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  • 1.
    Andersson, I. M.
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Bergenståhl, B.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Millqvist-Fureby, Anna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Chemical Process and Pharmaceutical Development.
    Alexander, M.
    Arla Foods Ingredients Group P/S, Denmark.
    Paulsson, M.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Glantz, M.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Particle morphology and rehydration properties of spray-dried microgels and fractal aggregates with varying fractions of native milk serum proteins2021In: International Dairy Journal, ISSN 0958-6946, E-ISSN 1879-0143, Vol. 112, article id 104862Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To keep their functional properties, it is crucial that protein aggregates maintain their structure after spray drying and that the powders can be fully rehydrated. In this study, microgels and fractal aggregates were prepared by heating a mixture of milk serum protein concentrate and lactose (40/60; %, w/w) at 85 °C for 15 min by varying the pH. Various fractions of native proteins were added to the systems prior to spray drying. This study showed that microgels and fractal aggregates kept their structure after spray drying and reconstitution. The particle morphology could be correlated to the stiffness of the interface of the feed droplet. The forced imbibition rate showed a negative correlation with increasing amount of aggregated proteins in the powders that seems to be a result of denatured/aggregated proteins present at the surface. These findings are of importance for the formulation of spray-dried powders with improved rehydration characteristics. © 2020 The Author(s)

  • 2.
    Andersson, I. M.
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Glantz, M.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Alexander, M.
    Arla Foods Ingredients Group P/S, Denmark.
    Millqvist-Fureby, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation.
    Paulsson, M.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Bergenståhl, B.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Impact of surface properties on morphology of spray-dried milk serum protein/lactose systems2018In: International Dairy Journal, ISSN 0958-6946, E-ISSN 1879-0143, Vol. 85, p. 86-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated milk serum protein concentrate/lactose systems with varying ratios and how the morphology of the spray-dried particles of these systems could be described by the surface properties of the feed as well as the protein surface coverage of the particles. An extrapolation of the surface pressure of the feed to 0.3 s, the approximate time for molecular diffusion in an atomised droplet in the spray-dryer, showed a relationship with the particle morphology. At low protein concentrations (<1%), the particles were almost totally smooth. At higher protein concentrations (≥1%), the particles became dented and ridged, and these tended to become deeper and thicker as the protein concentration increased. It is suggested that the surface pressure of the feed at low protein concentrations is the most prominent surface property, whereas the modulus of elasticity seems to be the most prominent surface property for particle surface deformation at higher protein concentrations.

  • 3.
    Berlin, Johanna
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) of Swedish semi-hard cheese2002In: International Dairy Journal, ISSN 0958-6946, E-ISSN 1879-0143, Vol. 12, no 11, p. 939-953Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An environmental life cycle assessment was performed to investigate the environmental consequences of the life cycle of Hushållsost, a semi-hard cheese. The assessment identified those activities that contribute most to the cheese's environmental impact throughout its life cycle from extraction of ingredients to waste management. Milk production at the farm was identified as having the greatest environmental impact, followed by cheesemaking at the dairy, retailing, and the production of plastic wrapping. The environmental impact could be reduced by minimising wastage of milk and cheese throughout the life cycle, without any effect on the quality of the product. Increasing the yield of cheese would also bring about substantial improvements as less milk would have to be produced on farms. © 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 4.
    Berta, Marco
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Muskens, Erwin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience. HAS University of Applied Sciences, Germany.
    Schuster, Erich
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Rheology of natural and imitation mozzarella cheese at conditions relevant to pizza baking2016In: International Dairy Journal, ISSN 0958-6946, E-ISSN 1879-0143, Vol. 57, p. 34-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rheology of mozzarella and imitation cheese was studied at 60 °C, with small amplitude oscillatory shear (SAOS), shear and extensional flow measurement at low strain rates in the range 0.01-1 s-1. These conditions were chosen to replicate those experienced by the cheese during pizza baking and consumption. The extensional viscosity measurements were carried out by means of hyperbolic contraction flow, an alternative method to traditional extensional measurements. The extensional viscosity measured by hyperbolic contraction flow was related to the cheese elasticity and consequently to its stretchability, a major quality characteristic when this is consumed on pizza pies. The rheology of the two cheese materials could be explained by the structural observations made by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM).

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  • 5.
    Elofsson, Ulla
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Dejmek, P.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Paulsson, M. A.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Heat-induced aggregation of β-lactoglobulin studied by dynamic light scattering1996In: International Dairy Journal, ISSN 0958-6946, E-ISSN 1879-0143, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 343-357Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The in situ heat-induced aggregation of commercial β-lactoglobulin as such, or after further purification, was followed to a z-average hydrodynamic diameter of 15-20 nm at 59-63°C by dynamic light scattering. In this temperature range, measurable increase of hydrodynamic diameter occurred after an apparent lag period, which was strongly dependent on heating temperature, pH and initial protein concentration. The changes in time scale of the aggregation process agreed with changes in amount of unfolded β- lactoglobulin, assuming a two-state model of the denaturation. The pH dependence reflected the midpoint unfolding temperature and not the sulphydryl group reactivity, suggesting that this reactivity was not rate limiting in the aggregation. The aggregation process was modelled numerically with Fuchs-Smoluchowski kinetics.

  • 6.
    Malmgren, Bozena
    et al.
    Tetra Pak Dairy, Sweden.
    Ardö, Ylva
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Langton, Maud
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Altskär, Annika
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Bremer, Maria G.E.G.
    RIKILT Institute of Food Safety, The Netherlands.
    Dejmek, Petr
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Paulsson, Marie
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Changes in proteins, physical stability and structure in directly heated UHT milk during storage at different temperatures2017In: International Dairy Journal, ISSN 0958-6946, E-ISSN 1879-0143, Vol. 71, p. 60-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes occurring in directly heated UHT milk were studied during storage at 5, 22, 30 and 40 °C. Industrially produced UHT milk samples were analysed for changes in enzymatic activity, protein modification, destabilisation of casein micelles and relocation of milk proteins in relation to sedimentation and gel formation. Sedimentation occurred at all temperatures, and the protein composition of the sediments reflected the composition of its liquid phase; however, there was no α-lactalbumin, β-lactoglobulin or κ-casein present in sediments. Tendrils composed of β-lactoglobulin and κ-casein were seen on casein micelles after UHT treatment and grew in length prior to gelation. High degrees of lactosylation of proteins and peptides were clearly correlated with the absence of gelation and long tendrils. Gelled samples showed complete hydrolysis of intact β-casein, and limited lactosylation of β-lactoglobulin and κ-casein.

  • 7.
    Niimi, Jun
    et al.
    University of Otago, New Zealand; CSIRO, Australia.
    Eddy, A. I.
    Overington, A. R.
    Heenan, S. P.
    Silcock, P.
    Bremer, P. J.
    Delahunty, C. M.
    Cheddar cheese taste can be reconstructed in solution using basic tastes2014In: International Dairy Journal, ISSN 0958-6946, E-ISSN 1879-0143, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 116-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The taste of cheese contributes to flavour character directly and by cross-modal interactions with aroma. However, the relative contribution of specific tastes, i.e., sweet, salt, umami, sour, and bitter, is not well understood. Twelve cheeses were profiled by a trained sensory panel and the five tastes shown to significantly differ in intensity. Sucrose, NaCl, monosodium glutamate, lactic acid, and caffeine were mixed in water and adjusted using a 25-1 fractional factorial design (FFD) to reconstruct cheese taste; the optimised construct was compared with a Cheddar cheese to measure similarity for each taste type. The FFD provided knowledge of taste-taste interactions and aided the reconstruction of the taste profile of Cheddar cheese in solution. The reconstructed cheese solution did not significantly differ in overall intensity, saltiness, sourness, umami, and bitterness from the Cheddar cheese based on chi-squared tests. Sweetness was a difficult attribute to adjust due to its relatively low intensity.

  • 8.
    Niimi, Jun
    et al.
    University of Otago, New Zealand; CSIRO, Australia.
    Eddy, A. I.
    Overington, A. R.
    Silcock, P.
    Bremer, P. J.
    Delahunty, C. M.
    Cross-modal interaction between cheese taste and aroma2014In: International Dairy Journal, ISSN 0958-6946, E-ISSN 1879-0143, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 222-228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relative contributions of taste and aroma to the perception of cheese flavour intensity were investigated using a simultaneous gustometer olfactometer. Within a mixture of five tastes and a multicomponent aroma that had a mature Cheddar cheese character, the levels of NaCl, monosodium glutamate (MSG), lactic acid, and aroma were varied according to a 24 full factorial design, all with appropriate controls. NaCl, lactic acid, and aroma significantly contributed to cheese flavour intensity while MSG did not. The contribution of NaCl, lactic acid, and aroma revealed their potential to enhance cheese flavour intensity. These variables were able to compensate each other towards cheese flavour intensity. Changing the levels of taste and aroma together influenced the cheese flavour intensity greater than changing the levels of a single taste or aroma only. Variation in tastant concentration had a larger effect on cheese flavour intensity than did aroma.

  • 9. Nylander, T
    et al.
    Tiberg, F
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Wahlgren, NM
    Evaluation of the structure of adsorbed layers of β-casein from ellipsometry and surface force measurements1999In: International Dairy Journal, ISSN 0958-6946, E-ISSN 1879-0143, Vol. 9, p. 313-317Article in journal (Refereed)
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