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  • 1. Chen, G.
    et al.
    Öhgren, Camilla
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Langton, Maud
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Lustrup, K.F.
    Nyden, M.
    Swenson, J.
    Impact of long-term frozen storage on the dynamics of water and ice in wheat bread2013In: Journal of Cereal Science, ISSN 0733-5210, E-ISSN 1095-9963, Vol. 57, no 1, p. 120-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Frozen storage of bread has a substantial impact on the dynamics of water and ice in the crumb and crust. In this study, the impact was characterized using wheat bread stored at -18 °C for a long term of ?4 months. The frozen bread incurred a considerable loss of the crumb water that migrated out and formed ice crystals on the bread surface. Such a moisture decrease underwent more rapidly for the bread stored without intact crust, suggesting the specific role of crust during frozen storage. Moisture also redistributed significantly within the frozen crumb, resulting in an elevated crumb heterogeneity of freezable water. This redistribution of freezable water was accompanied by a progressive recrystallization of the crumb-borne ice crystals, which were measured to grow into bulk sizes using a modified calorimetric procedure for analyzing the crumb samples at their as-frozen states. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 2.
    Eckardt, Johanna
    et al.
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Öhgren, Camilla
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Alp, A.
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Ekman, Susanne
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Åström, Annika
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Johansson, Daniel
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Long-term frozen storage of wheat bread and dough: Effect of time, temperature and fibre on sensory quality, microstructure and state of water2013In: Journal of Cereal Science, ISSN 0733-5210, E-ISSN 1095-9963, Vol. 57, no 1, p. 125-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to determine effect of storage time, storage temperature and addition of fibre on sensory quality, state of water, microstructure and texture of bread and dough. Samples with and without fibre, were stored frozen for 2, 3.5 and 6 months at temperatures of -19, -16 and -8 °C as dough and bread. Sensory quality was evaluated by a trained analytical panel. Microstructure was analysed by light microscopy. Texture measurements were performed on bread, and the state of water was measured by differential scanning calorimetry. Bread without fibre stored as dough at -19 °C was the sample most like freshly baked bread. Sensory evaluation also confirmed that quality of the final bread was improved if samples were stored as dough compared to stored as bread. The microstructure had larger gaps between the starch and gluten phases when stored at warmer temperatures, due to retrogradation of starch, dehydration of gluten and water migration. DSC measurements showed that bread stored at -19 °C gained extra amount of freezable water, but lost ice after storage at -8 °C. Texture measurements showed that firmness increased with extended storage time. Bread stored at -8 °C had lowest quality in all measurements. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 3.
    Ekstrand, Bo
    et al.
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Gangby, I.
    Akesson, G.
    Stollman, U.
    Lingnert, Hans
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Dahl, S.
    Lipase Activity and Development of Rancidity in Oats and Oat Products Related to Heat Treatment during Processing1993In: Journal of Cereal Science, ISSN 0733-5210, E-ISSN 1095-9963, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 247-254Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A pilot plant process simulation of dry and wet hydrothermic treatment of oats was performed in order to study the effect of the different process steps on lipase activity and the storage stability of the fat phase. A comparison was made between oats that had passed through a dry kiln treatment prior to steam preparation and oats that had only been steam-treated. Samples were taken after step in the process as well as during storage at +30°C for up to 44 weeks. The lipase activity disappeared after steam preparation, but not after the dry-heat treatment used in this process experiment. The fat phase was analysed with regard to the amount of free fatty acids (FFA) and the content of individual fatty acids. The initial content of FFA was about 8-9%. The hydrolysis of fat, giving an increase in the amount of FFA, took place in all the stored samples, but was much more pronounced in the samples that had not undergone dry- heat treatment. In the dry-heat-treated samples, the FFA concentration reached a maximum at 13-15% after 16 weeks of storage. In the samples that had not been dry- heat-treated, the FFA reached over 30% in whole oat grains after 16 weeks of storage and continued to increased to over 40% after 30 weeks of storage. In the flour the FFA concentration was lower than in whole grains. Unexpectedly, lipolysis in this case was more pronounced in the whole kernels than in the flour samples. Lipolysis was not related to the measured remaining lipase activity. Head-space analyses of hexanal indicated that the formation of volatile lipid oxidation products was dependent on the process design, but the hexanal concentration was not related to the amount of FFA. © 1993 Academic Press. All rights reserved.

  • 4. Emmambux, M.N.
    et al.
    Stading, Mats
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Taylor, J.R.N.
    Sorghum kafirin film property modification with hydrolysable and condensed tannins2004In: Journal of Cereal Science, ISSN 0733-5210, E-ISSN 1095-9963, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 127-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Films made from kafirin, the prolamin protein of sorghum, could be an environmental-friendly alternative to synthetic plastic packaging films. However, because protein-based films have inferior functional properties to synthetic plastic packaging, tannic acid (TA) and sorghum-condensed tannins (SCT) were added at up to 20% (w/w) as modifying agents during kafirin film casting. Both TA and SCT were bound to kafirin protein in the film. Freeze-fracture surfaces of tannin-modified kafirin films were observed to be different from the control. Modification with both tannins at increasing levels resulted in an increase in tensile stress and Young's modulus by two-fold and four-fold, respectively, but a three-fold decrease in %strain and a 12-15% decrease in water absorbed. Modification with TA and SCT did not change the apparent water vapour permeability. However, a significant quadratic decrease was observed for oxygen permeability. The glass transition temperature (T g) of the films showed a quadratic increase with increase in TA and SCT level. These findings indicate that TA and SCT can modify the properties of kafirin films. This probably there are no decreasing free volume in the film and possibly also by decreasing chain mobility between kafirin polypeptides by cross-linking. © 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 5.
    McCann, Thu H.
    et al.
    CSIRO Agriculture and Food, Australia.
    Homer, Stephen. H.
    CSIRO Agriculture and Food, Australia.
    Øiseth, Sofia K.
    CSIRO Agriculture and Food, Australia.
    Day, Li
    CSIRO Agriculture and Food, Australia ; AgResearch Ltd., New Zealand.
    Newberry, Marcus
    CSIRO Agriculture and Food, Australia.
    Regina, Ahmed
    CSIRO Agriculture and Food, Australia.
    Lundin, Leif
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. CSIRO Agriculture and Food, Australia.
    High amylose wheat starch increases the resistance to deformation of wheat flour dough2018In: Journal of Cereal Science, ISSN 0733-5210, E-ISSN 1095-9963, Vol. 79, p. 440-448Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High amylose wheat (HAW) starch has been the focus of a number of nutritional studies, but there is limited information around its effect on the mechanical properties of wheat flour dough. This study investigated the size, shape and packing volume of HAW starch and their effect on the microstructure and rheology of dough. Four flour blends were formulated by adding vital wheat gluten and either HAW or commercial wheat starch to HAW flour to achieve a constant 14% protein content, but varied amounts of HAW starch. A large number of small and irregularly shaped HAW starch granules resulted in a high packing volume per gram of starch. Confocal laser scanning microscopy of optimally mixed doughs correlated the degree of starch granule aggregation with the level of HAW starch in the bi-continuous dough network. Small deformation rheology demonstrated that increased quantities of HAW starch in the dough increased the elastic modulus G′ values. Uniaxial extension measurements highlighted a synergy between HAW starch and sources of gluten proteins resulting in increased strain hardening. The impact of HAW starch on dough rheology was attributed to its irregular shape and large number of small granules leading to greater granule-granule interactions.

  • 6. Oom, A.
    et al.
    Pettersson, Anders
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Taylor, J.R.N.
    Stading, Mats
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Rheological properties of kafirin and zein prolamins2008In: Journal of Cereal Science, ISSN 0733-5210, E-ISSN 1095-9963, Vol. 47, no 1, p. 109-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The possibility of forming dough from kafirin was investigated and laboratory prepared kafirin was formed into a viscoelastic dough system. Measurements with Contraction Flow showed that dough systems prepared from kafirin and from commercial zein had the required extensional rheological properties for baking of leavened bread. The extensional viscosity and strain hardening of the kafirin and zein dough systems were similar to those of gluten and wheat flour doughs. The kafirin dough system, however, unlike the zein dough system rapidly became very stiff. The stiffening behaviour of the kafirin dough system was presumed to be caused by cross-linking of kafirin monomers. SDS-PAGE showed that the kafirin essentially only contained ?- and ?-kafirin, whereas the zein essentially only contained ?-zein. Since ?-kafirin contains more cysteine residues than the ?-prolamin it is more likely to form disulphide cross-links, which probably caused the differences in stiffening behaviour between kafirin and zein dough systems. Overall the kafirin dough system displayed rheological properties sufficient for baking of porous bread. Kafirin like zein appears to have promising properties for making non-gluten leavened doughs. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 7.
    Türk, Maria
    et al.
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Carlsson, N.-G.
    Sandberg, A.-S.
    Reduction in the levels of phytate during wholemeal bread making: Effect of yeast and wheat phytases1996In: Journal of Cereal Science, ISSN 0733-5210, E-ISSN 1095-9963, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 257-264Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    No difference in wheat phytase activity was observed when different types of acid were used to adjust the pH of wholemeal wheat flour suspensions to pH 5·0, the optimum for wheat phytase. When whole wheat bread was made without additives or after adjustment of the dough pH with acetic acid or lingonberry (traditional ingredients in bread making in Sweden), 64%, 96% and 83%, respectively, of the initial phytate was hydrolysed. A small but significant difference between breads with and without yeast or with deactivated yeast was found, indicating that yeast contributed some phytase activity under the conditions of bread making (pH 5·3-5·8 and 30-37°C). The optimum pH of yeast phytase was found to be 3·5. The isomers of IP5 formed with purified wheat phytase or yeast phytase were studied using sodium phytate as substrate. Wheat phytase formed 1,2,3,4,5-IP5 whereas yeast phytase formed 1,2,4,5,6-IP5. Determination of the isomers of inositol pentaphosphate demonstrated that the reduction in phytate levels in bread compared with wholemeal flour resulted from both wheat and yeast phytase activities. © 1996 Academic Press Limited.

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