition of pellet dust simulating the situation in the large-scale setup. Fly ash particles and short-term deposits were characterized and deposition was addressed in Part I of this study. In light of the experimental observations (Part I) and the thermochemical equilibrium calculations (Part II), a scheme of ash transformation during the iron-ore pelletizing process was proposed. The dissolution of hematite particles into the Ca-rich-aluminosilicate melt (from the coal-ash constituents) decreased the viscosity and resulted in the formation of stronger (heavily sintered) deposits. Overall, this pilot-scale work forms part of a wider study which aims at deepening the understanding of ash transformation phenomena during the large-scale pelletizing process.

  • 25.
    Sefidari, Hamid
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lindblom, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Wiinikka, Henrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, ETC Energy Technology Center. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Nordin, Lars-Olof
    LKAB, Sweden.
    Mouzon, Johanna
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Bhuiyan, Iftekhar Uddin
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Öhman, Marcus
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    The effect of disintegrated iron-ore pellet dust on deposit formation in a pilot-scale pulverized coal combustion furnace. Part I: Characterization of process gas particles and deposits2018In: Fuel processing technology, ISSN 0378-3820, E-ISSN 1873-7188, Vol. 177, p. 283-298Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To initiate the elucidation of deposit formation during the iron-ore pelletization process, a comprehensive set of experiments was conducted in a 0.4 MW pilot-scale pulverized-coal-fired furnace where three different scenarios were considered as follows; Case 1 (reference case): Coal was combusted without the presence of pellet dust. Case 2: Natural gas was combusted together with simultaneous addition of pellet dust to the gas stream. Case 3: Coal was combusted together with the addition of pellet dust simulating the situation in the large-scale grate-kiln setup. Particles and deposits were sampled from 3 positions of different temperature via a water-cooled sampling probe. Three distinct fragmentation modes were identified based on the aerodynamic particle diameter (Dp). The fine mode: Particles with 0.03 &lt; Dp &lt; 0.06 μm. The first fragmentation mode: Particles with 1 &lt; Dp &lt; 10 μm. The second fragmentation mode: Coarse particles (cyclone particles, Dp &gt; 10 μm). A transition from a bimodal PSD (particle size distribution) to a trimodal PSD was observed when pellet dust was added (Case 3) and consequently the elemental bulk composition of the abovementioned modes was changed. The most extensive interaction between pellet dust and coal-ash particles was observed in the coarse mode where a significant number of coal ash globules were found attached to the surface of the hematite particles. The morphology of the sharp-edged hematite particles was changed to smooth-edged round particles which proved that hematite particles must have interacted with the surrounding aluminosilicate glassy phase originating from the coal ash. The short-term deposits collected during coal combustion (Case 1) were highly porous in contrast to the high degree of sintering observed in the experiments with pellet dust addition (Case 3) which is attributed to the dissolution of hematite particles in the aluminosilicate glassy phase. The results suggest that pellet dust itself (Case 2) has low slagging tendency, independent of temperature. However, when coal-ash is present (Case 3), auxiliary phases are added such that tenacious particles are formed and slagging occurs.

  • 26.
    Sette, Erik
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Pallars, David
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Johnsson, Filip
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ahrentorp, Fredrik
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Ericsson, Anders
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Johansson, Christer
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Magnetic tracer-particle tracking in a fluid dynamically down-scaled bubbling fluidized bed2015In: Fuel processing technology, ISSN 0378-3820, E-ISSN 1873-7188, Vol. 138, p. 368-377Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method for 3-dimensional (3D) magnetic tracer particle tracking in a fluid dynamically downscaled fluidized bed is presented. The method applies anisotropic magnetoresistive (AMR) sensors to track a magnetic tracer particle in the form of an NdFeB-based permanent magnet. The fluid dynamically downscaled bed has a cross-section of 0.17 × 0.17 m2and is operated at ambient conditions with bronze powder as bulk solids and the tracer particle corresponding to a fuel particle. After up-scaling the bed corresponds to a 0.85 × 0.85 m2 bed of fuel ash or silica sand operated with air at 900 °C using anthracite coal as a fuel. Thus, the method provides continuous tracking of the tracer particle trajectorywhich, combined with the fluid dynamic scaling yields quantitativeinformation applicable to the study of fuel mixing in large-scale fluidized-bed processes operating under hot conditions. Application of the method represents a significant step forward compared to other experimental studies which are limited to qualitative interpretations; performed in 2D units and in cold 3D units which are not fluid dynamically scaled.

    It is shown that the AMR sensor system is able to work with the (non-magnetic) bronze powder resulting from the fluid dynamical downscaling, i.e. overcoming the limitation in signal penetration which prevents tracking of radioactive objects in such dense media. Thus, successful application of the AMR method for continuous 3D object tracking in a fluid dynamically downscaled unit is demonstrated for the first time. The measurement system provides both translational and rotational data, unleashing possibilities also as a validation tool of CFD models. The preliminary results show a spatial resolution on the order of 1 mm, while temporal resolution is on the order of milliseconds.

  • 27.
    Weiland, Fredrik
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Nordwaeger, Martin
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Olofsson, Ingemar
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Wiinikka, Henrik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Nordin, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center. Umeå University, Sweden.
    Entrained flow gasification of torrefied wood residues2014In: Fuel processing technology, ISSN 0378-3820, E-ISSN 1873-7188, Vol. 125, p. 51-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, four different fuels were gasified in a pressurized entrained flow pilot plant gasifier at approximately 270 kWth. The different fuels were; two torrefied wood residues, one raw wood residue and one torrefied stem wood. The system pressure and oxygen equivalence ratio (λ) were held constant for all four gasification experiments. It was found that the torrefaction pretreatment significantly reduced the milling energy consumption for fuel size reduction, which in turn contributed to increased gasification plant efficiency. Furthermore, the results indicate that the carbon conversion efficiency may be enhanced by an intermediate torrefaction pretreatment, whereas both less severe torrefaction and more severe torrefaction resulted in reduced carbon conversions. The results also indicate that the CH4 yield was significantly reduced for the most severely torrefied fuel. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 28.
    Wiinikka, Henrik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioeconomy, ETC Energy Technology Center. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Johansson, Ann-Christine
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioeconomy, ETC Energy Technology Center.
    Wennebro, Jonas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioeconomy, ETC Energy Technology Center.
    Carlsson, P.
    SINTEF Energy Research AS, Norway.
    Öhrman, O
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioeconomy, ETC Energy Technology Center.
    Evaluation of black liquor gasification intended for synthetic fuel or power production2015In: Fuel processing technology, ISSN 0378-3820, E-ISSN 1873-7188, Vol. 139, p. 216-225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of a high-temperature pressurized black liquor gasifier intended for fuel or power production was evaluated both by thermochemical equilibrium calculations and with experiments performed in a development plant with a maximum capacity corresponding to 3 MWth. The aim of this paper was to investigate how the energy efficiency and the performance of the gasifier change with desired use of the syngas and to provide an accurate process analysis which can be used in future work for process optimization and understanding. Experiments in the plant were performed for an oxygen equivalence ratio (λ) between 0.414-0.462 at two system pressures, 24.6 and 28.7 bar, respectively. The thermal load on the gasifier was 2.7 MWth during the experiments. The experimentally verified cold gas efficiency taking into account all gaseous species varied between 59.0-62.4%. However, if only CO and H2 (which are the effective molecules for synthetic fuel production) were taken into account; the cold gas efficiency decreased considerably to 53.7-55.4% due to the presence of CH4 in the gas. The results indicate that optimal performance for synthetic fuel production occurs at a higher λ compared to power production. There is also a potential to further improve the performance for an optimal operated commercial plant in the future since the theoretical results indicate that the cold gas efficiency could be as high as 68.8% (λ = 0.35) for fuel production and 81.7% (λ = 0.27) for power production. 

  • 29.
    Yang, Hanmin
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Han, Tong
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Shi, Ziyi
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Sun, Yunjuan
    Institute of Chemical Industry of Forest Products, China.
    Jiang, Jianchun
    Institute of Chemical Industry of Forest Products, China.
    Sandström, Linda
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Jönsson, Pär
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Yang, Weihong
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    In situ catalytic fast pyrolysis of lignin over biochar and activated carbon derived from the identical process2022In: Fuel processing technology, ISSN 0378-3820, E-ISSN 1873-7188, Vol. 227, article id 107103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, a sustainable in situ catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP) of lignin was developed by using biochar and activated carbon (AC) as catalysts, which is derived from the same CFP of lignin process. The results showed that using biochar as the catalyst mainly promoted the production of non-condensable gas, water, and guaiacol-rich oil regardless of the biochar-to-lignin ratio. The catalytic effect of the biochar was mainly attributed to the surface sodium and alkali metals. Using AC44.7% and AC48.6% as the catalyst resulted in a high yield of guaiacol-rich oil, whereas using AC64.3% induced a great decrease of the tarry oil yield and a significant increase of the phenol concentration in bio-oil. The diffusion efficiency of the reactive intermediates inside the catalysts determined by the pore size was believed to be the greatest determinant of the catalytic performance of the ACs. The mesopores were large enough to allow most of the reactive intermediates to diffuse quickly and react. Moreover, by using the same catalyst, char agglomeration was almost completely suppressed after in situ CFP. Two major problems, tar production and char agglomeration, which limit the large-scale application of fast lignin pyrolysis are believed to be solved. © 2021 The Authors

  • 30.
    Ögren, Yngve
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, ETC Energy Technology Center. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Gullberg, Marcus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, ETC Energy Technology Center.
    Wennebro, Jonas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, ETC Energy Technology Center.
    Sepman, Alexey
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, ETC Energy Technology Center.
    Toth, Pal
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, ETC Energy Technology Center. University of Miskolc, Hungary.
    Wiinikka, Henrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, ETC Energy Technology Center. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Influence of oxidizer injection angle on the entrained flow gasification of torrefied wood powder2018In: Fuel processing technology, ISSN 0378-3820, E-ISSN 1873-7188, Vol. 181, p. 8-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present work, 5 different axisymmetric burners with different directions of the oxidizer inlets were experimentally tested during oxygen blown gasification of torrefied wood powder. The burners were evaluated under two different O2/fuel ratios at a thermal power of 135 kWth, based on the heating value of torrefied wood powder. The evaluation was based on both conventional methods such as gas chromatography measurements and thermocouples and in-situ measurements using Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy. It was shown that changes in the near burner region influence the process efficiency significantly. Changing the injection angle of the oxidizer stream to form a converging oxidizer jet increased process efficiency by 20%. Besides increased process efficiency, it was shown that improvements in burner design also influence carbon conversion and hydrocarbon production. The burner with the best performance also produced less CH4 and achieved the highest carbon conversion. The effect of generating swirl via rotating the oxidizer jet axes was also investigated. Swirl broadened or removed the impingement area between the fuel and oxidizer jets, however resulting in differences in performance within the measurement uncertainty.

  • 31.
    Öhrman, Olov G.W
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Weiland, Fredrik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Esbjörn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Johansson, Ann-Christine
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Hedman, Henry
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Pedersen, Mads
    Biogasol, Denmark.
    Pressurized oxygen blown entrained flow gasification of a biorefinery lignin residue2013In: Fuel processing technology, ISSN 0378-3820, E-ISSN 1873-7188, Vol. 115, p. 130-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Renewable fuels could in the future be produced in a biorefinery which involves highly integrated technologies. It has been reported that thermochemical conversion (gasification) of lignocellulosic biomass has a high potential for end production of renewable biofuels. In this work, lignin residue from biochemical conversion of wheat straw was gasified in an oxygen blown pressurized entrained flow gasifier (PEBG) at 0.25-0.30 MWth, 0.45 < λ < 0.5 and 1 bar (g). A video camera mounted inside the PEBG was used to observe the flame during start up and during operation. Hydrogen (H 2), carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were the main gas components with H2/CO ratios varying during the gasification test (0.54-0.63). The methane (CH4) concentration also varied slightly and was generally below 1.7% (dry and N2 free). C2-hydrocarbons (< 1810 ppm) and benzene (< 680 ppm) were also observed together with low concentrations of hydrogen sulfide (H2S, < 352 ppm) and carbonyl sulfide (COS, < 131 ppm). The process temperature in the reactor was around 1200 C. The slag seemed to consist of Cristobalite (SiO2) and Berlinite (AlPO4) and Na, Ca, Mg, K and Fe in lower concentrations. Cooling of the burner will be necessary for longer tests to avoid safety shut downs due to high burner temperature. The cold gas efficiency and carbon conversion was estimated but more accurate measurements, especially the syngas flow, needs to be determined during a longer test in order to obtain data on the efficiency at optimized operating conditions. The syngas has potential for further upgrading into biofuels, but will need traditional gas cleaning such as acid gas removal and water gas shifting. Also, higher pressures and reducing the amount of N2 is important in further work.

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