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  • 1.
    Ahrné, Lilia
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Andersson, C.-G.
    Floberg, P.
    Rosen, J.
    Lingnert, Hans
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Effect of crust temperature and water content on acrylamide formation during baking of white bread: Steam and falling temperature baking2007In: Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + Technologie, ISSN 0023-6438, E-ISSN 1096-1127, Vol. 40, no 10, p. 1708-1715Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of crust temperature and water content on acrylamide formation was studied during the baking of white bread. To assess the effect of over-baking, we used a full factorial experimental design in which the baking time was increased by 5 and 10 min at each baking temperature. Additional experiments were performed with steam baking and falling temperature baking. Immediately after baking, the crust was divided into the outer and inner crust fractions, and the water content and acrylamide concentration of each fraction was measured. The outer crust had a significantly lower water content and higher acrylamide concentration than the inner crust did. Crust temperature in combination with water content had a significant effect on acrylamide formation, higher temperatures resulting in higher acrylamide concentrations. However, at very high temperatures and lower water contents, acrylamide concentration was observed to decrease, though the bread colour was then unacceptable for consumption. Steam and falling temperature baking, on the other hand, decreased the acrylamide content while producing bread crust with an acceptable colour. The lowest acrylamide values and an acceptable crust colour were produced by steam baking. © 2007 Swiss Society of Food Science and Technology.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Karin
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Lingnert, Hans
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Influence of oxygen concentration and light on the oxidative stability of cream powder1998In: Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + Technologie, ISSN 0023-6438, E-ISSN 1096-1127, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 169-176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The production of volatile oxidation products and consumption of oxygen were measured in cream powder stored for 35 weeks at 30 °C in darkness or exposed to fluorescent light. The headspace of the bottles contained either air (209 mL O 2/L) or 13, 3.5, 0.4 or 0.3 mL/L oxygen in nitrogen. The exposure to light strongly influenced both the rate of hexanal production and oxygen consumption. After the first 5 weeks of storage in light, significantly different oxygen-dependent increases in hexanal were found for all samples. Although the samples stored in darkness showed a much smaller hexanal increase, it was still significant during storage. After 35 weeks of storage, the dark-stored sample in air showed a highly significant larger hexanal increase than all the other samples stored in darkness, but after the same storage period, the hexanal increase in the 13, 3.6 and 0.4 mL O 2/L samples was the same. The production of the Strecker aldehyde, 3-methylbutanal, was found to depend on light and to some extent on oxygen concentration, which indicates that lipid oxidation also influenced the conditions of the Maillard reaction. © 1998 Academic Press Limited.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Karin
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Lingnert, Hans
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Influence of oxygen concentration on the flavour and chemical stability of cream powder1998In: Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + Technologie, ISSN 0023-6438, E-ISSN 1096-1127, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 245-251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Descriptive sensory analysis and analysis of hexanal content were performed on cream powder stored in darkness at different oxygen concentrations at 30 °C for up to 45 weeks. The headspace of the samples contained 209 (air), 13, 3.6, 0.4 or 0.3 m/L oxygen/L headspace gas. All samples stored with reduced oxygen content were, with one exception, significantly different from the air-packed sample after 25 as well as after 45 weeks of storage, both in their hexanal concentration and according to sensory analysis. However, there were no significant sensory differences between the samples stored with reduced oxygen for 25 or 45 weeks. Analysis of the hexanal concentration in the samples was a more sensitive method than sensory analysis for detecting differences between samples stored for the same length of time. Furthermore, some of the samples with reduced oxygen concentration were found to differ significantly in their hexanal concentration. Significant differences between samples before storage and samples stored for 25 or 45 weeks, regardless of oxygen concentration, were found by both sensory and chemical analyses. © 1998 Academic Press.

  • 4. Andersson, Karin
    et al.
    Lingnert, Hans
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Influence of oxygen concentration on the storage stability of cream powder1997In: Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + Technologie, ISSN 0023-6438, E-ISSN 1096-1127, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 147-154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of low oxygen concentrations on lipid oxidation during storage of cream powder was studied. The powder was packed with oxygen concentrations of 209 mL/L, 17 mL/L, 8.3 mL/L, 3.4 mL/L, 1.5 mL/L, 0.7 mL/L and 0.6 mL/L and stored in darkness at 30°C for 29 weeks. To follow oxidation, the formation of volatile oxidation products and oxygen consumption were measured. After 7 weeks of storage a significant (P <0.01) hexanal development was already seen in all the samples, and the hexanal content was directly related to the initial oxygen content, with one exception, the 0.6 mL/L sample, which had a slightly (but not significantly, P >0.05) higher hexanal content than the 0.7 mL/L sample. There were only small differences in hexanal formation between the samples packed with oxygen concentrations below 3.4 mL/L. This could be due to a more pronounced influence of oxygen diffusion at these low levels of oxygen, leading to a diffusion-controlled oxidation. Other volatiles, not produced by lipid oxidation, also increased during storage. The formation of Strecker aldehydes was found to be oxygen-dependent, whereas the formation of 2-alkanones was not. Measurement of oxygen consumption was not sufficient to detect differences in oxidation rate between the samples packed with 17 mL/L oxygen and less. © 1997 Academic Press Limited.

  • 5.
    Andersson, Karin
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Ohlsson, Thomas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Including environmental aspects in production development: A case study of tomato ketchup1999In: Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + Technologie, ISSN 0023-6438, E-ISSN 1096-1127, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 134-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An environmental Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) study of a specific tomato ketchup was carried out. The objectives of the work were to illustrate how LCA can be used in production development; to investigate the influence of the geographical location of certain processes; and to find ways to improve the product's environmental performance. In the screening LCA which includes the whole life cycle, the packaging and processing sub-systems were found to be significant in the total environmental impact made by ketchup. Accordingly, six alternative systems, including packaging, processing and transportation, were modelled and simulated. The environmental impact categories included were energy use, global warming, acidification, eutrophication, photo-oxidant formation and the generation of radioactive waste. It was concluded that the current geographical location of the production of ketchup is preferable; the contributions to acidification can be reduced significantly; and the environmental profile of the product can be improved for either the type of tomato paste currently used or a less concentrated tomato paste. A shift to a less concentrated paste would also mean that traditional quality parameters of the ketchup could be improved. © 1999 Academic Press.

  • 6. Andersson, R.E.
    Biogenic amines in lactic acid-fermented vegetables1988In: Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + Technologie, ISSN 0023-6438, E-ISSN 1096-1127, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 68-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lactic acid-fermented vegetables and root crops were analysed with respect to biogenic amines. Cadaverine, histamine, putrescine, spermidine and tyramine were found in concentrations ranging from 1 to 15 mg/kg of product. Dimethylamine, tryptamine, phenylethylamine and spermine were not detected at all in any of the products. Since all the amines found were present in concentrations considerably lower than those known to cause food poisoning, lactic acid-fermented vegetables and root crops should be considered as low-risk products with regard to the presence of biogenic amines. © 1988 Academic Press Limited.

  • 7.
    Berta, Marco
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Structure Design.
    Gmoser, Rebecca
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Krona, Annika
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Structure Design.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Structure Design. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Effect of viscoelasticity on foam development in zein-starch dough2015In: Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + Technologie, ISSN 0023-6438, E-ISSN 1096-1127, Vol. 63, no 2, p. 1229-1235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Above the zein glass transition temperature (~40°C), the viscoelasticity of zein-starch dough is similar to that of gluten. This is of interest because this dough might be used to develop gluten-free products, although it has certain limitations such as workability and aging at room temperature. The most effective way to decrease the dough glass transition temperature is to use a plasticizer, which also influences the viscosity. In this study, viscoelastic zein-starch dough samples were prepared with several concentrations of citric acid as the plasticizer, and the effect of viscoelasticity on crumb structure formation during baking was investigated. Extensional viscosity was correlated with the average bubble size after baking. We found that viscosity could be predicted for this system by measuring the shear viscosity, whereby the Trouton ratio was near-constant for the range of plasticizer concentrations investigated. In addition, our dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) revealed that bubble growth occurs mainly when the dough reaches 100°C, due to a combination of steam formation and thermal softening of the matrix. At higher temperatures, hardening occurs due to drying and zein crosslinking.

  • 8. Eide, M.H.
    et al.
    Homleid, J.P.
    Mattsson, Berit
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Life cycle assessment (LCA) of cleaning-in-place processes in dairies2003In: Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + Technologie, ISSN 0023-6438, E-ISSN 1096-1127, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 303-314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Four Cleaning-In-Place (CIP) methods for dairies were compared using life cycle assessment (LCA). The methods were conventional alkaline/acid cleaning with hot water disinfection, one-phase alkaline cleaning with acid chemical disinfection, enzyme-based cleaning with acid chemical disinfection and the conventional method with disinfection by cold nitric acid at pH 2. Production of detergents, transport, the user phase in the dairy and waste management of containers were included. The user phase was found to be the most important part of the life cycle. The CIP methods with small volumes and low temperatures, such as enzyme-based cleaning and one-phase alkaline cleaning, turned out to be the best alternatives for the impact categories energy use, global warming, acidification, eutrophication and photo-oxidant formation. Milk residues flushed out in the rinsing phase were the main contributor to eutrophication, but the phosphorus and nitrogen in the detergents also influenced the results. Evaluation of toxic substances poses a methodological problem in LCA. In this study, detergents partly composed of toxic substances were included, and the overall assessment was that the one-phase alkaline cleaning method was preferable from an environmental point of view. A qualitative assessment of toxicity was performed. © 2003 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. on behalf of Swiss Society of Food Science and Technology.

  • 9.
    Eliasson, Lovisa
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Labrosse, Lydie
    Agrosup Dijon Engineering School, France.
    Ahrné, Lilia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Effect of drying technique and particle size of bilberry press cake on the extraction efficiency of anthocyanins by pressurized carbon dioxide extraction2017In: Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + Technologie, ISSN 0023-6438, E-ISSN 1096-1127, Vol. 85, p. 510-516Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To improve the extraction efficiency of anthocyanins from bilberry press cake using pressurized carbon dioxide, the combined effect of drying technique and bilberry press cake particle size was assessed. Pressurized carbon dioxide using ethanol as co-solvent was compared with a simple and efficient solvent extraction using methanol. The press cake with large (>710 mm) size particles had a higher anthocyanins content (84 g/kg dry matter to 87 g/kg dry matter) than did the small (<710 mm) size particles (60 g/kg dry matter to 65 g/kg dry matter). Although, the large size particles contained more anthocyanins, more efficient anthocyanins extraction using pressurized carbon dioxide extraction was obtained with the small than the large size particles. The press cake dried by freeze-drying generated a powder with smaller particles and lower bulk density than either the microwave-assisted hot-air-dried or hot-airdried powders. In comparison to methanol extraction, the most efficient anthocyanins extraction was obtained from the freeze-dried small size particles. This work showed that there is a potential to improve the extraction efficiency of anthocyanins extracted by pressurized carbon dioxide by selecting appropriate drying technology and particle size distribution of the press cake.

  • 10.
    Garrido Banuelos, Gonzalo
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Miljkovic, Ana
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Morange, Clement
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Mihnea, Mihaela
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Lopez-Sanchez, Patricia
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Assessing the volatile composition of seaweed (Laminaria digitata) suspensions as function of thermal and mechanical treatments2022In: Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + Technologie, ISSN 0023-6438, E-ISSN 1096-1127, Vol. 162, article id 113483Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Macroalgae are a rich source of dietary fibre, protein, lipids and bioactives. However, more research is needed to understand how processing methods impact macroalgae techno-functional properties. In this work, aqueous suspensions of the fibre-rich brown algae Laminaria digitata were prepared by conventional food processing methods. The impact of sequence of processing steps (thermal and mechanical treatments), and heating time (15, 30 and 45 min), on volatile aroma composition were investigated. Changes in volatile composition were monitored with headspace GC-FID/MS analysis. Our results showed that both parameters impacted the volatiles profile of the suspensions. From an overall volatile perspective, short heating times (90 °C for 15 min) led to similar profiles, independently of the sequence of thermal and mechanical treatments. However, longer heating times induced a larger release of several aldehydes, specific for each processing method. Our results bring new insights on the volatile composition of suspensions of Laminaria digitata, which are related to flavour properties, and aid design of food products containing seaweed. © 2022 The Authors

  • 11. Holm, K.
    et al.
    Wendin, Karin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Hermansson, Ann-Marie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Sweetness and texture perception in mixed pectin gels with 30% sugar and a designed rheology2009In: Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + Technologie, ISSN 0023-6438, E-ISSN 1096-1127, Vol. 42, no 3, p. 788-795Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pure low-methoxyl (LM) pectin and mixtures of LM and high-methoxyl (HM) pectin in different ratios were used to produce gels with control over the rheological parameter storage modulus (G?). The gels either had similar pectin concentrations and different G? values, or different pectin concentrations and similar G? values. All gels were prepared with 30 g/100 g sugar, in the presence of 0.1 g/100 g CaCl2, at pH 3.5; these are conditions that favour gel formation of both LM and HM pectin. The gels were compared for their sensory characteristics; specifically sweetness, sourness, thickness, and glueyness. Sweetness was found to increase with increasing storage modulus (G?) in pectin gels of similar pectin concentration, but different G? values. Gels with higher proportions of LM pectin were perceived as sweeter than those with low LM pectin ratios. These gels also had increasing loss modulus (G?), and increasing differences between G? and G?, which indicates that diffusion has a bearing on the perception of sweetness in pectin gels. Thickness and glueyness were mostly determined by total pectin concentration. Thickness also increased with increasing LM pectin concentration while glueyness increased with increasing HM pectin concentration. © 2008 Swiss Society of Food Science and Technology.

  • 12.
    Höglund, Evelina
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Eliasson, Lovisa
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Oliveira, Gabriel
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Almli, Valerie L.
    Nofima AS, Norway.
    Sozer, Nesli
    VTT Tecnhical Research Centre of Finland, Finland.
    Alminger, Marie
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Effect of drying and extrusion processing on physical and nutritional characteristics of bilberry press cake extrudates2018In: Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + Technologie, ISSN 0023-6438, E-ISSN 1096-1127, Vol. 92, p. 422-428Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mild drying and extrusion processing of side streams from berry juice production can enable retention of valuable compounds in the food chain and reduce waste production. The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of using hot air (HA) and microwave assisted hot air (MWHA) drying combined with extrusion for conversion of bilberry press cake into value-added extruded food products. Bilberry press cake was dried at 40 °C by HA and MWHA drying to a moisture content of 17 g/100 g. A twin screw extruder (average feed rate 72 g/min, temperature profile 135-128-89-69 °C) was used to extrude products containing organic wholegrain rye flour and 10% or 25% dried bilberry press cake powder. A consumer panel (n = 15) evaluated four extrudates on hedonic and Just-About-Right (JAR) scales, with a main focus on texture properties. The results indicate that different drying techniques implied a difference in processing time (40% reduction with MWHA drying). However, the retention of total phenolics and physical characteristics of extruded snacks containing bilberry powders were independent of drying techniques. In sum, powder of bilberry press cake can be incorporated in cereal based extruded snacks with enhanced phenolic content and potential for palatable sensory properties.

  • 13. Johansson, B.
    et al.
    Drake, Birger
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Svenska institutet för konserveringsforskning.
    Berggren, B.
    Vallentin, K.
    Detection thresholds: Effect of stimulus presentation order and addition of blanks I. Odor of pentanal and hexanol1973In: Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + Technologie, ISSN 0023-6438, E-ISSN 1096-1127, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 115-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Detection thresholds for the odor of pentanal and hexanol were determined using a method of constant stimuli with single sample presentations. The effects of addition of blanks and of order of sample presentation (ascending, descending, randomized) were studied for grouped threshold values. Moreover, differences between groups of subjects with different frequencies of false alarm, and between males and females were studied. Preceding blanks, added to the ascending series, but unknown to the subjects, caused a significant decrease in threshold values for all groups of subjects. The decrease was probably mainly an anticipation effect caused by the information to the subjects. For pentanal, the ascending concentration order gave a significantly lower threshold value than the descending or randomized orders, between which there was no significant difference. For hexanol, in general, the differences among presentation orders were not significant. A sufficient explanation for this unexpected difference between the two compounds cannot be given. For each compound, subjects with lower frequencies of false alarm had, in all experimental series, significantly higher threshold values than subjects with higher frequencies. Females had significantly lower threshold values than males. © 1973 Forster-Verlag AG, Zürich.

  • 14.
    Johansson, Mathias
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food. SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Xanthakis, Epameinondas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Langton, Maud
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Menzel, Carolin
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Vilaplana, Francisco
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Johansson, Daniel P.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Lopez-Sanchez, Patricia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Mixed legume systems of pea protein and unrefined lentil fraction: Textural properties and microstructure2021In: Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + Technologie, ISSN 0023-6438, E-ISSN 1096-1127, Vol. 144, article id 111212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the context of circular economy, there is an increasing interest to utilise agrifood by-products. However, extensive extraction and purification steps make the valorisation of side streams not always cost effective. Therefore, an increased knowledge of the functionality of unrefined side streams could increase their utilisation in food products. We investigated the thermal gelation of mixed legume systems containing a commercial pea protein isolate (Pisum sativum) and the unrefined fraction remaining after protein extraction from lentils (Lens culinaris). The unrefined lentil fraction contained mainly starch (~45 g/100 g) and insoluble cell wall polysaccharides (~50 g/100 g) with minor amounts of soluble protein (4 g/100 g) and polyphenols (<1 mg GAE/g). The addition of the unrefined lentil fraction increased the strength and Young's modulus of pea protein gels in the pH range 3–4.2, and also increased the gels’ elastic modulus G'. The microstructure could be described as a mixed network of swollen protein particles of different sizes (5–50 μm), gelatinised starch and cell wall fragments. The results demonstrate that unrefined side streams from lentils could be used for textural modification of plant protein gels, with implications for the design of novel plant-based foods.

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  • 15. Lennersten, M.
    et al.
    Lingnert, Hans
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Influence of different packaging materials on lipid oxidation in potato crisps exposed to fluorescent light1998In: Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + Technologie, ISSN 0023-6438, E-ISSN 1096-1127, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 162-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of packaging materials, with various light transmission characteristics, on protection against lipid oxidation in potato crisps exposed to fluorescent light, was studied. The materials used were transparent oriented polyethylene terephtalate (OPET), transparent coextruded oriented polypropylene (OPP), cavitated white OPP, metallized extruded OPP and unbleached paper. The concentrations of pentanal and hexanal in the headspace were used as indicators for lipid oxidation. Neither transparent OPET nor transparent co-extruded OPP afforded any protection against light-induced lipid oxidation in potato crisps, compared with storage without packaging material, and the concentrations of pentanal and hexanal increased after just 7 d. The concentration of pentanal and hexanal in potato crisps stored under unbleached paper and cavitated white OPP increased after 77 and 97 d respectively, while no increase could be detected in potato crisps stored under metallized OPP for 5 months. The more rapid oxidation in potato crisps stored under cavitated white OPP, compared with when stored under metallized OPP, proved that visible light, at wavelengths longer than 380 nm, is capable of causing lipid oxidation in potato crisps. © 1998 Academic Press Limited.

  • 16.
    Lennersten, Mats
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Lingnert, Hans
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Influence of Wavelength and Packaging Material on Lipid Oxidation and Colour Changes in Low-fat Mayonnaise2000In: Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + Technologie, ISSN 0023-6438, E-ISSN 1096-1127, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 253-260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of light of different wavelengths on lipid oxidation and colour changes in unpacked low-fat mayonnaise was studied using fluorescent light tubes emitting ultraviolet radiation and blue, yellow and red light. The protective effect of the polyester materials PET (polyethylene terephtalate), PEN (polyethylene naphtalate) and PET/PEN copolymer was evaluated by exposing mayonnaise packed in these materials to cool white fluorescent light. The change in colour of samples representing all storage conditions was almost entirely due to a decrease in yellowness, presumably as a result of photobleaching of ? -carotene. The colour was affected by wavelengths shorter than 470 nm with the greatest effect produced by wavelengths in the 410-450 nm range. The concentration of hexanal in the headspace was used as an indicator of lipid oxidation. The effect on lipid oxidation was most pronounced with ultraviolet radiation, although short wavelength visible light also had a significant effect. The polyester materials offered some protection against lipid oxidation by filtering out the ultraviolet radiation to varying degrees. PEN and PET/PEN copolymer offered better protection than PET. None of the materials offered sufficient protection against colour changes.

  • 17.
    Lundgren, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Svenska livmedelsinstitutet.
    Pangbom, Ros-Marie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Svenska livmedelsinstitutet.
    Daget, N.
    Yoshida, M.
    Laing, D.G.
    McBride, R.L.
    An interlaboratory study of firmness, aroma, and taste of pectin gels1986In: Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + Technologie, ISSN 0023-6438, E-ISSN 1096-1127, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 66-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Subjects at laboratories in ten countries (Australia, England, Finland, France, Germany, Japan, Poland, Sweden, Switzerland and USA) evaluated firmness, aroma, flavor, and taste intensity of pectin gels containing different amounts of pectin and flavoring. With few exceptions, the ten laboratories (16 to 34 subjects at each laboratory; 252 total) reached the same conclusions regarding the sample differences. Also, the relative frequencies of discriminators were similar: All subjects discriminated firmness, and about half of them discriminated other attributes. Each laboratorv's data showed significant differences among pectin levels as well as flavoring levels. The average perceived intensities of aroma, flavor, sweetness and sourness decreased with increased pectin level, while firmness increased. © 1986.

  • 18.
    Niimi, Jun
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Ahlinder, Astrid
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Nilsson Pingel, Torben
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Niimi, Claudia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Höglund, Evelina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Öhgren, Camilla
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Loren, Niklas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Nielsen, Tim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Saltiness enhancement: Impact of acid added to bread with heterogeneously distributed sodium chloride2023In: Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + Technologie, ISSN 0023-6438, E-ISSN 1096-1127, Vol. 176, article id 114557Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current global sodium consumption exceeds recommended daily intakes and there is a great need to reduce the sodium content in foods for a healthier society. The current study investigated the effect of combining sensory interaction principles and heterogeneous distribution of NaCl in bread on sensory properties, structure, and NaCl distribution. Breads were prepared in three different arrangements of NaCl distribution: homogenous, layered, and layered with lactic acid. Within each arrangement, four NaCl levels were tested. The breads were evaluated by a sensory panel for perceived saltiness, sourness, and qualitative texture, measured for stiffness, and the NaCl distribution was determined by X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM). Perceived saltiness was significantly enhanced in breads beyond heterogeneous NaCl distribution when lactic acid was added. Stiffness measurements were affected by layering of bread, the layers without NaCl were stiffer with an increase in overall salt concentration. The heterogeneous distribution of NaCl in layered breads could be visualised by XFM and textural consequences of layering bread are discussed. The current study demonstrates the potential of combining principles of pulsation of taste and sensory interactions together to enhance salt perception, and hence suggesting the approach as a possible further strategy for NaCl reduction in bread.

  • 19.
    Niimi, Jun
    et al.
    Goethe University Frankfurt, Germany.
    Deveau, A.
    Universite ́ de Lorraine, France.
    Splivallo, R.
    Goethe University Frankfurt, Germany.
    Aroma and bacterial communities dramatically change with storage of fresh white truffle Tuber magnatum2021In: Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + Technologie, ISSN 0023-6438, E-ISSN 1096-1127, Vol. 151, article id 112125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    White truffles are highly valuable, but the aroma is susceptible to change with storage. How volatile composition and microbiome of Tuber magnatum evolve by storage time is poorly understood. Changes in bacterial community and volatile compounds of T. magnatum fruiting bodies with storage time at 23 °C were investigated. Truffles (21 fruiting bodies) were collected from different sites in Italy, Hungary, and Croatia. Single fruiting bodies were subsampled at four time points (day (D)0, 3, 6, and 9). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and microbiome composition using PCR-high throughput sequencing were used to analyse the volatiles and bacterial communities, respectively. Spoilage compounds atypical of truffles increased with storage time. Likewise, bacterial communities changed with storage time; families belonging to Xanthobacteraceae dominated at D0 and gradually evolved to more Rhizobiaceae and Pseudomonadaceae by D3 and D6, and finally with more prominent Xanthomonadaceae and Burkholderiaceae at D9. Overall, storage time had increased the diversity of bacterial communities. The microbiome and volatile data were correlated using regularised canonical correlation analysis and determined correlations between 2-methylisoborneol and five bacterial OTUs. Potential candidate bacteria and their volatile metabolites can serve as markers for truffle spoilage. The results highlighted the mechanisms by which the degradation of expensive truffles occur.

  • 20.
    Niimi, Jun
    et al.
    Goethe University Frankfurt, Germany.
    Guixer, B.
    Splivallo, R.
    Odour active compounds determined in the headspace of yellow and black plum wines (Prunus domestica L.)2020In: Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + Technologie, ISSN 0023-6438, E-ISSN 1096-1127, Vol. 130, article id 109702Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Odour active compounds (OACs) from the headspace of yellow and black plum wines (Prunus domestica L.) were analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry (GC-MS-O). Olfactometry was conducted using aroma extract dilution assay, through varying split ratios during injection. A total of 18 OACs were determined in the wine headspace including esters, ketones, sulfur containing compounds, alcohols, a terpene, and phenolic compounds. Thirteen of volatile compounds differed significantly (p < 0.05) in concentration between plum wines. Unique OACs were also detected within the headspace that distinguished the wines, where 4-ethyl guaiacol was only detected in the yellow plum wine and diacetyl was only detected within the black plum wines. The remaining nine OACs were not significantly different from each other, suggesting their ubiquity in the plum wines. High flavour dilution (FD) values were determined for ethyl isobutyrate, ethyl 2-methyl butyrate, β-damascenone, and ethyl cinnamate. All compounds detected in the plum wines have been previously reported in grape wine and demonstrated the commonality of volatile constituents between plum and grape wine. However, the very high concentration of β-damascenone may strongly contribute to the overall aroma of the plum wines.

  • 21.
    Niimi, Jun
    et al.
    University of Adelaide, Australia; CSIRO, Australia.
    Tomic, O.
    Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Norway.
    Næs, T.
    Nofima, Norway.
    Bastian, S. E. P.
    University of Adelaide, Australia.
    Jeffery, D. W.
    University of Adelaide, Australia.
    Nicholson, E. L.
    CSIRO, Australia.
    Maffei, S. M.
    CSIRO, Australia.
    Boss, P. K.
    CSIRO, Australia.
    Objective measures of grape quality: From Cabernet Sauvignon grape composition to wine sensory characteristics2020In: Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + Technologie, ISSN 0023-6438, E-ISSN 1096-1127, Vol. 123, article id 109105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In an investigation of objective measures that link grape composition to wine quality, this study sought to identify Cabernet Sauvignon grape parameters that predict the sensory properties of the corresponding wines. Eleven chemical measures comprising volatile and non-volatile compounds, enzyme activity plus standard industry harvest measurements were applied to grape samples obtained from different regions throughout South Eastern Australia over three vintages. Grapes underwent controlled vinification and the resulting wines evaluated with sensory descriptive analysis. The entire multi-vintage data sets were combined and modelled using a combination of partial least squares (PLS) and sequential and orthogonalised (SO) -PLS regression techniques. Optimal models were obtained with single sensory attributes rather than global modelling with the entire sensory profile. Five grape chemical measures, which in the main were harvest parameters, were used along with colour, total phenolics and tannin, targeted volatiles, and flavonols, and orthogonalised to model 14 sensory attributes of the Cabernet Sauvignon wines. The seven remaining measures were not used due to their poor ability to model wine sensory attributes, with enzyme activity and tannin by HPLC explaining the least. The study revealed new insights into the relationship between grape chemistry and wine sensory characters, which has implications for developing an objective measurement system for determining grape quality. 

  • 22. Ofstad, R.
    et al.
    Kidman, Siw
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Myklebust, R.
    Olsen, R.L.
    Hermansson, Ann-Marie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Factors influencing liquid-holding capacity and structural changes during heating of comminuted cod (gadus morhua l.) muscle1996In: Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + Technologie, ISSN 0023-6438, E-ISSN 1096-1127, Vol. 29, no 42006, p. 173-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The loss of liquid in cod muscle finely comminuted with salt was studied as a function of heating temperature from 5 to 70 °C. Three different groups of raw material were tested: wild and farmed maturing cod and wild post-spawn cod. The effects of ionic strength, pH and heating temperature upon liquid-holding capacity were examined either individually or simultaneously by using a general linear statistical model. The liquid-holding capacity was measured by a low-speed centrifugation net test. The microscopic changes of the comminuted samples were evaluated by light microscopy. The intact muscle, used as raw material, was investigated with light and transmission electron microscopy. The liquid loss was very low and almost constant between 5 and 30 °C, and increased rapidly thereafter at elevated temperatures. NaCl concentration, pH, heating temperature and interactions among these factors influenced the liquid released according to a first-order interaction linear model. Upon comminution with salt, most of the fibre structure is lost and a homogeneous phase is formed from the depolymerized myofibrils. Pores and gaps appeared in the protein matrix upon heating, enhancing the liquid loss. Melted collagen was seen either as a thin film or as an aggregated network structure, depending on the temperature, in the aqueous phase filling the pores and gaps. Wild, maturing cod possessed better liquid-holding capacity at higher heating temperatures than did both farmed and post-spawn fish, owing to different fibre structure. Post-spawn fish underwent a more severe degradation than did the maturing fish during ice-storage. ©1996 Academic Press Limited.

  • 23. Ofstad, R.
    et al.
    Kidman, Siw
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Myklebust, R.
    Olsen, R.L.
    Hermansson, Ann-Marie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Liquid-holding capacity and structural changes in comminuted salmon (Salmo salar) muscle as influenced by pH, salt and temperature1995In: Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + Technologie, ISSN 0023-6438, E-ISSN 1096-1127, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 329-339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The loss of liquid in salmon muscle comminuted with salt was studied as a function of pH and heating temperature. A factorial experiment was designed to compare the effects of; the raw material, NaCl concentration, pH, degree of comminution and heating temperature in order to evaluate both main effects and interaction effects. The liquid-holding capacity was measured by a low speed centrifugation net test. The changes in microstructure in the samples were investigated by light microscopy using fat- and protein-staining techniques. The heating temperature, pH, NaCl concentration, variation of raw material and degree of comminution influenced liquid loss according to a second-order interaction linear model. The interaction effect between low pH, low salt concentration and high temperature was strongest. Addition of salt extracted the myofibrillar proteins and resulted in a homogeneous protein matrix with few intact fibres and uniformly dispersed fat droplets. Liquid loss was closely related to the microstructure of the comminutions. When heated above 30 °C, enlarged pores and gaps, some of them forming channels, occurred in the protein matrix. In comminutions prepared with a low salt concentration and/or a low pH the more frequent presence of pores and gaps enhanced the liquid loss. © 1995 Academic Press Limited.

  • 24. Phillips, K.
    et al.
    Niimi, Jun
    University of Otago, New Zealand.
    Hamid, N.
    Silcock, P.
    Delahunty, C.
    Barker, M.
    Sewell, M.
    Bremer, P.
    Sensory and volatile analysis of sea urchin roe from different geographical regions in New Zealand2010In: Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + Technologie, ISSN 0023-6438, E-ISSN 1096-1127, Vol. 43, no 2, p. 202-213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Roe from the sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus collected from locations in the North (Mathesons Bay) and South (Doubtful Sound) of New Zealand was characterised according to physical characteristics, sensory properties, and volatile composition. Objective assessment of roe sensory properties (appearance, odour, taste, flavour, texture, and aftertaste) was carried out by a trained sensory panel using descriptive sensory analysis. Proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) was used for headspace analysis of roe, and data were collected over the mass range m/z 22-180. Sea urchins from the Northern population were significantly smaller, and had a lower roe index than those from the Southern population. Roe from Northern sea urchins were rated higher for the attributes of marine, seafood and sharp odour, bitter taste, herbaceous and metallic flavour, astringent texture, and metallic, bitter, and duration of aftertaste than roe from Southern sea urchins, which were rated higher for dairy odour, sweet taste, dairy flavour, moisture content and mouth coating. E. chloroticus roe was also differentiated based on gender by 26 sensory attributes. Volatile analysis significantly discriminated between roe from Northern and Southern sea urchins by 35 mass ions, and between genders of Southern sea urchins by five mass ions.

  • 25.
    Prothon, Frederic
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Ahrné, Lilia
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Funebo, Tomas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Kidman, Siw
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Langton, Maud
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Sjoholm, Ingegerd
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Effects of Combined Osmotic and Microwave Dehydration of Apple on Texture, Microstructure and Rehydration Characteristics2001In: Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + Technologie, ISSN 0023-6438, E-ISSN 1096-1127, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 95-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of microwave-assisted air-drying with or without osmotic pre-treatment on apple cubes was evaluated. Osmotic pre-treatment in sucrose solution was followed by microwave-assisted air-dehydration at different temperatures (50, 60 and 70°C). The products were compared to the samples that did not undergo any pre-treatment. A puncture test and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) were used to analyse the effects of these processes on texture and microstructure. Rehydration in water and in yoghurt were studied and compared. Results showed that osmotic pre-treatment before microwave-assisted air-drying increased the final overall quality of the product. Although the drying time to reach 10% moisture content (wb) was reduced, the presence of infused sucrose in the osmotically dehydrated tissue decreased the drying rate during the microwave finish-drying. The effective moisture diffusivity was slightly lower for the osmosed samples than for the non-treated ones at all the studied temperatures. Osmotic pre-treatment had a beneficial effect on the firmness of the rehydrated samples that had been air-dried at 50°C. Microstructural studies showed a thickening of the cell wall after the osmotic treatment. Structural changes in the cell wall due to the final drying could also be detected. Finally, the rehydration capacity in water was significantly higher for non-treated samples than for the pre-treated ones - although rehydration in yoghurt reduced this difference.

  • 26. Thorvaldsson, K.
    et al.
    Skjöldebrand, Christina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Water diffusion in bread during baking1998In: Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + Technologie, ISSN 0023-6438, E-ISSN 1096-1127, Vol. 31, no 42193, p. 658-663Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A study of heat and water transport in bread during baking was performed. Loaves of bread were fermented twice and baked in a conventional oven at 225°C, with no forced convection, for 35 min. The local water content and two or three different temperatures were measured inside the bread during the baking process. Bread baked from wheat flour was used to investigate the mechanisms of water transport inside a loaf during baking. The water content was measured in the centre, 1 cm from the base, in the bottom crust, 1 cm under the top surface and in the top crust, using a fibre-optic NIR instrument. The temperature was measured on the bottom surface, in the centre, and 1 mm from the optic fibre. The results indicate that up to 70 ± 5°C, where a structural change is taking place, the water content in the centre changes little. However, after reaching this temperature the water content in the centre of the loaf rises due to vapour transport from the warmer regions. The water appears to be moving towards the coldest region, and not towards the geometrical centre. © 1998 Academic Press.

  • 27.
    Thorvaldsson, K.
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Nilsson, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Kidman, Siw
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Langton, Maud
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Rheology and structure of heat-treated pasta dough: Influence of water content and heating rate1999In: Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + Technologie, ISSN 0023-6438, E-ISSN 1096-1127, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 154-161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The migration of water and the influence of water content and heating rate on the rheological and structural formation of pasta dough were investigated. The dough used in the study had two different water contents, 39.5 and 41.0%, and was made using water and wheat flour. The samples, 15 x 15 x 2 cm in size, were heated from 25 to 80°C in a conventional oven at two different temperatures, 100 and 150°C, to achieve two different heating rates. During the heating the local water content was measured in the centre of the samples with a fibre-optic NIR instrument. The temperature was measured in the centre, halfway to the centre and at the surface. The rheology of the heat-treated samples was studied by means of tensile tests. Young's modulus, stress at maximum load and energy to break point were calculated. The micro structure of the samples was characterised by CLSM, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and the microstructural parameters were quantified using image analysis. The changes in rheological properties during heating were studied by means of DMA. Untreated dough samples were heated from 25 to 90°C with a heating rate of 5° C/min and a compressing oscillation of 1 Hz. The changes in phase angle δ and storage modulus E' were measured. The most important results were that no migration of water inside the pasta dough could be found. Both the water content and the heating rate affected the structural and rhelogical properties of the pasta dough. There was a maximum in E' vs. temperature, which shifted towards higher temperatures with decreasing water content. Young's modulus was affected by both the heating rate and the water content. Energy to break point and stress at maximum load were affected by the heating rate. The pore size was affected by the water content. The swelling temperature seemed to increase as the heating rate increased

  • 28.
    Tomic, Nikola
    et al.
    University of Belgrade, Serbia.
    Djekic, Ilija
    University of Belgrade, Serbia.
    Zambon, Alessandro
    University of Padova, Italy.
    Spilimbergo, Sara
    University of Padova, Italy.
    Bourdoux, Simeon
    Ghent University, Belgium.
    Holtz, Emma
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Hofland, Gerard
    FeyeCon Carbon Dioxide Technologies, Netherlands.
    Sut, Stafania
    University of Padova, Italy.
    Dall'Acqua, Stefano
    University of Padova, Italy.
    Smigic, Nada
    University of Belgrade, Serbia.
    Udovicki, Bozidar
    University of Belgrade, Serbia.
    Rajkovic, Andreja
    University of Belgrade, Serbia.
    Challenging chemical and quality changes of supercritical Co 2 dried apple during long-term storage2019In: Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + Technologie, ISSN 0023-6438, E-ISSN 1096-1127, Vol. 110, p. 132-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to analyze the stability of sensory properties and secondary metabolites in supercritical-CO 2 (scCO 2 ) dried ‘Elstar’ apple cuts/snacks during twelve months of storage at ‘room’ temperature. Air-drying and freeze-drying were used as reference methods. ScCO 2 -dried apple packed in aluminum-polyethylene bags under nitrogen gas retained a high sensory and nutritional quality, and acceptance level until the end of the observed period. The overall acceptance scores of these apples after 6 and 12 months of storage remained in the range of neutral consumer attitude “neither like nor dislike”. Packaging under nitrogen gas preserved the content of flavonols (≥0.14 g/kg), dihydrochalcones (≥0.10 g/kg), hydroxycinnamic acids (≥0.18 g/kg), triterpenes (≥5.72 g/kg), and proanthocyanidins (≥0.08 g/kg) in dried apple irrespective of the drying method applied. The comparison with the conventional drying processes demonstrated that scCO 2 -drying represents a promising alternative technology for the production of dried apple snacks. The study was assisted by the evaluation of consumer attitudes towards dried fruit and drying technologies. Freeze-drying, air-drying and scCO 2 -drying were recognized by the tested consumers as trustful drying-processes, with expressed interests in buying scCO 2 -dried products if the technology was scientifically proven as excellent in preserving nutrients, color and taste of food products.

  • 29.
    Wendin, Karin
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Hall, Gunnar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Influences of Fat, Thickener and Emulsifier Contents on Salad Dressing: Static and Dynamic Sensory and Rheological Analyses2001In: Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + Technologie, ISSN 0023-6438, E-ISSN 1096-1127, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 222-233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of contents of fat, thickener and emulsifier in salad dressing were investigated. Twelve types of dressings were produced according to a full factorial design, whereby the fat content was set at three levels, the thickener and the emulsifier contents at two levels. The dressings were analysed by a sensory panel, using both quantitative descriptive profiling and time-intensity (TI) evaluation, and by instrumental/rheological measurements. The two sensory methods were related to each other and the instrumental results were related to the sensory results. All design parameters had a significant influence on the properties of salad dressing, mainly on texture and mouthfeel. Fat content was the most influencing parameter. Interaction effects were found and it can be concluded that the content of the emulsifier was less critical when the fat and thickener contents increased. Dynamic and descriptive sensory analyses were mainly related to each other in the fattiness attribute. There were strong relations between instrumental and sensory analysis according to rheological and texture attributes, r?0.7 (Pearson correlation coefficient) for most texture attributes.

  • 30.
    Widén, Heléne
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Hall, Gunnar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Sensory characterization of polyester-based bottle material inertness using threshold odour number determination2007In: Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + Technologie, ISSN 0023-6438, E-ISSN 1096-1127, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 66-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Refillable polyester bottles, for example polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles, are known to interact with chemicals. Aroma compounds from a product can be absorbed by the bottle material, remain after washing and remigrate when the bottle is reused, resulting in off-flavour of the new product. A certified reference material has recently been approved with which the chemical and sensory inertness of refillable bottle materials can be tested. In this study a sensory method aimed at characterizing the sensory inertness properties of the reference bottle material was developed. A use-reuse situation was simulated by storing bottle wall strips in a solution of four odour-active compounds (the loading phase) and, after cleaning, immersing them in water (the remigration phase). The remigration water was analysed with both a sensory method, i.e. determination of the threshold odour number, and chemically using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Additionally, another PET and a polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) bottle material were also tested. The sensory threshold determination method could differentiate between the PEN materials and the PET materials. Results from chemical analysis showed that the inertness properties of the PET materials were very similar. The PEN material exhibited significantly superior inertness properties, with only 3-24% of the aroma transfer properties of PET. © 2005 Swiss Society of Food Science and Technology.

  • 31.
    Öhgren, Camilla
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Structure Design.
    Fabregat, Nieves
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut. SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Langton, Maud
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Quality of bread baked from frozen dough - effects of rye, and sugar content, kneading time and proofing profile2016In: Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft + Technologie, ISSN 0023-6438, E-ISSN 1096-1127, Vol. 68, p. 626-633Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate whether proofing profile influences volume and crumb firmness in bread baked from frozen dough, and whether rye or sugar content and different kneading times affect the microstructure of the frozen dough. Microscopy was used to explain the differences.Wheat doughs mixed with rye ("rye") and with sugar ("sweet") were frozen after 3 different proofing times (0, 18, and 38 min) and visualized with confocal laser scanning microscopy and 3-dimensional micro-computed tomography. The baked breads were evaluated for volume and texture. Breads from un-proofed frozen dough allowed to proof after thawing showed the highest volume (4.0 cm3/g) and the softest crumb texture. The pre-proofed sweet bread had firmer crumbs and lower volume (2.5-3.0 cm3/g) than the pre-proofed rye bread (2.7-3.7 cm3/g). Reasons for the differences in quality parameters between the rye and sweet breads were investigated by studying the different influences of kneading time and sugar content on fresh and frozen dough. The gluten network was found to be more homogeneously distributed in doughs with longer kneading times and lower sugar content, and less well distributed and more lumped in frozen than in fresh dough.

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