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  • 1.
    Atongka Tchoffor, Placid
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Förbrännings- och aerosolteknik. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Davidsson, Kent O.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Förbrännings- och aerosolteknik.
    Thunman, Henrik
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Production of activated carbon within the dual fluidized bed gasification process2015In: Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, ISSN 0888-5885, E-ISSN 1520-5045, Vol. 54, no 15, p. 3761-3766Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A key step in the production of clean energy from biomass gasification is the cleaning of the product gas to remove impurities, such as tars, H2S, HCl, particulates, and alkali compounds. Some gas cleaning systems employ activated carbon (AC), with Brunauer-Ernmett-Teller (BET) surface areas in the range of 800-1300 m(2)/g. Because the operational conditions for the production of AC are similar to those applied in the gasification chamber of a dual fluidized bed gasifier, the possibility to produce AC within the dual fluidized bed gasification (DFBG) process was investigated in the present work. Wood pellets were gasified with steam in a fluidized bed reactor at 800 and 840 degrees C. Part of the unconverted char from this process was further activated with steam in a fixed bed reactor at 850 degrees C. The results obtained indicate that if >= 44% of the char that results from the devolatilization of the wood pellets is gasified (the extent of char conversion), the unconverted char acquires a BET surface area >900 m(2)/g, which makes it suitable for use in gas cleaning processes. Achieving this extent of char conversion in the gasification chamber of industrial dual fluidized gasification plants would remove the need and cost for a second reactor for further activation of the unconverted char. The cost of the produced activated carbon (AC) has been estimated as being 15-fold lower than that of commercially available AC. This suggests that the production of AC as part of the dual fluidized bed gasification process would be cost-effective.

  • 2.
    Aulin, C.
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Ström, G.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Multilayered alkyd resin/nanocellulose coatings for use in renewable packaging solutions with a high level of moisture resistance2013In: Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, ISSN 0888-5885, E-ISSN 1520-5045, no 7, p. 2582-2589Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3. Gane, PAC
    et al.
    Ridgway, CJ
    Lehtinen, E
    Valiullin, R
    Furó, I
    Schoelkopf, J
    Daicic, J
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Comparison of NMR cryoporometry, mercury intrusion porosimetry, and DSC thermoporosimetry in characterizing pore size distributions of compressed finely ground calcium carbonate structures2004In: Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, ISSN 0888-5885, E-ISSN 1520-5045, Vol. 43, p. 7920-7927Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work investigates for the first time how mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP), NMR-based cryoporometry, and DSC-based thermoporosimetry compare in revealing the porous characteristics of ground calcium carbonate structures compacted over a range of pressures. The comparison is made using the same source samples throughout. MIP, a much-used method in the characterization of porous structures, has the drawback that the high pressure needed to intrude the mercury may either distort the skeletal porous structure of the sample, especially when compressible materials such as cellulose or binders/latex are present, or lead to a reduction in the measured number of large pores due to the shielding by smaller pores. These effects have previously been addressed using bulk modulus corrections and by modeling the structure permeability to account for the potential shielding. Cryoporometry gives detailed information about the pore size distribution of an imbibition saturated structure. Thermoporosimetry is a relatively new candidate in this field, and it yields both pore size distribution and pore volume. Currently it is somewhat limited in the pore size range detectable, but it is relevant to pigmented coatings. Its potential is identified for capturing the pores involved in the progress of imbibition before saturation is reached.

  • 4.
    Jakobsen, Trygve Dagsloth
    et al.
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Simon, Sebastien
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Heggset, Ellinor B
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, PFI.
    Syverud, Kristin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, PFI. NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Paso, Kristofer
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Interactions between surfactants and cellulose nanofibrils for enhanced oil recovery2018In: Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, ISSN 0888-5885, E-ISSN 1520-5045, Vol. 57, no 46, p. 15749-15758Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemical enhanced oil recovery (EOR) represents a series of potential solutions for extracting more oil from resources with already known locations and magnitudes. Unfortunately, many of the chemical additives in use today are not environmentally friendly. In the study a "greener" alternative for increasing viscosity of the injection water is investigated, namely cellulose nanofibrils (CNF). The nanofibrils are combined in systems with anionic sulfonate surfactants, SDBS and AOT, in order to decrease interfacial tension (IFT) between oil and water. In combination, the increase of water viscosity and decrease of IFT should result in higher ultimate oil recovery than if only conventional water flooding was applied. Interactions between cellulose nanofibrils and the surfactants have been investigated through adsorption studies, rheology, and IFT measurements. An observed synergy effect between CNF and surfactants upon viscosity of injection water, as well as with substantial decrease in IFT, leads the authors to the conclusion that an EOR system consisting of CNF and sulfonate surfactants has good potential for future applications.

  • 5.
    Lundberg, Louise
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Atongka Tchoffor, Placid
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Pallarès, David
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Thunman, Henrik
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Davidsson, Kent
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Impacts of Bed Material Activation and Fuel Moisture Content on the Gasification Rate of Biomass Char in a Fluidized Bed2019In: Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, ISSN 0888-5885, E-ISSN 1520-5045, Vol. 58, no 12, p. 4802-4809Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of certain bed materials has been found to increase the steam gasification rate of biomass char. The present work investigates how this phenomenon is influenced by different parameters (e.g., temperature, fuel type, and fuel moisture content), using a laboratory-scale bubbling fluidized bed gasifier. Silica sand, fresh olivine, and activated olivine were employed as bed materials, and three biomass fuels (wood chips, wood pellets, and forest residue pellets) were considered. Switching the bed material from silica sand to activated olivine resulted in a significant increase in the char gasification rate for all three fuels, with further increases noted as the fuel particle size was decreased. The observed effect was strongest (up to 4-fold) during the initial conversion phase (char gasification degrees < 20%) when the temperature was relatively low (≤ 800 °C). The moisture content of the wood chips (0-40%) had no significant effect on the char gasification rate.

  • 6.
    Mellin, Pelle
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Yu, Xi
    Aston University, UK.
    Yang, Weihong
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Blasiak, Wlodzimierz
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Influence of reaction atmosphere (H2O, N2, H2, CO2, CO) on fluidized-bed fast pyrolysis of biomass using detailed tar vapor chemistry in computational fluid dynamics2015In: Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, ISSN 0888-5885, E-ISSN 1520-5045, Vol. 54, no 33, p. 8344-8355Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Secondary pyrolysis in fluidized bed fast pyrolysis of biomass is the focus of this work. A novel computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model coupled with a comprehensive chemistry scheme (134 species and 4169 reactions, in CHEMKIN format) has been developed to investigate this complex phenomenon. Previous results from a transient three-dimensional model of primary pyrolysis were used for the source terms of primary products in this model. A parametric study of reaction atmospheres (H2O, N2, H2, CO2, CO) has been performed. For the N2 and H2O atmosphere, results of the model compared favorably to experimentally obtained yields after the temperature was adjusted to a value higher than that used in experiments. One notable deviation versus experiments is pyrolytic water yield and yield of higher hydrocarbons. The model suggests a not overly strong impact of the reaction atmosphere. However, both chemical and physical effects were observed. Most notably, effects could be seen on the yield of various compounds, temperature profile throughout the reactor system, residence time, radical concentration, and turbulent intensity. At the investigated temperature (873 K), turbulent intensity appeared to have the strongest influence on liquid yield. With the aid of acceleration techniques, most importantly dimension reduction, chemistry agglomeration, and in-situ tabulation, a converged solution could be obtained within a reasonable time (∼30 h). As such, a new potentially useful method has been suggested for numerical analysis of fast pyrolysis.

  • 7. Nilsson, F
    et al.
    Hallstensson, Karin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor.
    Johansson, Kenth S
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor.
    Umar, Z
    Hedenqvist, MS
    Predicting solubility and diffusivity of gases in polymers under high pressure: N2 in polycarbonate and poly(ether-ether-ketone)2013In: Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, ISSN 0888-5885, E-ISSN 1520-5045, Vol. 52, no 26, p. 8655-8663Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to develop a model that predicts the gas solubility and the sorption and desorption kinetics in polymer granulates over large temperature and pressure intervals. Besides the part predicting the solubility and diffusivity, the model involves the simultaneous solution of the diffusion equation and the heat equation in three dimensions using a finite element method (FEM). When the temperature- and pressure-dependent solubility of a specific polymer/gas combination is not known, an improved version of the non-equilibrium lattice fluid model (NELF) is used to predict the solubility. The improvement of the NELF model includes the use of Hansen's solubility parameters, and it uses pressure-volume-temperature (PVT) data from two new empirical models, which accurately estimate polymer densities over a wide range of temperatures and pressures. The new solubility model predicted the solubility-pressure data of N2 in poly(ethyl methacrylate) and N 2 and CH4 in polycarbonate (PC) at pressures below 4.5 MPa, without using any adjustable interaction parameters. The model was used to predict the solubility of N2 in poly(ether-ether-ketone) (PEEK) and PC at a very high pressure (67 MPa). Experimental N2 solubility data were obtained with a specially built reactor yielding high pressure and temperature. For PEEK, it was possible to predict the very high pressure solubility using a gas-polymer interaction parameter obtained from data taken at low pressures. In addition, a new free-volume-based diffusivity model requiring no adjustable interaction parameters was developed, and it successfully predicted the desorption kinetics of N2 from PEEK and PC.

  • 8. Nilsson, F
    et al.
    Hallstensson, Karin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor.
    Johansson, Kenth S
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor.
    Umar, Z
    Hedenqvist, MS
    Predicting solubility and diffusivity of gases in polymers under high pressure: N2 in polycarbonate and poly(ether-ether-ketone)2013In: Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, ISSN 0888-5885, E-ISSN 1520-5045, Vol. 52, no 26, p. 8655-8663Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to develop a model that predicts the gas solubility and the sorption and desorption kinetics in polymer granulates over large temperature and pressure intervals. Besides the part predicting the solubility and diffusivity, the model involves the simultaneous solution of the diffusion equation and the heat equation in three dimensions using a finite element method (FEM). When the temperature- and pressure-dependent solubility of a specific polymer/gas combination is not known, an improved version of the non-equilibrium lattice fluid model (NELF) is used to predict the solubility. The improvement of the NELF model includes the use of Hansen's solubility parameters, and it uses pressure-volume-temperature (PVT) data from two new empirical models, which accurately estimate polymer densities over a wide range of temperatures and pressures. The new solubility model predicted the solubility-pressure data of N2 in poly(ethyl methacrylate) and N 2 and CH4 in polycarbonate (PC) at pressures below 4.5 MPa, without using any adjustable interaction parameters. The model was used to predict the solubility of N2 in poly(ether-ether-ketone) (PEEK) and PC at a very high pressure (67 MPa). Experimental N2 solubility data were obtained with a specially built reactor yielding high pressure and temperature. For PEEK, it was possible to predict the very high pressure solubility using a gas-polymer interaction parameter obtained from data taken at low pressures. In addition, a new free-volume-based diffusivity model requiring no adjustable interaction parameters was developed, and it successfully predicted the desorption kinetics of N2 from PEEK and PC.

  • 9. Nilsson, F
    et al.
    Hallstensson, Karin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor.
    Johansson, Kenth
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor.
    Umar, Z
    Hedenqvist, MS
    Predicting solubility and diffusivity of gases in polymers under high pressure: N2 in polycarbonate and poly(ether-ether-ketone)2013In: Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, ISSN 0888-5885, E-ISSN 1520-5045, Vol. 52, no 26, p. 8655–8663-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to develop a model that predicts the gas solubility and the sorption and desorption kinetics in polymer granulates over large temperature and pressure intervals. Besides the part predicting the solubility and diffusivity, the model involves the simultaneous solution of the diffusion equation and the heat equation in three dimensions using a finite element method (FEM). When the temperature- and pressure-dependent solubility of a specific polymer/gas combination is not known, an improved version of the non-equilibrium lattice fluid model (NELF) is used to predict the solubility. The improvement of the NELF model includes the use of Hansen's solubility parameters, and it uses pressure-volume-temperature (PVT) data from two new empirical models, which accurately estimate polymer densities over a wide range of temperatures and pressures. The new solubility model predicted the solubility-pressure data of N2 in poly(ethyl methacrylate) and N 2 and CH4 in polycarbonate (PC) at pressures below 4.5 MPa, without using any adjustable interaction parameters. The model was used to predict the solubility of N2 in poly(ether-ether-ketone) (PEEK) and PC at a very high pressure (67 MPa). Experimental N2 solubility data were obtained with a specially built reactor yielding high pressure and temperature. For PEEK, it was possible to predict the very high pressure solubility using a gas-polymer interaction parameter obtained from data taken at low pressures. In addition, a new free-volume-based diffusivity model requiring no adjustable interaction parameters was developed, and it successfully predicted the desorption kinetics of N2 from PEEK and PC.

  • 10.
    Nohlgren, I.M.
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Sinquefield, S.A.
    Black liquor gasification with direct causticization using titanates: Equilibrium calculations2004In: Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, ISSN 0888-5885, E-ISSN 1520-5045, Vol. 43, no 19, p. 5996-6000Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Different alternatives to the conventional recovery of spent pulping liquors in the kraft pulping process have been studied by equilibrium calculations. These calculations were performed using FactSage. Three different black liquor gasification systems with addition of TiO2 for direct causticization were studied: (i) MTCI conditions (600 °C and 0.3 MPa), (ii) Chemrec atmospheric booster conditions (950 °C and 0.1 MPa), and (iii) Chemrec pressurized system conditions (950 °C and 3 MPa). The studies of the influence of the molar ratio TiO2/Na2O showed that a TiO2/ Na2O molar ratio of 0.5 is needed to capture all of the sodium in the condensed phase as sodium titanates (i.e., achieve complete direct causticization). Furthermore, at these conditions all of the sulfur is released to the gas phase. Different forms of sodium titanates are formed depending on the TiO2/Na2O molar ratio, and conceptually all of them could be used to produce NaOH in the consecutive leaching step.

  • 11.
    Olin, Pontus
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Hyll, Kari
    RISE, Innventia. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ovaskainen, Louise
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ruda, Marcus
    Cellutech AB, Sweden.
    Schmidt, Oskar
    Cellutech AB, Sweden.
    Turner, Charlotta
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Development of a semicontinuous spray process for the production of superhydrophobic coatings from supercritical carbon dioxide solutions2015In: Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, ISSN 0888-5885, E-ISSN 1520-5045, Vol. 54, no 3, p. 1059-1067Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Superhydrophobic surfaces have been fabricated in a continuous spray process, where an alkyl ketene dimer (AKD) wax is dissolved in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) and sprayed onto the substrate. The mass of extracted AKD from scCO2 has been investigated as well as the pressure, temperature, and flow of CO2 at the steady-state spray conditions. Several different substrates such as glass, aluminum, paper, poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) have been successfully coated, and the superhydrophobic properties have been evaluated by measurement of water contact angle, water drop friction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and surface topography. The most efficient spray process, considering surface properties and mass of extracted AKD, is obtained at the lowest temperature investigated, 67 °C, and the highest pressure evaluated in this study, 25 MPa. We also show that the influence of preexpansion conditions (p, T) on the surface temperature at the selected spray distance (3 cm) is negligible by measurement with an infrared camera during spraying.

  • 12. Pykönen, Maiju
    et al.
    Johansson, Kenth
    YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Bollström, Roger
    Fardim, Pedro
    Toivakka, Martti
    Influence of surface chemical composition on UV-varnish absorption into permeable pigment-coated paper2010In: Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, ISSN 0888-5885, E-ISSN 1520-5045, Vol. 49, no 5, p. 2169-2175Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fluorocarbon, organosilicon, and hydrocarbon plasma coatings were used to modify the surface permeable pigment-coated paper, and their impact on UV-varnish absorption was investigated. According to mercury porosimetry results, the plasma coatings had no influence on the porous structure of the paper. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) results showed characteristic surface chemical compositions for each plasma coating. The fluorocarbon plasma coating increased the UV-varnish contact angles significantly, whereas the hydrocarbon plasma coating had no clear influence. When the UV varnish was applied with a flexography unit including nip pressure, the role of surface chemical composition seemed to become minimal. The viscosity of the UV varnish was shown to impact the absorption rate with and without external pressure.

  • 13. Regner, M.
    et al.
    Östergren, Karin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Tragardh, C.
    Influence of viscosity ratio on the mixing process in a static mixer: Numerical study2008In: Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, ISSN 0888-5885, E-ISSN 1520-5045, Vol. 47, no 9, p. 3030-3036Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mixing process in a Lightnin Series 45 static mixer, 40 mm in diameter, has been investigated using computational fluid dynamics and the volume of fluid (VOF) method, a method developed for immiscible fluids but here used for miscible. The mixing process was investigated for two liquids that had viscosities ranging from 0.003 to 51.2 Pa s, and the volumetric flow rate proportion between the liquids was varied between 1/1 and 4/1. The flow rate was 0.1 m/s, and two Reynolds numbers, 1 and 70, were investigated. The mixer performance was evaluated using the rate of striation thinning, and it was found that the greater the difference in viscosity the worse the mixer performance. This effect is due to the difference in elongation rate between the liquids, which exists until equilibrium in shear stress has been reached at the interface between the liquids. For higher Re numbers close to a point when secondary motions start to have significance for the rate of striation thinning, a lower viscosity of the added liquid results in an increase in mixing performance. It was further found that the VOF method can be used to model the mixing of dissimilar liquids in static mixers, but since the thickness of the striations decreases rapidly with the number of mixer elements, the VOF method is most suitable when investigating mixing processes over a small number of mixer elements. © 2008 American Chemical Society.

  • 14.
    Sewring, Tor
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Zhu, Weizhen
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sedin, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Papermaking and Packaging.
    Theliander, Hans
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Predictions of Pair Interaction Potentials between Kraft Lignin Macromolecules in Black Liquors by Utilization of a Modified Poisson-Boltzmann Approach2019In: Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, ISSN 0888-5885, E-ISSN 1520-5045, Vol. 58, no 8, p. 3427-3439Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this investigation, a modified Poisson-Boltzmann approach has been used to estimate the mean ion concentration distributions of ionic species present in black liquors around charged kraft lignin macromolecules at industrially relevant conditions. The distributions were utilized to predict the double layer repulsion and, further, predict the overall pair interaction potentials between two kraft lignin macromolecules or particles immersed in the black liquor electrolyte. The properties of softwood black liquors were used as input data to the model. The numerical results predicted the pair interaction potentials to remain repulsive up to salt concentrations of about 2.5 M at pOH 1. The critical coagulation concentration of salt was predicted to decrease as the pOH of the black liquor was increased. The predictions at 65 °C and moderate levels of pOH (3.5) and salt concentration (1.9 M) were found to be in good agreement with previous observations reported in the literature.

  • 15.
    Sophonrat, Nanta
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Sandström, Linda
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, ETC Energy Technology Center.
    Svanberg, Rikard
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Han, Tong
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Dvinskikh, Sergey
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Lousada, Claudio
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Yang, Weihong
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ex Situ Catalytic Pyrolysis of a Mixture of Polyvinyl Chloride and Cellulose Using Calcium Oxide for HCl Adsorption and Catalytic Reforming of the Pyrolysis Products2019In: Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, ISSN 0888-5885, E-ISSN 1520-5045, Vol. 58, no 31, p. 13960-13970Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the context of chemical recycling of mixed plastics and paper, multitemperature step pyrolysis has shown good potential for the separation of oxygenated products from hydrocarbons. Here, we report results of an investigation of the first pyrolysis step at low temperature, which involves the dehydrochlorination of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and the pyrolysis of cellulose, the main component of paper. Calcium oxide (CaO), selected for its chloride adsorption ability and its catalytic activity on biooil deoxygenation, was used for upgrading the downstream products from the pyrolysis. Additionally, we studied the performance of CaO for the simultaneous adsorption of HCl and for reforming cellulose pyrolysates in the temperature range of 300-600 °C with feedstock to CaO ratios of 1:0.2, 1:0.4, and 1:1. It was found that the suitable catalytic temperature for HCl and acetic acid adsorption is lower than 400 °C. This is due to the desorption of HCl from CaCl2 and Ca(OH)Cl in the presence of water and CO2 at 400 °C and higher. A larger amount of CaO resulted in a more efficient reduction of acids and the organic liquids were found to have lower amounts of oxygen. A comparison between the cases of neat and mixed feedstock showed that pyrolysis of mixed feedstock produced more water, H2, CO, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) when compared to the case of neat materials over CaO

  • 16.
    Swerin, Agne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation.
    Dimensional Scaling of Aqueous Ink Imbibition and Inkjet Printability on Porous Pigment Coated Paper-A Revisit2018In: Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, ISSN 0888-5885, E-ISSN 1520-5045, Vol. 57, no 49, p. 16684-16691Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A recently published dimensional scaling of infiltration of water-based inkjet fluids was used to revisit published inkjet printability data on mineral-pigment-based, inkjet-receptive coated papers. The dimensional scaling was developed using simple fluids on homogeneous isotropic media and applied on uncoated papers using complex inkjet fluids but so far has not been related to printability. It is shown that the scaling can also work for coated papers using commercial dye- and pigment-based inks with a suggested relation to printability as given by the color gamut area, in which the primary factor is the product of permeability and capillary pressure. A successful scaling suggests that inkjet printability can be predicted from flow and materials parameters, namely, porosity, viscosity, imbibed volume, permeability, and capillary pressure, and would be of general applicability in other areas of inkjet printing. The results further imply the usefulness of the approach in other functional surface modification using waterborne procedures on hard or soft porous materials.

  • 17. Van Hark, S.D.
    et al.
    Härröd, Magnus
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Fixed-bed hydrogenation at supercritical conditions to form fatty alcohols: The dramatic effects caused by phase transitions in the reactor2001In: Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, ISSN 0888-5885, E-ISSN 1520-5045, Vol. 40, no 23, p. 5052-5057Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural fatty alcohols are one of the major oleochemicals and can be produced by catalytic hydrogenation of fatty acid methyl esters. In the commercial multiphase process, the hydrogen availability to the solid catalyst limits the reaction rate. By adding propane to the reaction mixture, we can utilize the unique properties of supercritical fluids, properties between those of gases and liquids. Using propane, a substantially homogeneous supercritical phase is created, whereby hydrogen has complete access to the solid catalyst. At high substrate concentrations, a rapid fall of the reaction rate was observed, and the benefits of the propane addition were completely lost. This fall depends on a split of the supercritical reaction mixture into two phases (a substrate-rich and a hydrogen-rich phase). If this phase split occurred using small catalyst particles (?32 ?m), the pressure drop over the catalyst bed increased sharply because the formed liquid droplets blocked the void space in the porous catalyst bed. These two phenomena were used to deduce the product and substrate solubility in the reaction mixture. The product showed the most unfavorable solubility which increased with higher pressure. Under our process conditions (150 bar, 280 °C, and 11 mol % hydrogen), a single phase was observed up to 2 mol % (i.e., 15% by mass) product. Besides the minimum pressure in the catalyst bed, substrate transport limitation could be shown to be an important factor in process optimization. Therefore, egg-shell catalysts or fine catalyst particles (100-300 ?m) should preferably be used in the continuous supercritical reactors.

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v. 2.35.9