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  • 1.
    Arnell, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019). Lund University, Sweden.
    Astals, Sergi
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Åmand, Linda
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Batstone, Damien J.
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Jensen, Paul D.
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Jeppsson, Ulf
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Modelling anaerobic co-digestion in Benchmark Simulation Model No. 2:parameter estimation, substrate characterisation and plant-wide integration2016Inngår i: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 98, s. 138-146Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Anaerobic co-digestion is an emerging practice at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to improve the energy balance and integrate waste management. Modelling of co-digestion in a plant-wide WWTP model is a powerful tool to assess the impact of co-substrate selection and dose strategy on digester performance and plant-wide effects. A feasible procedure to characterise and fractionate co-substrates COD for the Benchmark Simulation Model No. 2 (BSM2) was developed. This procedure is also applicable for the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1). Long chain fatty acid inhibition was included in the ADM1 model to allow for realistic modelling of lipid rich co-substrates. Sensitivity analysis revealed that, apart from the biodegradable fraction of COD, protein and lipid fractions are the most important fractions for methane production and digester stability, with at least two major failure modes identi fied through principal component analysis (PCA). The model and procedure were tested on bio-methane potential (BMP) tests on three substrates, each rich on carbohydrates, proteins or lipids with good predictive capability in all three cases. This model was then applied to a plant-wide simulation study which confirmed the positive effects of co-digestion on methane production and total operational cost. Simulations also revealed the importance of limiting the protein load to the anaerobic digester to avoid ammonia inhibition in the digester and overloading of the nitrogen removal processes in the water train. In contrast, the digester can treat relatively high loads of lipid rich substrates without prolonged disturbances.

  • 2.
    Eklöf, Karin
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    von Brömssen, Claudia
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Amvrosiadi, Nino
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel. SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Fölster, Jens
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Wallin, Marcus
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Bishop, Kevin
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Brownification on hold: What traditional analyses miss in extended surface water records2021Inngår i: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 203, artikkel-id 117544Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Widespread increases in organic matter (OM) content of surface waters, as measured by color and organic carbon (OC), are a major issue for aquatic ecosystems. Long-term monitoring programs revealed the issue of “brownification”, with climate change, land cover changes and recovery from acidification all suspected to be major drivers or contributing factors. While many studies have focused on the impact and drivers, fewer have followed up on whether brownification is continuing. As time-series of OM data lengthen, conventional data-analysis approaches miss important information on when changes occur. To better identify temporal OM patterns during three decades (1990–2020) of systematic monitoring, we used generalized additive models to analyze 164 time-series from watercourses located across Sweden. Increases in OC that were widespread during 1990–2010 ceased a decade ago, and most color increases ceased 20 years ago. These findings highlight the need to reassess the understanding of brownification's spatial and temporal extent, as well as the tools used to analyze lengthening time series.

  • 3. Ericsson, B
    et al.
    Eriksson, L
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Activated sludge characteristics in a phosphorus depleted environment1988Inngår i: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 22, s. 151-162Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 4.
    Eriksson, L
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Axberg, C
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Direct influence of wastewater pollutants on flocculation and sedimentationbehaviour in biological wastewater treatment : I. model system E.coli B1981Inngår i: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 15, s. 421-431Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 5.
    Eveborn, David
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Elmefors, Elin
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Yu, Lin
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Ann Kristin
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Ljung, Emelie
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Renman, Gunno
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Phosphorus in soil treatment systems: Accumulation and mobility2014Inngår i: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 64, s. 42-52Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Septic tanks with subsequent soil treatment systems (STS) are a common treatment technique for domestic wastewater in rural areas. Phosphorus (P) leakage from such systems may pose a risk to water quality (especially if they are located relatively close to surface waters). In this study, six STS in Sweden (11-28 years old) were examined. Samples taken from the unsaturated subsoil beneath the distribution pipes were investigated by means of batch and column experiments, and accumulated phosphorus were characterized through X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analysis. At all sites the wastewater had clearly influenced the soil. This was observed through decreased pH, increased amounts of oxalate extractable metals and at some sites altered P sorption properties. The amount of accumulated P in the STS were found to be between 0.32 and 0.87kgm-3, which in most cases was just a fraction of the estimated P load (<30%). Column studies revealed that high P concentrations (up to 6mgL-1) were leached from the material when deionized water was applied. However, the response to deionized water varied between the sites. As evidenced by XANES analysis, aluminium phosphates or P adsorbed to aluminium (hydr)oxides, as well as organically bound P, were important sinks for P. Generally soils with a high content of oxalate-extractable Al were also less vulnerable to P leakage.

  • 6.
    Flach, Carl-Fredrik
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hutinel, Marion
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Razavi, Mohammad
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Åhrén, Christina
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Region Västra Götaland, Sweden.
    Larsson, D G Joakim
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Monitoring of hospital sewage shows both promise and limitations as an early-warning system for carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales in a low-prevalence setting.2021Inngår i: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 200, artikkel-id 117261Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales (CPE) constitute a significant threat to healthcare systems. Continuous surveillance is important for the management and early warning of these bacteria. Sewage monitoring has been suggested as a possible resource-efficient complement to traditional clinical surveillance. It should not least be suitable for rare forms of resistance since a single sewage sample contains bacteria from a large number of individuals. Here, the value of sewage monitoring in early warning of CPE was assessed at the Sahlgrenska University Hospital in Gothenburg, Sweden, a setting with low prevalence of CPE. Twenty composite hospital sewage samples were collected during a two-year period. Carbapenemase genes in the complex samples were analyzed by quantitative PCR and the CPE loads were assessed through cultures on CPE-selective agar followed by species determination as well as phenotypic and genotypic tests targeting carbapenemases of presumed CPE. The findings were related to CPE detected in hospitalized patients. A subset of CPE isolates from sewage and patients were subjected to whole genome sequencing. For three of the investigated carbapenemase genes, blaNDM, blaOXA-48-like and blaKPC, there was concordance between gene levels and abundance of corresponding CPE in sewage. For the other two analyzed genes, blaVIM and blaIMP, there was no such concordance, most likely due to the presence of those genes in non-Enterobacterales populating the sewage samples. In line with the detection of OXA-48-like- and NDM-producing CPE in sewage, these were also the most commonly detected CPE in patients. NDM-producing CPE were detected on a single occasion in sewage and isolated strains were shown to match strains detected in a patient. A marked peak in CPE producing OXA-48-like enzymes was observed in sewage during a few months. When levels started to increase there were no known cases of such CPE at the hospital but soon after a few cases were detected in samples from patients. The OXA-48-like-producing CPE from sewage and patients represented different strains, but they carried similar blaOXA-48-like-harbouring mobile genetic elements. In conclusion, sewage analyses show both promise and limitations as a complement to traditional clinical resistance surveillance for early warning of rare forms of resistance. Further evaluation and careful interpretation are needed to fully assess the value of such a sewage monitoring system.

  • 7.
    Kazadi Mbamba, Christian
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi. Lund University, Sweden.
    Lindblom, E.
    Lund University, Sweden; Stockholm Vatten Och Avfall, Sweden.
    Flores-Alsina, X.
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Tait, S.
    University of Southern Queensland, Australia.
    Anderson, S.
    Stockholm Vatten Och Avfall, Sweden.
    Saagi, R.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Batstone, D. J.
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Gernaey, K. V.
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Jeppsson, U.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Plant-wide model-based analysis of iron dosage strategies for chemical phosphorus removal in wastewater treatment systems2019Inngår i: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 155, s. 12-25Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Stringent phosphorus discharge standards (i.e. 0.15–0.3 g P.m −3 ) in the Baltic area will compel wastewater treatment practice to augment enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) with chemical precipitation using metal salts. This study examines control of iron chemical dosing for phosphorus removal under dynamic loading conditions to optimize operational aspects of a membrane biological reactor (MBR) pilot plant. An upgraded version of the Benchmark Simulation Model No. 2 (BSM2) with an improved physico-chemical framework (PCF) is used to develop a plant-wide model for the pilot plant. The PCF consists of an equilibrium approach describing ion speciation and pairing, kinetic minerals precipitation (such as hydrous ferric oxides (HFO) and FePO 4 ) as well as adsorption and co-precipitation. Model performance is assessed against data sets from the pilot plant, evaluating the capability to describe water and sludge lines across the treatment process under steady-state operation. Simulated phosphorus differed as little as 5–10% (relative) from measured phosphorus, indicating that the model was representative of reality. The study also shows that environmental factors such as pH, as well operating conditions such as Fe/P molar ratios (1, 1.5 and 2), influence the concentration of dissolved phosphate in the effluent. The time constant of simultaneous precipitation in the calibrated model, due to a step change decrease/increase in FeSO 4 dosage, was found to be roughly 5 days, indicating a slow dynamic response due to a multi-step process involving dissolution, oxidation, precipitation, aging, adsorption and co-precipitation. The persistence effect of accumulated iron-precipitates (HFO particulates) in the activated sludge seemed important for phosphorus removal, and therefore solids retention time plays a crucial role according to the model. The aerobic tank was deemed to be the most suitable dosing location for FeSO 4 addition, due to high dissolved oxygen levels and good mixing conditions. Finally, dynamic model-based analyses show the benefits of using automatic control when dosing chemicals. © 2019 Elsevier Ltd

  • 8. Le Bell, J
    et al.
    Stenius, P
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Axberg, C
    Coagulation and sedimentation in chemical precipitation of wastewaters1983Inngår i: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 17, s. 1073-1080Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 9. Roberts, K
    et al.
    Wennerberg, A-M
    Friberg, S
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    The influence of added saccharide, protein and lipid on the sedimentation of E.coli bacteria using aluminium sulphate and polyacrylamides1974Inngår i: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 8, s. 61-65Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 10.
    Säve-Söderbergh, Melle
    et al.
    National Food Agency, Sweden ; Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Bylund, John
    National Food Agency, Sweden.
    Malm, Annika
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Simonsson, Magnus
    National Food Agency, Sweden.
    Toljander, Johan
    National Food Agency, Sweden.
    Gastrointestinal illness linked to incidents in drinking water distribution networks in Sweden2017Inngår i: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 122, s. 503-511Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    During recent years, knowledge gaps on drinking water-related gastrointestinal illness have been identified, especially for non-epidemic cases. Pathogen contamination of drinking water during distribution has been suggested to contribute to these cases, but the risk factors are not yet fully understood. During 2014–2015, we conducted an epidemiological study in five municipalities in Sweden, to assess whether incidents in the drinking water distribution system influence the risk of gastrointestinal illness. Telephone interviews were conducted in the affected areas and in reference areas 7–14 days after a reported incident. Symptoms of gastrointestinal illness occurring during the period were documented for each household member. The results showed a significantly elevated risk of vomiting and acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI) in the affected areas, compared to the reference areas (ORvom. = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.2–3.3; ORAGI = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.2–3.0). Certain conditions, or risk factors, during the incidents, such as sewage and drinking water pipelines at the same level in the trench, were associated with an elevated risk of AGI and vomiting. Safety measures taken during repair work, like flushing, were also associated with an elevated risk of AGI and vomiting. These results show that incidents in the drinking water distribution network contribute to endemic gastrointestinal illness, especially AGI and vomiting, and that external pathogen contamination of the drinking water is a likely cause of these cases of gastrointestinal illness. The results also indicate that safety measures used today may not be sufficient for eliminating the risk of gastrointestinal illness.

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    fulltext
  • 11.
    Wei, Xin-Feng
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Bohlén, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Polymera material och kompositer.
    Lindblad, Catrin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Polymera material och kompositer.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Hakonen, Aron
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Microplastics generated from a biodegradable plastic in freshwater and seawater2021Inngår i: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 198, artikkel-id 117123Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Biodegradable polymers have been regarded as a promising solution to tackle the pollutions caused by the wide use of conventional polymers. However, during the biodegradation process, the material fragmentation leads to microplastics. In this work, the formation of microplastics from biodegradable poly (butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) in different aquatic environments was investigated and compared with the common non-biodegradable low-density polyethylene (LDPE). The results showed that a much larger quantity of plastic fragments/particles were formed in all aquatic environments from PBAT than from LDPE. In addition, UV-A pretreatment, simulating the exposure to sunlight, increased the rate of PBAT microplastic formation significantly. The size distribution and shapes of the formed microplastics were systematically studied, along with changes in the polymer physicochemical properties such as molecular weight, thermal stability, crystallinity, and mechanical properties, to reveal the formation process of microplastics. This study shows that the microplastic risk from biodegradable polymers is high and needs to be further evaluated with regards to longer timeframes, the biological fate of intermediate products, and final products in freshwater, estuarine and seawater natural habitats. Especially, considering that these microplastics may have good biodegradability in warmer 20 – 25° water but will most likely be highly persistent in the world's cold deep seas. © 2021 The Author(s)

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