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  • 1.
    Andersson, KM
    et al.
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet. Stockholms Universitet.
    Bergström, L
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Friction and adhesion of single spray-dried granules containing a hygroscopic polymeric binder2005In: Powder Technology, ISSN 0032-5910, E-ISSN 1873-328X, Vol. 155, p. 101-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The atomic force microscope has been used to study the friction and adhesion of single spray dried granules containing a mixture of fine tungsten carbide and cobalt powders and various amounts of a polymeric binder, polyethylene glycol (PEG). The adhesion or the pull-off force and the friction force between two single granules (representing intergranular friction) and between a granule and a hard metal substrate (representing die-wall friction) have been determined as a function of relative humidity. We found that the granule-wall friction increases with binder content and relative humidity. The small friction force at the lowest addition of PEG was related to a small contact area due to the high surface roughness of the granules. The substantial increase in the friction coefficient at PEG-addition>1wt% was related to the plasticity of the binder-rich granule surface where an increase in binder content or relative humidity increases the deformability. The granule-granule friction and adhesion is independent of the relative humidity and substantially lower than the granule-wall friction at all PEG contents, which has important implications for the handling of granular matter

  • 2. LeBell, J
    et al.
    Stenius, P
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    The influence of cations on particle interactions and particle release fromaqueous bentonite gels1980In: Powder Technology, ISSN 0032-5910, E-ISSN 1873-328X, Vol. 26, p. 17-27Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Meurk, A
    et al.
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Yanez, J
    Bergström, L
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Silicon nitride granule friction measurements with an atomic force microscope: effect of humidity and binder concentration2001In: Powder Technology, ISSN 0032-5910, E-ISSN 1873-328X, Vol. 119, p. 241-249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study introduces the atomic force microscope (AFM) for direct measurement of internal and external friction in ceramic powder pressing. The experiments were performed between two single granules and a granule and a hard metal substrate as a function of granule binder concentration, relative humidity and sliding velocity. Granule-substrate measurements proved the friction coefficient to decrease with increasing humidity within a specific binder concentration, the effect being more pronounced for low concentrations. The friction coefficient also decreased with increasing binder concentration. Evaluation of the adhesion force showed a steady increase with both humidity and binder concentration. A substantial difference, almost an order of magnitude, was seen for the highest binder concentration at low and high humidities. We attribute these findings to the hygroscopic nature of the binder, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). Softening of the PEG at increasing humidities lowers the friction coefficient but increases the adhesion force. The results are consistent with flowability measurements and pressing performance.

  • 4.
    Molinder, Roger
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Wiinikka, Henrik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Feeding small biomass particles at low rates2014In: Powder Technology, ISSN 0032-5910, E-ISSN 1873-328X, Vol. 269, p. 240-246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biomass particles (75-1000μm) were fed at 9.0-66.5mgmin-1 (2.9-21.7W) using a particle feeder that dispensed particles by gravity through an injection tube. Feed rate was controlled by altering the velocity of a pusher block. Particles were agitated using a vibration motor and fed onto a balance and mass readings were continuously logged. Factors impacting reproducibility and feed rate stability were investigated as well as the effects of particle size and of pusher block velocity. Statistical analysis was applied to investigate patterns in particle feed rate data. Particle aggregation was identified as a factor which influenced feed rate stability and thereby also influencing reproducibility. Feed rate correlated well with pusher block velocity (R2=0.99). Statistical analysis showed strong indications (P values <0.01) of two patterns (clustering and trends) in the feed rate data which were attributed to changes in particle bed appearance with time. With all else being equal, particle size affected feed rate but not feed rate stability. A higher vibration amplitude was needed to agitate smaller particles. It was concluded that particle agitation control is a key to stable feeding of small biomass particles at low rates.

  • 5. Saber, A. H.
    et al.
    Göktepe, B.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Umeki, K.
    Lundström, T. S.
    Gebart, R.
    Active fuel particles dispersion by synthetic jet in an entrained flow gasifier of biomass: Cold flow2016In: Powder Technology, ISSN 0032-5910, E-ISSN 1873-328X, Vol. 302, p. 275-282Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pulverized fuel (PF) burners play a key role for the performance of PF fired gasification and combustion plants, by minimizing pollutant emission, fuel consumption and hence fuel costs. However, fuel diversity in power generation plants imposes limitations on the performance of existing PF burners, especially when burning solid fuel particles with poor flowability like biomass sawdust. In the present study, a vertically downward laminar flow was laden with biomass particles at different particle mass loading ratios, ranging from 0.47 to 2.67. The particle laden flow was forced by a synthetic jet actuator over a range of forcing amplitudes, 0.35–1.1 kPa. Pulverized pine particles with a sieve size range of 63–112 μm were used as biomass feedstock. Two-phase particle image velocimetry was applied to measure the velocity of the particles and air flow at the same time. The results showed that the synthetic jet had a large influence on the flow fields of both air and powdered pine particles, via a convective effect induced by vortex rings that propagate in the flow direction. The particle velocity, particle dispersion and hence inter-particle distance increased with increasing forcing amplitude. Moreover, particles accumulated within a specific region of the flow, based on their size. The effect on particle dispersion was more pronounced in the forced flows with low mass loading ratios. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

  • 6.
    Sepman, Alexey
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, ETC Energy Technology Center.
    Ögren, Yngve
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, ETC Energy Technology Center.
    Wiinikka, Henrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, ETC Energy Technology Center.
    Optical techniques for characterizing the biomass particle flow fluctuations in lab- and pilot-scale thermochemical systems2017In: Powder Technology, ISSN 0032-5910, E-ISSN 1873-328X, Vol. 313, p. 129-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The work demonstrates the performance of the optical extinction technique for real-time diagnostics of the fluctuations in biomass particle flows. The online measurements of fluctuations of density were used to determine the biomass particle mass flow fluctuations. Biomass flows were produced using laboratory biomass particle feeder (mass flux up to 10 g/min) and the hopper-screw feeding system of the pilot-scale entrained flow rector, mass flux up to 500 g/min, located at SP ETC in Piteå. The experiments showed that the time-averaged extinction appeared to be linearly related to the real particle mass flow. The relatively fast variations in biomass feeding rates measured using the extinction technique were confirmed by fast balance measurements (in laboratory feeder experiments) and by real-time tunable diode laser CO and H2O concentrations measured in the reactor core of the entrained flow gasifier.

  • 7.
    Shenoy, Pooja
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Processing.
    Ahrné, Lilia
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Processing.
    Viau, M
    Tammel, K.
    Innings, F.
    Fitzpatrick, J.
    Effect of powder densities, particle size and shape on mixture quality of binary food powder mixtures2015In: Powder Technology, ISSN 0032-5910, E-ISSN 1873-328X, Vol. 272, p. 165-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Particle size and density are two important parameters which affect the mixture homogeneity of powder mixtures. In this study several types of food powders with different particle sizes and poured bulk densities were chosen for the binary powder mixing trials. In each type of binary mixture salt was one of the main ingredients, hence conductivity analysis was performed on the mixtures and coefficient of variation was used to evaluate the mixture homogeneity. All binary powders were mixed at a ratio of 50:50 by weight in a 2. L prototype lab-scale paddle mixer. The experiments were conducted in such a way that the ingredients used either had a similar particle size and different bulk density or similar bulk density and different particle size. Different density and size ratios were investigated to observe the limit up to which good mixing takes place. Density differences between the binary powders were varied from 1.5 up to 16.4. The range of size ratio investigated was from 1.96 up to 15.73. Results indicate that powders mixed very well up to a particle size ratio of 4.45. For higher ratios mixture quality disimproved but no segregation was visually observed. The bulk density had a larger influence in affecting the mixture quality (MQ) as compared to particle size. At higher bulk density ratios almost complete segregation was observed and this was majorly influenced by the irregular shapes of thyme and oregano.

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