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  • 1.
    Eriksson, Caj
    SIK – Svenska livmedelsinstitutet.
    Lipid oxidation catalysts and inhibitors in raw materials and processed foods1982In: Food Chemistry, ISSN 0308-8146, E-ISSN 1873-7072, Vol. 9, no 42006, p. 3-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is limited to those catalysts and lipid oxidation inhibitors which have been found to be present either in the raw food materials or in processed food as a result of its processing. Lipoxygenase and haemoproteins are very powerful lipid oxidation catalysts in many foods. Heat treatment usually inactivates lipoxygenase but can, under certain conditions, activate haemoproteins as non-enzymatic metal catalysts. Tocopherol, normally referred to as an antioxidant, can, under certain concentration conditions, shift to pro-oxidative properties. Even volatile lipid oxidation products have been shown to accelerate lipid oxidation. Inhibitors present in raw materials are found among proteins, amino acids and plant constituents such as flavonoids. Most spices and herbs have antioxidative properties, particularly in darkness. Some microorganisms in their normal metabolism inhibit lipid oxidation or the consequences thereof. Some enzymes, especially superoxide dismutase, are claimed to inhibit lipid oxidation. Among process-induced lipid oxidation inhibitors, Maillard reaction products are those most investigated, together with protein hydrolysates. Smoking generates antioxidative compounds. In most cases the mechanism of lipid oxidation inhibition is still unknown for these materials. © 1982.

  • 2.
    Garrido-Bañuelos, Gonzalo
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Buica, Astrid
    Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Schückel, Julia
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Zietsman, Anscha
    Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Willats, William
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark ; Newcastle University, UK.
    Moore, John
    Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Du Toit, Wessel
    Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Investigating the relationship between cell wall polysaccharide composition and the extractability of grape phenolic compounds into Shiraz wines. Part II: Extractability during fermentation into wines made from grapes of different ripeness levels2019In: Food Chemistry, ISSN 0308-8146, E-ISSN 1873-7072, Vol. 278, p. 26-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study evaluated the relationship between cell wall breakdown, from Shiraz grapes harvested at three different ripeness levels and the colour and phenolics extracted during alcoholic fermentation into wines. Phenolic differences between the ripeness treatments were minimal after ¼ of the fermentation was completed. However, colour and phenolic content were significantly higher in finished wines made from 25°Brix grapes compared to those from 21°Brix and 23°Brix. Levels of grape cell wall polysaccharide deconstruction during fermentation was a determining correlative factor in relation to phenolic extractability. In this context, the de-pectination observed during ripening was found to enhance this deconstruction or “opening-up” of the grape pomace during fermentation, thus increasing the differential extraction of specific polyphenols, especially polymeric polyphenols, into the wines. Additionally, the degree of cell wall deconstruction seemed to play a role in the possible retention and extraction of specific grape proanthocyanidins, depending on their nature and polymer length.

  • 3.
    Garrido-Bañuelos, Gonzalo
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Buica, Astrid
    Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Schückel, Julia
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Zietsman, Anscha
    Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Willats, William
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark ; Newcastle University, UK.
    Moore, John
    Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Du Toit, Wessel
    Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Investigating the relationship between grape cell wall polysaccharide composition and the extractability of phenolic compounds into Shiraz wines. Part I: Vintage and ripeness effects2019In: Food Chemistry, ISSN 0308-8146, E-ISSN 1873-7072, Vol. 278, p. 36-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phenolic compounds play an important role in colour stability and sensory properties of red wine. This study evaluated berry skin cell wall composition and how this influences grape and wine phenolics at different ripeness levels (21°Brix, 23°Brix, and 25°Brix) over two consecutive vintages. The vintage effect was highly significant, especially in the pectin fraction of the grape cell walls and affected the concentrations of certain phenolics extracted. The climatic variance between the seasons might have influenced the differences observed in the grape cell wall compositions. Firstly, a higher grape and wine phenolic content, especially in polymeric phenols, was found in 2015 wines. Additionally, grape berry cell walls, especially at the earliest stages of ripening, were found to be more intact in 2015 than in 2016. Thus, a possible relationship was found between the degree of berry intactness, especially for pectin-rich components, and the corresponding phenolic extractability during the winemaking.

  • 4. Hallberg, M.L.
    et al.
    Lingnert, Hans
    SIK – Svenska livmedelsinstitutet.
    The relationship between lipid composition and oxidative stability of potato granules1990In: Food Chemistry, ISSN 0308-8146, E-ISSN 1873-7072, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 201-210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lipid oxidation and changes in the lipid composition of potato granules during storage were studied. In particular, the possible rôle of the free fatty acids (FFA) in oxidation and storage stability was examined. Three potato granule materials which differed in FFA content were stored in darkness, in air at 25°C. The lipid oxidation was followed by gas chromatographic headspace analysis of volatile compounds and sensory evaluation was carried out after periods of 12 and 40 weeks of storage. The FFA were analysed by gas chromatography to determine fatty acid composition during storage. All three of the potato granule materials were markedly oxidized. However, the material containing the least original amount of FFA was the most rancid after only 12 weeks storage, according to both the sensory analysis and the content of hexanal. This shows that there was no connection between the original total amount of FFA and the oxidative stability of the potato granules. In the most highly oxidized material the FFA content decreased towards the end of the storage period, but in the other two materials, for which the rate of oxidation was lower, there was a slight increase of the polyunsaturated FFA (C18:2 + C18:3). This indicates that both simultaneous lipolysis and oxidation took place during storage. The fatty acid compositions within the lipid classes; neutral lipids, galactolipids, and phospholipids, were not found to change significantly during storage. © 1990.

  • 5. Hansson, A.
    et al.
    Andersson, J.
    Leufvén, Anders
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    The effect of sugars and pectin on flavour release from a soft drink-related model system2001In: Food Chemistry, ISSN 0308-8146, E-ISSN 1873-7072, Vol. 72, no 3, p. 363-368Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Three types of sugar and high-methoxyl pectin at different concentrations were added to a soft drink-related model system consisting of water and six flavour compounds. The addition of these ingredients contributes to changes in viscosity and water activity, which in turn affects the release of the flavour compounds to the gas phase above the soft drink. In the study, a higher concentration of sucrose and invert sugar increased the release of five flavour compounds, probably owing to a so-called 'salting-out' effect. Starch syrup at a concentration of 60% increased the amount of three of the flavour compounds released and would probably increase the release of more compounds at a higher concentration. When pectin was added to the system, it was seen that viscosity does not influence release of the flavour molecules, but that the kind of stabiliser used is more important. Copyright © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  • 6. Hansson, A.
    et al.
    Pehrson, K.
    Andersson, J.
    Effect of changes in pH on the release of flavour compounds from a soft drink-related model system2001In: Food Chemistry, ISSN 0308-8146, E-ISSN 1873-7072, Vol. 74, no 4, p. 429-435Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Citric acid and phosphoric acid were added in variable amounts to a soft drink model system to show their effect on the release of six flavour compounds. High concentrations of the acids decreased the release of esters, probably because of the presence of large amounts of the dissociated form of the acids. However, the same amounts of added citric acid had no effect on flavour release when pH was regulated with sodium hydroxide. Changes in pH values achieved by adding hydrochloric acid also had no effect on flavour release. These results indicate that pH values used in soft drinks do not affect the release of flavour molecules. It is more likely the citric acid and the phosphoric acid, particularly their dissociated forms, which decrease the release of the esters. The other flavour compounds were not affected. Copyright © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  • 7.
    Kirkhus, Bente
    et al.
    Nofima, Norway.
    Afseth, Nils Kristian
    Nofima, Norway.
    Borge, Grethe Iren A.
    Nofima, Norway.
    Grimsby, Sveinung
    Nofima, Norway.
    Steppeler, Christina
    Nofima, Norway.
    Krona, Annika
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Langton, Maud
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Increased release of carotenoids and delayed in vitro lipid digestion of high pressure homogenized tomato and pepper emulsions2019In: Food Chemistry, ISSN 0308-8146, E-ISSN 1873-7072, Vol. 285, p. 282-289Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carotenoids are lipophilic compounds that are digested and absorbed along with lipids. Emulsions based on a mixture of plum tomato and red sweet pepper, with 5% or 10% rapeseed oil, were obtained by high pressure homogenization, and the concentration of carotenoids in the emulsion oil droplets was quantified. The fraction of lycopene and beta-carotene released from the plant matrix into the oil droplets was highest in the 10% emulsion, which had larger oil droplets than the 5% emulsion. Xanthophylls were easily released into oil droplets in both 5% and 10% emulsions. The results suggest that the release of carotenoids made available for intestinal absorption depends on carotenoid type and can be significantly improved by increasing the homogenization pressure and oil content. However, in vitro gastrointestinal digestion indicated the presence of constituents or structures in the emulsions, originating from tomato, that reduced pancreatic activity, which may delay micellarization and uptake of carotenoids.

  • 8.
    Lilja, Marianne
    et al.
    SIK – Svenska livmedelsinstitutet.
    Lingnert, Hans
    SIK – Svenska livmedelsinstitutet.
    Liberation of free fatty acids during production of potato granules1989In: Food Chemistry, ISSN 0308-8146, E-ISSN 1873-7072, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 15-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The amount of free fatty acids and their composition were studied during an add-back process of potato granules. Samples were taken at several different stages in the production, from raw tubers to final potato granules. Lipids were extracted and lipid classes separated by liquid chromatography. Free fatty acids were separated from the neutral lipid fraction by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The fatty acid composition was analysed by gas chromatography (GC). The amount of free fatty acid increased in the first stages of the process and rose to its highest level in the samples from the steam-cooking step. During further processing the amounts of free fatty acids slowly decreased. Since enzymatic hydrolysis is one explanation for liberation of fatty acids, lipase activity was measured by a spectrofluorimetric method in the raw tubers, blanched slices and steam-cooked slices. After the blanching step, some enzyme activity was found but after steam-cooking there was none. © 1989.

  • 9.
    Lilja, Marianne
    et al.
    SIK – Svenska livmedelsinstitutet.
    Lingnert, Hans
    SIK – Svenska livmedelsinstitutet.
    Lipid changes during the production of potato granules1989In: Food Chemistry, ISSN 0308-8146, E-ISSN 1873-7072, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 267-277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Potato granules were produced by an add-back-process. The lipid composition of the potato tubers and the final potato granules were assessed in order to study the influence of the process. The extracted lipids were fractionated into three major classes, neutral lipids, galacto-lipids and phospholipids, on a silicic acid column. The free fatty acids were separated from the neutral lipids by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The fatty acid composition of the three lipid classes as well as the free fatty acid fraction was analysed by gas chromatography. No changes could be observed in the galactolipids and the phospholipids but the free fatty acid content was found to be about ten times higher in potato granules than in the potato tubers. © 1989.

  • 10.
    Nielsen, Tim
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Bergstrom, B.
    Borch, Elisabeth
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    The origin of off-odours in packaged rucola (Eruca sativa)2008In: Food Chemistry, ISSN 0308-8146, E-ISSN 1873-7072, Vol. 110, no 1, p. 96-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rucola (Eruca sativa) was decontaminated and then reinoculated with selected microorganisms. The produce was then stored in three different atmospheres and at two temperatures. The accumulation of off-odours in the packaging headspace was analysed. A dozen compounds were detected by olfactometry but only dimethyl sulphide and dimethyl disulphide were considered to have a strong or moderate intensity. Thus, they were identified as the substances causing an unpleasant smell inside the bags. Inoculation with microorganisms resulted in higher production of off-odours. Samples inoculated with Pseudomonadaceae&Xanthamonadaceae were particularly potent in producing the two sulphides. The off-odour problem was much more prominent in samples that were kept in a packaging material that did not allow gas exchange resulting in oxygen levels below 1%. Higher levels of sulphides were detected at 8 °C than at 4 °C. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 11.
    Nielsen, Tim
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Leufven, A.
    The effect of modified atmosphere packaging on the quality of Honeoye and Korona strawberries2008In: Food Chemistry, ISSN 0308-8146, E-ISSN 1873-7072, Vol. 107, no 3, p. 1053-1063Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Strawberries (cultivars Honeoye and Korona) were stored in perforated polypropylene bags at 5 °C for 10 days. Unpackaged strawberries were used as a reference. Several quality parameters were monitored during the storage period. The packaged strawberries retained their weight throughout the experiment as opposed to the unpackaged samples which lost 1.5% of their weight per day because of dehydration. The aroma profile of Honeoye strawberries was not affected by storage in modified atmospheres. In Korona fruits, on the other hand, there was a considerable increase in ethyl acetate levels, indicating unwanted metabolism caused by the altered gas composition. The production of potential off-odours was, however, not possible to distinguish in the sensory analyses of the strawberries. The results indicated that storage in a modified atmosphere (11-14% O2 and 9-12% CO2) can be used to maintain the quality of Honeoye and Korona strawberries for a longer time, than if kept in air in open containers. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 12.
    Solomon, O.
    et al.
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Svanberg, Ulf
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Sahlstrom, A.
    Effect of oxygen and fluorescent light on the quality of orange juice during storage at 8°C1995In: Food Chemistry, ISSN 0308-8146, E-ISSN 1873-7072, Vol. 53, no 4, p. 363-368Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of oxygen and light exposure and the combination of these two parameters on the retention of ascorbic acid, occurrence of non-enzymatic browning and the formation of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfuraldehyde (HMF) and furfural was investigated in orange juice stored at 8°C for 52 days. Orange juice, reconstituted and HTST-pasteurised, was stored in glass containers, covered on the sides with aluminium foil and sealed on the top with packaging materials, i.e. glass, polyethylene and paper carton. having different light transmission and oxygen permeation characteristics. The ascorbic acid content was significantly affected by the level of dissolved oxygen in the juice, but no effect of light could be observed under the conditions of this study. Browning increased during the first 3 weeks of storage in all samples and was over the whole period of storage significantly correlated to the level of dissolved oxygen, but the effect of light was insignificant. HMF and furfural content did not increase significantly in any of the samples during the 52-day storage at 8°C. © 1995.

  • 13.
    Svanberg, Lina
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Malmberg, Kajsa
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Gustinelli, Graziele
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Öhgren, Camilla
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Persson, Ingela
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Brive, Lena
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Wassén, Sophia
    Effect of anthocyanins on lipid oxidation and microbial spoilage in value-added emulsions with bilberry seed oil, anthocyanins and cold set whey protein hydrogels2019In: Food Chemistry, ISSN 0308-8146, E-ISSN 1873-7072, Vol. 272, p. 273-278Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this work was to explore the storage properties of a structured oil-in-water emulsion containing both water- and fat-soluble bioactive compounds from bilberries (Vaccinium myrtillus L.). Bilberry seed oil (BSO) was dispersed in a continuous aqueous phase of anthocyanins (AC) and whey protein isolate. The microstructure was evaluated using light microscopy and the effect of anthocyanins on lipid oxidation and microbial growth was investigated. The results showed that it was possible to generate a stable emulsion structure that resisted phase separation during 25 weeks of storage. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry measurements of the fatty acids in the BSO during storage showed that AC had a protective effect against lipid oxidation. The AC did not have an antimicrobial effect against the investigated strains Zygosaccharomyces bailii (ATCC 42476) and Aspergillus niger (ATCC 6275 (M68)).

  • 14.
    Svanberg, Lina
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Wassén, Sophia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Gustinelli, Graziele
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Öhgren, Camilla
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Design of microcapsules with bilberry seed oil, cold-set whey protein hydrogels and anthocyanins: Effect of pH and formulation on structure formation kinetics and resulting microstructure during purification processing and storage2019In: Food Chemistry, ISSN 0308-8146, E-ISSN 1873-7072, Vol. 280, p. 146-153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Encapsulation of polar and non-polar bioactive compounds from bilberries was achieved by designing microcapsules with bilberry seed oil (BSO) distributed in an aqueous phase of anthocyanins (AC) stabilized by whey protein isolate (WPI). Non-thermal emulsification method (o/w/o) was developed and the effect of pH (3 or 4.5), concentration of WPI (8.4–10.8% w/w), addition of AC (72–216 ppm) and emulsifier on the structure-forming kinetics, resulting microstructure during storage and after centrifugation and washing was investigated. Agglomeration of BSO was observed in all microcapsules at pH 4.5 due to slow gelling process and in samples at pH 3 at low concentrations of WPI (≤8.4%). Capsules with pH 3 (9.6–10.8% WPI) had weak structures but as the gelling process was faster, it generated an even distribution of BSO droplets. All samples at pH 4.5 and samples with WPI concentration ≥10.8% at pH 3 exhibited intact structures after centrifugation and washing.

  • 15.
    Undeland, Ingrid
    et al.
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Härröd, Magnus
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Lingnert, Hans
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Comparison between methods using low-toxicity solvents for the extraction of lipids from herring (Clupea harengus)1998In: Food Chemistry, ISSN 0308-8146, E-ISSN 1873-7072, Vol. 61, no 3, p. 355-365Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Three alkane/alcohol/water-based lipid extraction systems were evaluated to determine which would be the best replacement for the frequently used chloroform/methanol/water system, nowadays known to be very toxic. All the methods were applied to samples of minced herring (Clupea harengus) differing in quality and composition. In addition to comparisons of total lipid yield, the extracted lipids were compared with respect to content of triglycerides, phospholipids, free fatty acids, ?-tocopherol, lipid hydroperoxides and conjugated dienes. The content of phospholipids was found to differ most between the lipids extracted by the four methods. Here, the chloroform/methanol/water system was the most efficient, followed by heptane/ethanol/water/sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and then iso-propanol/hexane. However, by decreasing the level of SDS, the efficiency of the heptane/ethanol/water/SDS system in extracting phospholipids was increased to the same level as that of the chloroform/methanol/water system. This decrease in SDS also resulted in a higher recovery of free fatty acids. The lack of correlation between yields of phospholipids and yields of lipid oxidation products throughout this study was surprising because of the often-described susceptibility of phospholipids to oxidation.

  • 16.
    Wendin, Karin
    et al.
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Langton, Maud
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Caous, L.
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Hall, Gunnar
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Dynamic analyses of sensory and microstructural properties of cream cheese2000In: Food Chemistry, ISSN 0308-8146, E-ISSN 1873-7072, Vol. 71, no 3, p. 363-378Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flavour and texture in cream cheese depend on the microstructure. The objective of this work was to study the influence of fat content, salt content and homogenisation pressure on the microstructure and sensory properties of cream cheese. Twelve types of cream cheese were produced according to a full-factorial design, whereby the fat content was set at three levels, the salt content at two levels and the homogenisation pressure at two levels. The cheeses were analysed by a sensory panel, using both quantitative descriptive profiling and time intensity (TI) evaluation, and by using a confocal laser scanning microscope, CLSM, whereby the microstructure of the cheeses was analysed. All the design parameters had a significant influence on the flavour and texture, although fat had the largest effect. Interaction effects between the design parameters were also found to influence the character of cream cheese. The results showed that it is possible to create a cream cheese with lower fat content and with sensory attributes similar to the attributes in cream cheese with high fat content, by modification of production parameters. Copyright (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  • 17.
    Wendin, Karin
    et al.
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Langton, Maud
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Caous, L
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Hall, Gunnar
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Dynamic analyses of sensory and microstructural properties of cream cheese2000In: Food Chemistry, ISSN 0308-8146, E-ISSN 1873-7072, Vol. 71, no 3, p. 363-378Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flavour and texture in cream cheese depend on the microstructure. The objective of this work was to study the influence of fat content, salt content and homogenisation pressure on the microstructure and sensory properties of cream cheese. Twelve types of cream cheese were produced according to a full-factorial design, whereby the fat content was set at three levels, the salt content at two levels and the homogenisation pressure at two levels. The cheeses were analysed by a sensory panel, using both quantitative descriptive profiling and time intensity (TI) evaluation, and by using a confocal laser scanning microscope, CLSM, whereby the microstructure of the cheeses was analysed. All the design parameters had a significant influence on the flavour and texture, although fat had the largest effect. Interaction effects between the design parameters were also found to influence the character of cream cheese. The results showed that it is possible to create a cream cheese with lower fat content and with sensory attributes similar to the attributes in cream cheese with high fat content, by modification of production parameters. Copyright (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd.

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