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  • 1. Anker, M.
    et al.
    Berntsen, J.
    Hermansson, Ann-Marie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Improved water vapor barrier of whey protein films by addition of an acetylated monoglyceride2002In: Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, ISSN 1466-8564, E-ISSN 1878-5522, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 81-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to determine to what extent the water-vapor barrier of whey protein isolate (WPI) films could be improved by adding a lipid and make laminate and emulsion films. The laminate whey protein-lipid film decreased the water vapor permeability (WVP) 70 times compared with the WPI film. The WVP of the emulsion films was half the value of the WPI film and was not affected by changes in lipid concentration, whereas an increased homogenization led to a slight reduction in WVP. The mechanical properties showed that the lipid functioned as an apparent plasticizer by enhancing the fracture properties of the emulsion films. This effect increased with homogenization. The maximum strain at break was 117% compared with 50% for the less-homogenized emulsion films and 20% for the pure WPI films. Phase-separated emulsion films were produced with a concentration gradient of fat through the films, but pure bilayer films were not formed. © 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 2.
    Aronsson, Kristina
    et al.
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Lindgren, M.
    Johansson, B.R.
    Rönner, Ulf
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Inactivation of microorganisms using pulsed electric fields: The influence of process parameters on Escherichia coli, Listeria innocua, Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Saccharomyces cerevisiae2001In: Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, ISSN 1466-8564, E-ISSN 1878-5522, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 41-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the killing effect of pulsed electric fields (PEF) on four organisms suspended in a model medium. Escherichia coli, Listeria innocua, Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Saccharomyces cerevisiae differ in size, shape and cell wall construction. The electric field strength, pulse duration and number of pulses were varied in the ranges of 25-35 kV/cm, 2-4 ?s and 20-40 pulses, respectively. The results showed that S. cerevisiae was the most sensitive organism with a 6-log reduction, followed by E. coli with a 5.4-log reduction, when they were exposed to 30 kV/cm, and 20 pulses with 4 ?s duration. The most resistant organisms were L. innocua and L. mesenteroides with only a 3-log reduction, however, by increasing the parameters to 35 kV/cm and 40 pulses with 4 ?s pulse duration; marked viability reductions of 8 and 7 log, respectively, were observed. Heat, which is generated during the process, has limited killing effect on the cells, hence the observed reduction can be ascribed to the PEF treatment. Although transmission electron microscopy of PEF treated cells did not confirm membrane damage, observations suggest that PEF treatments have profound direct or indirect effects on the intracellular organisation of microorganisms. © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  • 3.
    Aronsson, Kristina
    et al.
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Rönner, Ulf
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Erratum: "Influence of pH, water activity and temperature on the inactivation of Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae by pulsed electric fields" (Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies (2001) vol. 2 (105-112)2002In: Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, ISSN 1466-8564, E-ISSN 1878-5522, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 101-102Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Aronsson, Kristina
    et al.
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Rönner, Ulf
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Influence of pH, water activity and temperature on the inactivation of Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae by pulsed electric fields2001In: Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, ISSN 1466-8564, E-ISSN 1878-5522, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 105-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine the influence of pH, water activity (aw) and temperature on the killing effect of pulsed electric fields (PEF). Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae suspended in a model media were subjected to 20 pulses with 4 ?s duration in a continuous PEF system, during which the effects of pH (4.0-7.0), aw (1.00-0.94) and inlet temperature (10°C and 30°C) could easily be studied. Electrical field strengths were set to 25 kV/cm for S. cerevisiae and 30 kV/cm for E. coli and the highest outlet temperature was monitored to 44°C. A synergy of low pH values, high temperatures and PEF processing was observed. A drop in pH value from 7.0 to 4.0 resulted in the reduction of E. coli by four additional log units, whereas for S. cerevisiae, the pH effect was less pronounced. Lowering aw seems to protect both E. coli and S. cerevisiae from PEF processing. © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  • 5.
    Eliasson, Lovisa
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Processing.
    Ahrné, Lilia
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Processing.
    Kerbstadt, Sebastian
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Processing.
    Mustafa, Arwa
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Processing.
    Effect of novel drying techniques on the extraction of anthocyanins from bilberry press cake using supercritical carbon dioxide2015In: Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, ISSN 1466-8564, E-ISSN 1878-5522, Vol. 29, no May, p. 209-214Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6. Flynn, K.
    et al.
    Wahnström, Erik
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Popa, M.
    Ruiz-Bejarano, B.
    Quintas, M.A.C.
    Ideal skills for European food scientists and technologists: Identifying the most desired knowledge, skills and competencies2013In: Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, ISSN 1466-8564, E-ISSN 1878-5522, Vol. 18, p. 246-255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Training food scientists and technologists (FSTs) to have appropriate skills begins with identification of those skills most desired by employers. Between March 2010 and August 2011, 16 workshops in 16 countries had 315 local FST employers contribute ideas of skills desired in their FSTs. Attendees provided as many skills as possible and these descriptive data were quantifed and then analysed with multiple contingency tables and chi squared testing. Of the 3348 skill ideas provided, the most desired skill overall was Communicating, which was identified 13% of the time. Separate analysis of the 792 food sector skills indicated Product Development, at 28%, as the most desired. Geographical region, employment area and FST level of responsibility all significantly influenced the top 3 choices of overall skills and of food sector skills, indicating that most desired skills in the food industry are not uniform. These results should contribute to the improvement of FST training and thus benefit the European food industry. Industrial relevance: The data presented here suggest that improvements in FST training, particularly the acquisition of 'soft skills', will improve Europe's food workforce as these are the skills employers most desire. These data further suggest that geographical region significantly influences those skills most desired by industrial employers. Differences in desired skills at different levels of FST responsibility further suggest that continual FST training i.e., continual professional development, will contribute to improved FST performance. Overall, this study presents data which can improve FST performance and thus contribute to increased innovation and competitiveness of the food and drink industry. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 7. Lemmens, L.
    et al.
    Tibäck, Evelina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Svelander, C.
    Alminger, M.
    Ahrné, Lilia
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Langton, Maud
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Thermal pretreatments of carrot pieces using different heating techniques: Effect on quality related aspects2009In: Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, ISSN 1466-8564, E-ISSN 1878-5522, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 522-529Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During fruit and vegetable processing, different thermal processes (blanching, pasteurization, sterilization) based on different heating techniques can be used. In this context, it is important to evaluate the impact of blanching on quality related parameters. This paper describes a case study on carrot pieces, studying the effect of thermal pretreatments (high temperature blanching, low temperature blanching and low temperature blanching in combination with Ca2+-soaking) on enzyme activity (peroxidase (POD), pectinmethylesterase (PME)), structural properties (degree of methoxylation (DM), texture) and nutritional aspects (?-carotene content). The thermal pretreatments were carried out by conventional heating as well as by microwave heating and ohmic heating, since these new heating methods can become important new technologies in food industry. It has been shown that, depending on the application, selecting the right pretreatment conditions can help to control the enzyme activity. To obtain a firm carrot texture after thermal processing, low temperature blanching seems to be the most appropriate pretreatment condition. This was supported by the micrographs and the analysis of the degree of methoxylation. Furthermore almost no influence of the pretreatments on the ?-carotene content of the samples could be noticed. For all quality parameters studied, no unambiguous effect of the heating technique could be detected. Thus, the time/temperature conditions of the thermal pretreatments determine the quality related aspects, independent of the heating technique used. Industrial relevance: With regard to consumer acceptance, a good quality control of fruit and vegetables is important. Food quality covers a wide range of parameters, including enzyme content, structural properties, nutritional properties, sensorial characteristics etc. This study gives an overview of the effect of blanching, which is a common preprocessing step in food processing, on quality related parameters in carrots. The data deliver integrated information on structural level as well as on nutritional level and on enzyme content. Moreover, novel thermal process technologies (microwave heating, ohmic heating), which gain more and more attention in food industry, are being considered as alternatives for conventional blanching. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 8. Leth, S.
    et al.
    Krook, M.
    Hornsten, E.G.
    A feasibility study of the use of a SIRE biosensor in the monitoring of H2O2 added to milk samples.: A possible new technology for early detection of mastitis?2004In: Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, ISSN 1466-8564, E-ISSN 1878-5522, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 515-522Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mastitic milk is known to degrade hydrogen peroxide at a higher rate than milk from healthy cows due to increased enzymatic, i.e. catalase, activity. This work deals with a feasibility study of a new method for monitoring hydrogen peroxide degradation in milk based on the electrochemical detection of hydrogen peroxide. This technology could be implemented in-line with the milking equipment at farms. A low pasteurised (75 °C/15 s), non-homogenised milk was chosen as a model for fresh milk. Milk samples were spiked with catalase (0.53-5.33 U/ml). Given that H2O2 as a parameter allows for the early indication of mastitis (in itself or in combination with other measurements), we believe that the SIRE technology could be developed further to meet the analytical requirements of such a detection system. © 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 9. Lindgren, M.
    et al.
    Aronsson, Kristina
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Galt, S.
    Ohlsson, Tomas
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Simulation of the temperature increase in pulsed electric field (PEF) continuous flow treatment chambers2002In: Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, ISSN 1466-8564, E-ISSN 1878-5522, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 233-245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The application of intense pulsed electric fields (PEF) in foods is intended to be a non-thermal method to inactivate microorganisms. However, it is well known that an increase in temperature is present in this process due to ohmic heating, where the pulsed electric field energy input is transformed into heat. The aim of this study was to investigate the computer modeled temperature increase in the outflow for different flow-through PEF treatment chamber designs. Given equal experimental conditions, the temperature increase is indicative of the PEF dose, and a more uniform temperature profile is thus indicative of a more homogeneous PEF treatment. The radial distribution of the temperature increase was simulated in computer models of four different chambers. The temperature increase was found to be more homogeneous in the treatment chambers making use of a decrease in the insulator diameter, i.e. a design letting the insulators and electrodes intersect at angles close to 90°. The maximum temperature increase was found close to the wall, where the flow velocity is low. Cooling of the electrodes and electric insulators is recommended to avoid too high a temperature increase. The minimum temperature increase found was 29% of the calculated average in the worst case studied here. The minimum PEF dose to which the food was subjected would thus is less than the intended dose, since the food clearly was not subjected to the intended electric field strength during the intended exposure time. This is an important result in terms of food safety in the sense that a minimum PEF treatment should be guaranteed. The microbiological inactivation was experimentally evaluated using two of the treatment chamber designs. The result is consistent with the simulations and shows a small increase in inactivation and less needed energy input giving less average temperature increase for the chamber implementing a contraction of the diameter of the insulating spacer. © 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 10. Pettersson, A.
    et al.
    Ohlsson, Thomas
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Davis, S.
    Gray, J.O.
    Dodd, T.J.
    A hygienically designed force gripper for flexible handling of variable and easily damaged natural food products2011In: Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, ISSN 1466-8564, E-ISSN 1878-5522, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 344-351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To overcome present difficulties in robotized food handling a force sensing robot gripper for flexible production is presented. A magnetic coupling is used to completely encapsulate the actuator mechanism, improving hygiene and enabling a future hose-down proof design. Product location, orientation and product type and width are extracted by a vision system to aid the gripping process. Knowing the product type the grip force is set individually for each product. In the paper data of achievable grip strength, positioning accuracy and gripping times for force controlled gripping are presented. Grip times of 410-530 ms for grip forces of 50-700 g respectively are realized. An initial microbiology study on a model system showed that an intermediate decontamination can be used to reduce the cross contamination of Listeria innocua (SIK215) significantly. The gripper is further shown to be able to handle an in-feed mixture of tomatoes, apples, carrots, broccoli and grapes without intermediate adjustments. Industrial relevance: This paper covers the development and evaluation of a hygienically designed universal robot food gripper. The gripper enables an increased use of robots in the food industry and makes very flexible production with minimal changeover times possible. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 11.
    Xanthakis, Epameinondas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Gogou, Eleni
    National Technical University of Athens, Greece.
    Taoukis, Petros
    National Technical University of Athens, Greece.
    Ahrné, Lilia
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Effect of microwave assisted blanching on the ascorbic acid oxidase inactivation and vitamin C degradation in frozen mangoes2018In: Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, ISSN 1466-8564, E-ISSN 1878-5522, Vol. 48, p. 248-257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of microwave assisted and conventional water blanching of mango (Mangifera indica) under two different blanching scenarios, High Temperature Short Time (HTST) and Low Temperature Long Time (LTLT) on ascorbic acid oxidase (AAO) inactivation and on vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid & dehydroascorbic acid) retention were comparatively studied. The impact of alternative blanching processes and subsequent frozen storage on enzymatic inactivation and vitamin C was kinetically modelled. Both water and microwave HTST as well as LTLT microwave treatments of mango pieces showed high degree of AAO inactivation. An approximately 30% residual AAO activity was observed and was described through a first order fractional conversion model. Microwave assisted blanching led to higher retention of total vitamin C in both LTLT and HTST treatments. In LTLT water blanching, vitamin C loss was mainly caused by mass transfer phenomena rather than temperature degradation, while after HTST treatments the decrease of total vitamin C content seemed to be mainly related to thermal degradation than due to the leakage of the nutrients in the blanching medium. Further inactivation of the thermostable fraction of AAO and degradation of total vitamin C were observed after frozen storage for 130 days at −18.63 ± 0.48 °C.

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