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  • 1.
    Barla, P
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Larsson, K
    Ljusberg-Wahren, H
    Norin, T
    Roberts, K
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Phase equilibria in a ternary system saponin-sunflower oil monoglycerides-water : interactions between aliphatic and alicyclic amphiphiles1979Inngår i: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, ISSN 0022-5142, E-ISSN 1097-0010, Vol. 30, s. 864-868Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 2.
    Byaruhanga, Yusuf Byenkya
    et al.
    Makerere University, Uganda; CSIR BioSciences, South Africa; University of Pretoria, South Africa .
    Erasmus, Corinda
    CSIR BioSciences, South Africa.
    Emmambux, Naushad Mohammad
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik. Makerere University, Uganda.
    Taylor, John R.N.
    niversity of Pretoria, South Africa.
    Effect of heating cast kafirin films on their functional properties2007Inngår i: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, ISSN 0022-5142, E-ISSN 1097-0010, Vol. 87, nr 1, s. 167-175Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Edible films can be produced from kafirin but the diverse food product requirements necessitate modification of the films. To modify their functional properties, kafirin films were cast, with and without plasticizer, from glacial acetic acid (GAA) and aqueous ethanol (AE), then heated using microwave energy. A power of 80 W for 2 min caused an approximately two- and fourfold increase in the tensile strength of non-plasticized and plasticized films, respectively. Film glass transition temperature increased by about 15%. Film biodegradability was slowed. However, only the digestibility of the non-plasticized films cast from AE heated for the longest time (4 min) was decreased, by about 25%; while that of the other films was not affected. GAA cast films had higher digestibility than AE cast ones, possibly as a result of acid-mediated deamidation of kafirin. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis indicated heat-induced kafirin oligomers. Scanning electron microscopy of heated plasticized films showed more wrinkled structures compared to non-heated films, whereas the non-plasticized films appeared more brittle with heating. The results indicate that heat-induced intermolecular disulfide cross-linking was involved in modifying the properties of kafirin films.

  • 3. Granelli, K
    et al.
    Fäldt, P
    Appelqvist, L-Å
    Bergenståhl, B
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Influence of surface structure on cholesterol oxidation in model food powders1996Inngår i: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, ISSN 0022-5142, E-ISSN 1097-0010, Vol. 71, s. 75-82Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Three milk-resembling powders having different oil-phases were prepared and stored for six months at room temperature. Samples were taken monthly for estimation of the surface composition by "electron spectroscopy for chemical analysisz (ESCA) and analyses of the level of cholesterol oxides by gas chromatography. The highest fat coverage was obtained with technical tristearin as oil-phase. This preparation had, directly after spray-drying and during the first period of storage, around 75 % of the powder surface covered by fat. During the later storage period this coverage decreased. This powder also had the largest increase in cholesterol oxides during storage, ending in 159 µg / g cholesterol. The powder contsining highmelting pure tristearin had a low surface coverage of fat, originally about 25 % and decreased during the storage period. Little increase in cholesterol oxides was observed ending, in 52 µg / g cholesterol. The third powder containing liquid triolein as oil-phase, had a surface coverage of about 50 % throughout the storage period. The cholesterol oxidation rate was in between the two tristearin powders, ending in 75 µg / g cholesterol. The lipid present at the powder surface will undoubtedly be exposed to oxygen in air. However, lipids present inside the powder particles may also be reached by oxygen through cracks and pores in the particles. The results for the investigated powders indicate that the surface composition is of major importance for the oxidation of cholesterol. No correlation between cholesterol oxidation and solvent extractable fat (free fat) was found for the investigated powders.

  • 4. Johansson, F.
    et al.
    Leufvén, Anders
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Eskilson, M.
    Quantification of aroma vapours sorbed in polyethene films using supercritical carbon dioxide1993Inngår i: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, ISSN 0022-5142, E-ISSN 1097-0010, Vol. 61, nr 2, s. 241-244Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Extraction with supercritical carbon dioxide was used to quantify the amounts of seven different aroma vapours sorbed in polyethene films. The method was found to completely extract all aroma compounds from the films. The solution of aroma compounds in the polymer films decreased with increasing polymer density. Monoterpenes were always completely sorbed in the films, whereas aldehydes and ketones had a much lower affinity for the films. The sulphurcontaining compound, thiophene, was difficult to analyse due to its adsorption on metal surfaces. © 1993 SCI.

  • 5.
    Knický, Martin
    et al.
    SLU, Sweden.
    Spörndly, R.
    Sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate and sodium nitrite as silage additives2009Inngår i: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, ISSN 0022-5142, E-ISSN 1097-0010, Vol. 89, nr 15, s. 2659-2667Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The hygienic quality of silage is important for animal health, animal production and food quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of five silage additive mixtures on yeast, mould, and clostridia growth and other silage quality criteria. The additives, composed of sodium nitrite, sodium benzoate and/or potassium sorbate, were used to treat a grass forage crop before ensiling. The silages were compared with untreated silage and silages treated with two commercial additives: Promyr NF (PNF), which is based on formic and propionic acid, and Kofasil Ultra (KU), a mixture of sodium nitrite, sodium benzoate, sodium propionate and hexamine. Results: All tested additives significantly (P < 0.001) reduced butyric acid and ammonia-N formation in low-dry-matter (DM) silages compared to the control. Only KU and the mixtures of 600 g sodium nitrite, 250 g sodium propionate, 750 g sodium benzoate (A1) and 250 g sodium nitrite with 1000 g sodium benzoate and 500 g potassium sorbate (A5) ton-1 of fresh forage were found to reduce (P < 0.001) the presence of clostridia spores in low-DM silages. In high-DM silages, treatments A1, A5 and A2 (250 g sodium nitrite and 1000 g sodium benzoate) contained less (P < 0.02) yeast than the control and PNF, but not KU. All treated silages were aerobically stable. The concentrations of nitrate-N in all silages and nitrite-N in low-DM were below the threshold level for feed at the end of storage. Conclusions: The additive mixtures A1 and particularly A5 improved silage quality at least to the same extent as commercial products, even though they contained no hexamine and less nitrite. © 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

  • 6.
    Lopez-Sanchez, Patricia
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik. Unilever, The Netherlands; Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Nijsse, Jaap
    Unilever, The Netherlands.
    Blonk, Han C.G.
    Unilever, The Netherlands.
    Bialek, Lucy
    Unilever, The Netherlands.
    Schumm, S.
    Unilever, The Netherlands.
    Langton, Maud
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Effect of mechanical and thermal treatments on the microstructure and rheological properties of carrot, broccoli and tomato dispersions2011Inngår i: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, ISSN 0022-5142, E-ISSN 1097-0010, Vol. 91, nr 2, s. 207-217Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The food industry has shown an increased interest in the manufacture of healthier and more natural food products. By tailored processing fruit and vegetables can be used as structurants thus reducing artificial gums and stabilisers. The effect of different thermal and mechanical treatments, including high-pressure homogenisation, on the microstructural and rheological properties of carrot, broccoli and tomato dispersions was studied. As part of the rheological characterisation small oscillatory deformation as well as shear flow measurements were performed.RESULTS: Carrot and broccoli showed a different behaviour from tomato under the conditions studied. Changing the order of thermal and mechanical treatment led to microstructures with different flow properties. The resulting microstructures differed in the manner of cell wall separation: either breaking across the cell walls or through the middle lamella. High-pressure homogenisation decreased the viscosity of carrot and broccoli dispersions, while it increased the viscosity of tomato. Cryo-scanning electron microscopy showed that the cell walls of carrot and broccoli remained as compact structures after homogenisation whereas tomato cell walls were considerably swollen.CONCLUSIONS: Based on the type of vegetable, the different processes applied led to microstructures with different rheological properties. This study shows that particle size distribution, morphology and phase volume are important parameters to explain the complex relationship between rheology and microstructure for these types of systems. 

  • 7. Ofstad, R.
    et al.
    Egelandsdal, B.
    Kidman, Siw
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Myklebust, R.
    Olsen, R.L.
    Hermansson, Ann-Marie
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Liquid loss as effected by post mortem ultrastructural changes in fish muscle: Cod (Gadus morhua L) and salmon (Salmo salar)1996Inngår i: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, ISSN 0022-5142, E-ISSN 1097-0010, Vol. 71, nr 3, s. 301-312Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study was performed in order to assess the effect of early post mortem structural changes in the muscle upon the liquid-holding capacity of wild cod, net-pen-fed cod (fed cod) and farmed salmon. The liquid- holding capacity was measured by a low speed centrifugation test. Transmission electron microscopy was used to discover ultrastructural changes both in the connective tissue and in the myofibrils. Differential scanning calorimetric thermograms of the muscle proteins were recorded to elucidate whether fundamental differences did exist between the proteins of the raw material tested. Multivariate statistics were used to explicate the main tendencies of variations in the thermograms. The salmon muscle possessed much better liquid-holding properties than the cod muscle, and wild cod better than fed cod regardless of the storage time. Both fed cod and farmed salmon, underwent the most severe structural alterations, probably caused by the low muscle pH values. The higher liquid-holding capacity of the salmon muscle was related to species specific structural features and better stability of the muscle proteins. The myofibrils of the salmon muscle were denser and intra- and extracellular spaces were filled by fat and a granulated material. The differences in thermograms of muscle from wild and fed cod were largely explained by the variations in pH. The severe liquid loss of fed cod is due to a low pH induced denaturation and shrinkage of the myofibrils. Post mortem degradation of the endomysial layer and the sarcolemma may have further facilitated the release of liquid.

  • 8. Ofstad, R.
    et al.
    Kidman, Siw
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Hermansson, Ann-Marie
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Ultramicroscopical structures and liquid loss in heated cod (Gadus morhua L) and salmon (Salmo salar) muscle1996Inngår i: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, ISSN 0022-5142, E-ISSN 1097-0010, Vol. 72, nr 3, s. 337-347Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study was performed in order to assess the effect of heating in pre-and post-rigor muscle of fed cod, wild cod and farmed salmon harvested at different times of the year. The structural changes in muscle samples pre- heated from 5 to 60°C were qualitatively evaluated using both light and transmission electron microscopy techniques. The microstructural changes are discussed in relation to the liquid loss measured by a low-speed centrifugation test. The heat-induced structural changes varied between the fish tested, reflecting different degrees of post mortem degradation prior to heating, the muscle-pH and species-specific structural properties. The fed fish, both cod and salmon, underwent the most severe structural degradation. This reflected both the low muscle pH and the more severe post mortem degradation observed in these fish prior to heating, compared with the wild cod. Heating caused extensive shrinkage of the myofibrils and hence, widened intermyofibrillar and extracellular spaces in both the fed cod and the salmon muscle. In the sample of wild cod muscle, the extracellular spaces were narrow and the myofibrils were closely packed. The difference in heat-induced liquid loss of the fed compared with the wild cod muscle coincides with their different structural features, as observed both by LM and TEM. The better liquid-holding properties of the salmon muscle than the cod muscle are attributed to the species-specific ultrastructural features as observed with TEM. In addition to the denser appearance of the salmon myofibres, it is suggested that both fat droplets and aggregated sarcoplasmic proteins filling the intermyofibrillar and extracellular spaces are important in preventing release of liquid upon heating.

  • 9. Svelander, C.A.
    et al.
    Tiback, E.A.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Ahrné, Lilia
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Langton, Maud
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Svanberg, U.S.O.
    Alminger, M.A.G.
    Processing of tomato: Impact on in vitro bioaccessibility of lycopene and textural properties2010Inngår i: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, ISSN 0022-5142, E-ISSN 1097-0010, Vol. 90, nr 10, s. 1665-1672Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 10.
    Undeland, Ingrid
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Lingnert, Hans
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Influence of skinning on lipid oxidation in different horizontal layers of herring (Clupea harengus) during frozen storage1998Inngår i: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, ISSN 0022-5142, E-ISSN 1097-0010, Vol. 78, nr 3, s. 441-450Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of skinning and of compositional differences on the oxidative stability of various horizontal layers from herring (Clupea harengus) during frozen storage. Herring fillets, with and without skin, were stored at -18°C for 0, 3, 9, 16 and 28 weeks. After each storage period, the fillets were divided horizontally into three layers: 'under skin', 'middle part' and 'inner part'. Each layer was then extracted for total lipids, in which peroxide value (PV), absorbance at 234 nm (A234) and 268 nm (A268) as well as lipid-soluble fluorescent oxidation products (FP) were measured. Prior to storage, the fat content, fatty acid pattern and ?-tocopherol were also analysed. During storage of skinless fillets, the under skin layer increased most in PV, A234, A268 and FP (P < 0.05), followed by the inner and middle parts. In fillets stored with skin, the high oxidation rate of the under skin layer lipids was suppressed, but this layer still gave rise to the highest responses. Firstly, these results point to the protective properties of the skin and, secondly, to the unfavourable composition of the under skin layer: a lot of dark muscle; the silver surface; the highest fat content and the lowest level of ?-tocopherol. Concerning the fatty acid pattern in the three layers, the amount of C20 : 5, C18 : 1 and C20 : 1 in the fat gradually decreased from the under skin layer towards the inner part of the fillet, whereas the opposite was true for C22 : 6.

  • 11. Wessling, C.
    et al.
    Nielsen, Tim
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Giacin, J.R.
    Antioxidant ability of bht- and ?-tocopherolimpregnated ldpe film in packaging of oatmeal2001Inngår i: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, ISSN 0022-5142, E-ISSN 1097-0010, Vol. 81, nr 2, s. 194-201Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cereals in general, and particularly oatmeals, are considered rather sensitive to oxidation owing to their relatively high fat content. The addition of antioxidants can sometimes prolong the shelf-life of products. The aim of the present study was to investigate how the rate of lipid oxidation ora packaged oatmeal product was affected by the nature and level of antioxidants incorporated in an LDPE film structure. The stability of the product, which was determined by hexanal analysis using GC-MS and by electronic nose analysis, showed very small variations over the chosen storage period. No oxidation, as determined by hexanal levels in the oatmeal, was initiated during storage, but small variations in volatile profile were seen among the samples analysed by the electronic nose. The product stored in the BHT-impregnated LDPE film had undergone the least change during 10 weeks of storage at 20°C. ?-Tocopherol-impregnated LDPE film did not appear to prolong the shelf-life of the oatmeal at all. © 2000 Society of Chemical Industry.

  • 12. Wessling, C.
    et al.
    Nielsen, Tim
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Leufvén, Anders
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Jagerstad, M.
    Retention of ?-tocopherol in low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and polypropylene (PP) in contact with foodstuffs and food-simulating liquids1999Inngår i: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, ISSN 0022-5142, E-ISSN 1097-0010, Vol. 79, nr 12, s. 1635-1641Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Alpha-tocopherol occurs as a natural antioxidant in many foods and has also found use as a stabiliser in polymeric packaging materials. During storage of a food in contact with a plastic material, ?-tocopherol may be released from the packaging material and transferred into the food. An active packaging application with the transfer of a substance, such as an antioxidant, from a packaging material to a food may help to prolong the shelf-life of the food. In this study, the retention of ?-tocopherol in low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and polypropylene (PP) was investigated for contact with liquid foods with different fat contents and food simulants with different ethanol contents. The PP film exhibited excellent retention of ?-tocopherol when in contact with all media, whereas some losses were observed from the LDPE film. A number of factors including fat, alcohol and organic acid contents of the various foodstuffs seemed to influence the loss of ?-tocopherol from the LDPE film.

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