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  • 1. Nilsson, M.
    et al.
    Lipnizki, F.
    Tragardh, G.
    Östergren, Karin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Performance, energy and cost evaluation of a nanofiltration plant operated at elevated temperatures2008In: Separation and Purification Technology, ISSN 1383-5866, E-ISSN 1873-3794, Vol. 60, no 1, p. 36-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of temperature on cost and energy consumption during nanofiltration has been evaluated. The effect of temperature on pressure drop, fouling, concentration polarisation and changes in the membrane performance were evaluated experimentally and theoretically. Nanofiltration experiments using pure solutions and wastewater from the meat industry were performed at 25 and 55 °C with an Alfa Laval NFT-50 nanofiltration membrane. The results showed that the flux was slightly higher during wastewater concentration at 55 than at 25 °C. The difference was smaller than expected and is explained by both fouling and changes in the membrane performance due to the combined effects of pH and temperature. The concentration polarisation was found to be less at the higher temperature, as predicted by theory. However, this effect was small in comparison to the effect of temperature on fouling and the membrane performance. The influence of cleaning procedure on flux and retention was very dependent on the processing temperature due to time- and temperature-dependent changes in the membrane performance. Nanofiltration plants designed to run at 25 and 55 °C were dimensioned based on the results of the pilot study. Nanofiltration at 55 °C was found to be slightly better with respect to the investment cost. The energy required for pumping was lower at 55 °C. However, the energy required for heating is high and processing at 55 °C is only advantageous if the feed is already warm, if there is excess heat in the factory, or if the heat can be recycled. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 2. Nilsson, M.
    et al.
    Tragardh, G.
    Östergren, Karin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Influence of temperature and cleaning on aromatic and semi-aromatic polyamide thin-film composite NF and RO membranes2008In: Separation and Purification Technology, ISSN 1383-5866, E-ISSN 1873-3794, Vol. 62, no 3, p. 717-726Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although cleaning removes fouling, it may change the properties of membranes and consequently influence their performance. We have evaluated the combined effect of acidic/alkaline cleaning and temperature on the performance of two aromatic membranes, one a reverse osmosis membrane (HR98PP) and the other a nanofiltration membrane (NF90), two semi-aromatic polypiperazine membranes (NF200, NFT-50) and a Desal-5DK nanofiltration membrane. At the retention minimum of each membrane, the KCl retention and the water permeability were in the order: NFT-50 < NF200 < Desal-5DK < NF90 < HR98PP and HR98PP < NF90 < NF200 < Desal-5DK < NFT-50, respectively. After nanofiltration at elevated temperatures acidic and alkaline cleaning increased the water permeability and decreased the retention of the Desal-5DK membrane. Similar behaviour was observed after acidic cleaning of the aromatic polyamide membranes and with alkaline cleaning of the semi-aromatic polyamide (polypiperazine) membranes. Increased hysteresis was seen in the membrane performance with increasing temperature. The hysteresis behaviour was dependent on the cleaning procedure and could be related to swelling and shrinkage of the active polyamide layer. At 40 °C the reverse osmosis membrane (HR98PP) showed the same performance as the NF90 nanofiltration membrane at 20 °C. © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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