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  • 1.
    Büker, Oliver
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Volym, flöde, temperatur o densitet.
    Lau, Peter
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Volym, flöde, temperatur o densitet.
    Tawackolian, Karsten
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Reynolds number dependence of an orifice plate2013Ingår i: Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, ISSN 0955-5986, E-ISSN 1873-6998, Vol. 30, s. 123-132Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the most important process parameters in power plants is the flow rate that is measured in the secondary or feedwater circuit. To improve our understanding of the behaviour of flow instruments for this use, a work package within the European research project JRP "Metrology for improved power plant efficiency" concerning "Flow" was initiated. It comes under the direction of SP, Technical Research Institute of Sweden. Many power plants have to operate below their licensed rating because of the measurement uncertainty of the flow in the feedwater circuit. For that reason - in the field of traceable flow measurement - four European NMIs (PTB, SP, DTI, BEV) investigated four flow sensors based on different measuring principles. The aim is to find a method to extrapolate low temperature calibrations to high temperatures in order to measure feedwater flow with an uncertainty in the range of 0.3%-0.5%. This paper describes the work undertaken at SP on investigations of an orifice plate.

  • 2.
    Büker, Oliver
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Stolt, Krister
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    de Huu, Marc
    METAS Federal Institute of Metrology, Switzerland.
    MacDonald, Marc
    NEL, UK.
    Maury, Remy
    CESAME-EXADEBIT SA, France.
    Investigations on pressure dependence of Coriolis Mass Flow Meters used at Hydrogen Refueling Stations2020Ingår i: Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, ISSN 0955-5986, E-ISSN 1873-6998, Vol. 76, artikel-id 101815Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the framework of the ongoing EMPIR JRP 16ENG01 “Metrology for Hydrogen Vehicles” a main task is to investigate the influence of pressure on the measurement accuracy of Coriolis Mass Flow Meters (CFM) used at Hydrogen Refueling Stations (HRS). At a HRS hydrogen is transferred at very high and changing pressures with simultaneously varying flow rates and temperatures. It is clearly very difficult for CFMs to achieve the current legal requirements with respect to mass flow measurement accuracy at these measurement conditions. As a result of the very dynamic filling process it was observed that the accuracy of mass flow measurement at different pressure ranges is not sufficient. At higher pressures it was found that particularly short refueling times cause significant measurement deviations. On this background it may be concluded that pressure has a great impact on the accuracy of mass flow measurement. To gain a deeper understanding of this matter RISE has built a unique high-pressure test facility. With the aid of this newly developed test rig it is possible to calibrate CFMs over a wide pressure and flow range with water or base oils as test medium. The test rig allows calibration measurements under the conditions prevailing at a 70MPa HRS regarding mass flows (up to 3.6kgmin−1) and pressures (up to 87.5MPa). © 2020 The Authors

  • 3.
    Büker, Oliver
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Stolt, Krister
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Kroner, Corinna
    PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Warnecke, Heiko
    PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Postrioti, Lucio
    University of Perugia, Italy.
    Piano, Andrea
    Politecnico di Torino, Italy.
    Hagemann, Günter
    IB-HAWE Ing-Büro Hagemann, Germany.
    Werner, Manfred
    IB-HAWE Ing-Büro Hagemann, Germany.
    Characterisation of a Coriolis flow meter for fuel consumption measurements in realistic drive cycle tests2023Ingår i: Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, ISSN 0955-5986, E-ISSN 1873-6998, Vol. 93, artikel-id 102424Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    When testing light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles on chassis dynamometers, as in the WLTP, or engines on engine test benches, as in the WHDC, it is required to measure the fuel consumption. In the preferable case, the measurement of the fuel consumption is carried out with suitable flow meters. These require high measurement accuracy in a wide flow range, independent of the fuel type, as the flow rate range is often very large and depends on the power range of the vehicle engines. Moreover, the fuel flow rate in the test cycles is very dynamically related to the loads. In the scope of the ongoing EMPIR Joint Research Project 20IND13 SAFEST the dynamic flow behaviour as well as the measurement accuracy of flow meters for different types of fuels are investigated. This paper presents first results from the realisation of dynamic flow profiles, and flow measurements with a Coriolis Flow Meter with different representative fuels in a wide density and viscosity range and a wide flow rate range at different fuel temperatures. © 2023 The Author(s)

  • 4.
    Büker, Oliver
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Stolt, Krister
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Lindström, Kent
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Wennergren, Per
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Penttinen, Olle
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Mattiasson, Kerstin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    A unique test facility for calibration of domestic flow meters under dynamic flow conditions2021Ingår i: Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, ISSN 0955-5986, E-ISSN 1873-6998, Vol. 79, artikel-id 101934Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the early nineties a hot water test facility was planned and constructed for calibration and testing of volume and flow meters at the National Volume Measurement Laboratory at RISE (formerly SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden). The main feature of the test facility is the capability to measure flow in a wide temperature and flow range with very high accuracy. The objective of the project, which was initiated in 1989, was to design equipment for calibration of flow meters with stable flow and temperature conditions. After many years of international debate whether static testing is adequate to represent the later more dynamic application of domestic water meters, the EMPIR project 17IND13 Metrology for real-world domestic water metering (“Metrowamet”) was launched in 2018. The project investigates the influence of dynamic flow testing on the measurement accuracy of different types of domestic flow meters. One of the main objectives of the project is the development of infrastructure to carry out dynamic flow measurements. The existing test facility at RISE was at the time of construction one of the best hot and cold-water test facilities in the world. Due to the Metrowamet project the test facility has been upgraded to meet the needs of an infrastructure for dynamic flow investigations. The first findings from dynamic consumption profile measurements are reported in this paper. © 2021 The Authors

  • 5.
    de Huu, M.
    et al.
    METAS Federal Institute of Metrology, Switzerland.
    Tschannen, M.
    METAS Federal Institute of Metrology, Switzerland.
    Bissig, H.
    METAS Federal Institute of Metrology, Switzerland.
    Stadelmann, P.
    Empa, Switzerland.
    Büker, Oliver
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    MacDonald, M.
    NEL, UK.
    Maury, R.
    CESAME-EXADEBIT SA, France.
    Neuvonen, P. T.
    Justervesenet, Norway.
    Petter, H. T.
    VSL, Netherlands.
    Rasmussen, K.
    FORCE Technology, Denmark.
    Design of gravimetric primary standards for field-testing of hydrogen refuelling stations2020Ingår i: Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, ISSN 0955-5986, E-ISSN 1873-6998, Vol. 73, artikel-id 101747Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Federal Institute of Metrology METAS developed a Hydrogen Field Test Standard (HFTS) that can be used for field verification and calibration of hydrogen refuelling stations. The testing method is based on the gravimetric principle. The experimental design of the HFTS as well as the description of the method are presented here. The HFTS has been tested at METAS with nitrogen gas at −40 °C to mimic a refuelling process in the field. Laboratory tests have shown that icing on the pipes of the HFTS have a non-negligible impact on the results. Field-testing with the HFTS has also been performed at the Empa hydrogen refuelling station with hydrogen at up to 70 MPa. The major uncertainty components have been identified and assigned values. The required expanded uncertainty of 0.3% could be achieved. A detailed uncertainty budget has been presented and shows that the scale is the largest contributor; buoyancy corrections only play a minor role. For the lowest uncertainty measurements, appropriate waiting times or cleaning methods to get rid of icing are required. © 2020 The Authors

  • 6. Kotze, R.
    et al.
    Wiklund, Johan
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Haldenwang, R.
    Fester, V.
    Measurement and analysis of flow behaviour in complex geometries using the Ultrasonic Velocity Profiling (UVP) technique2011Ingår i: Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, ISSN 0955-5986, E-ISSN 1873-6998, Vol. 22, nr 2, s. 110-119Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this project a non-Newtonian CMC model fluid was tested in two different complex geometries using Ultrasonic Velocity Profiling (UVP). Velocity profiles were measured at three different positions at the center (contraction) of a specially manufactured 50% open diaphragm valve. The complex geometry coordinates and velocity magnitudes were analysed and compared to the bulk flow rate measured using an electromagnetic flow meter. The difference between the calculated and measured flow rates varied from 15% to 25%. A complete flow map in the axial direction from developed to contracting flow was also measured by scanning the transducer along a hyperbolic contraction using a high precision robotic arm set-up. Experimental results obtained using UVP showed good agreement (10%) with theoretical predictions. Results showed that it was possible, for the first time, to measure quantitative velocity data for non-Newtonian flow in a complex geometry, such as a diaphragm valve. It was found that the most important problem in order to increase measurement accuracy is the estimation of wall interface positions, which is due to the ultrasonic transducer's near field. This problem can be eliminated by the introduction of a next generation transducer, which is currently under development. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 7.
    Kotze, Reinhardt
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Fester, Veruscha
    Cape Peninsula University of Technology, South Africa.
    Kholisa, Buyisile
    Cape Peninsula University of Technology, South Africa.
    Haldenwang, Rainer
    Cape Peninsula University of Technology, South Africa.
    Rössle, Werner
    City of Cape Town, South Africa.
    Commissioning of a novel in-line rheometery system in a wastewater treatment plant for more efficient polymer dosing2019Ingår i: Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, ISSN 0955-5986, E-ISSN 1873-6998, Vol. 65, s. 309-317Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Urbanisation is putting enormous pressure on wastewater treatment plant facilities. Optimising the liquid and sludge process streams in existing plants is one way of prolonging the life span of such installations. Many Wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) have sludge dewatering installations where treated wastewater sludge is dewatered using belt filter presses amongst others, before final disposal. One of the most expensive inputs in these plants is the polymers used as flocculants. Controlling the optimum dosing in the dewatering process cannot currently be done in real-time. It has been shown that huge savings can be made by optimising the dosing rates of polymers based on the sludge rheology. An Ultrasound Velocity Profiling (UVP) and pressure drop (PD) measurement system was specially designed and commissioned for a WWTP. The system was installed in a WWTP to measure the rheological properties of sludge in-line and in real-time prior to mechanical dewatering using a belt filter press. This non-invasive in-line system was able to accurately measure the rheological parameters in real-time in a 100 mm stainless pipe. It was shown for the first time what the maximum in-line yield stress is that is required for optimum dewatering based on a relationship determined between the yield stress and the total suspended solids in the filtrate exiting the belt filter press.

  • 8.
    Kotzé, Reinhardt
    et al.
    Cape Peninsula University of Technology, South Africa.
    Ricci, Stefano
    University of Florence, Italy.
    Birkhofer, Beat
    Sika Services AG, Switzerland.
    Wiklund, Johan
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Structure Design.
    Performance tests of a new non-invasive sensor unit and ultrasound electronics2016Ingår i: Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, ISSN 0955-5986, E-ISSN 1873-6998, Vol. 48, s. 104-111Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial applications involving pulsed ultrasound instrumentation require complete non-invasive setups due to high temperatures, pressures and possible abrasive fluids. Recently, new pulser-receiver electronics and a new sensor unit were developed by Flow-Viz. The complete sensor unit setup enables non-invasive Doppler measurements through high grade stainless steel. In this work a non-invasive sensor unit developed for one inch pipes (22.5 mm ID) and two inch pipes (48.4 mm ID) were evaluated. Performance tests were conducted using a Doppler string phantom setup and the Doppler velocity results were compared to the moving string target velocities. Eight different positions along the pipe internal diameter (22.5 mm) were investigated and at each position six speeds (0.1-0.6 m/s) were tested. Error differences ranged from 0.18 to 7.8% for the tested velocity range. The average accuracy of Doppler measurements for the 22.5 mm sensor unit decreased slightly from 1.3 to 2.3% across the ultrasound beam axis. Eleven positions were tested along the diameter of the 48.4 mm pipe (eight positions covered the pipe radius) and five speeds were tested (0.2-0.6 m/s). The average accuracy of Doppler measurements for the 48.4 mm sensor unit was between 2.4 and 5.9%, with the lowest accuracy at the point furthest away from the sensor unit. Error differences varied between 0.07 and 11.85% for the tested velocity range, where mostly overestimated velocities were recorded. This systematic error explains the higher average error difference percentage when comparing the 48.4 mm (2.4-5.9%) and 22.5 mm (1.3-2.3%) sensor unit performance. The overall performance of the combined Flow-Viz system (electronics, software, sensor) was excellent as similar or higher errors were typically reported in the medical field. This study has for the first time validated non-invasive Doppler measurements through high grade stainless steel pipes by using an advanced string phantom setup.

  • 9.
    MacDonald, M.
    et al.
    NEL, UK.
    de Huu, M.
    METAS, Switzerland.
    Maury, R.
    CESAME-EXADEBIT SA, France.
    Büker, Oliver
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Calibration of hydrogen Coriolis flow meters using nitrogen and air and investigation of the influence of temperature on measurement accuracy2021Ingår i: Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, ISSN 0955-5986, E-ISSN 1873-6998, Vol. 79, artikel-id 101915Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of four Coriolis flow meters designed for use in hydrogen refuelling stations was evaluated with air and nitrogen by three members of the MetroHyVe JRP consortium; NEL, METAS and CESAME EXADEBIT. A wide range of conditions were tested overall, with gas flow rates ranging from (0.05–2) kg/min and pressures ranging from (20–86) bar. The majority of tests were conducted at nominal pressures of either 20 bar or 40 bar, in order to match the density of hydrogen at 350 bar and 20 °C or 700 bar and −40 °C. For the conditions tested, pressure did not have a noticeable influence on meter performance. When the flow meters were operated at ambient temperatures and within the manufacturer's recommended flow rate ranges, errors were generally within ±1%. Errors within ±0.5% were achievable for the medium to high flow rates. The influence of temperature on meter performance was also studied, with testing under both stable and transient conditions and temperatures as low as −40 °C. When the tested flow meters were allowed sufficient time to reach thermal equilibrium with the incoming gas, temperature effects were limited. The magnitude and spread of errors increased, but errors within ±2% were achievable at moderate to high flow rates. Conversely, errors as high as 15% were observed in tests where logging began before temperatures stabilised and there was a large difference in temperature between the flow meter and the incoming gas. One of the flow meters tested with nitrogen was later installed in a hydrogen refuelling station and tested against the METAS Hydrogen Field Test Standard (HFTS). Under these conditions, errors ranged from 0.47% to 0.91%. Testing with nitrogen at the same flow rates yielded errors of −0.61% to −0.82%. © 2021 The Authors

  • 10.
    Maury, R.
    et al.
    CESAME-EXADEBIT SA, France.
    Auclercq, C.
    CESAME-EXADEBIT SA, France.
    Devilliers, Clemence
    Air Liquide, France.
    de Huu, Marc A.
    METAS, Switzerland.
    Büker, Oliver
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    MacDonald, Marc
    National Engineering Laboratory, United Kingdom.
    Hydrogen refuelling station calibration with a traceable gravimetric standard2020Ingår i: Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, ISSN 0955-5986, E-ISSN 1873-6998, Vol. 74, artikel-id 101743Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Of all the alternatives to hydrocarbon fuels, hydrogen offers the greatest long-term potential to radically reduce the many problems inherent in fuel used for transportation. Hydrogen vehicles have zero tailpipe emissions and are very efficient. If the hydrogen is made from renewable sources, such as nuclear power or fossil sources with carbon emissions captured and sequestered, hydrogen use on a global scale would produce almost zero greenhouse gas emissions and greatly reduce air pollutant emissions.The aim of this work is to realise a traceability chain for hydrogen flow metering in the range typical for fuelling applications in a wide pressure range, with pressures up to 875 bar (for Hydrogen Refuelling Station - HRS with Nominal Working Pressure of 700 bar) and temperature changes from −40 °C (pre-cooling) to 85 °C (maximum allowed vehicle tank temperature) in accordance with the worldwide accepted standard SAE J2601. Several HRS have been tested in Europe (France, Netherlands and Germany) and the results show a good repeatability for all tests. This demonstrates that the testing equipment works well in real conditions. Depending on the installation configuration, some systematic errors have been detected and explained. Errors observed for Configuration 1 stations can be explained by pressure differences at the beginning and end of fueling, in the piping between the Coriolis Flow Meter (CFM) and the dispenser: the longer the distance, the bigger the errors. For Configuration 2, where this distance is very short, the error is negligible. 

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  • 11.
    Penttinen, Olle
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Ulveström, Marcus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Karlsson, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Andersson, Veronika
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Andersson, Håkan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Pettersson, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Infrastruktur och betongbyggande.
    Büker, Oliver
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Towards flow measurement with passive accelerometers2021Ingår i: Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, ISSN 0955-5986, E-ISSN 1873-6998, Vol. 80, artikel-id 101992Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this project has been to find suitable methods for flow measurement and characterization with passive accelerometers. The objectives were twofold. Firstly, the process industry could make use of such a sensor for process surveillance. Secondly, the water utilities of today lack simple and cost-efficient alternatives to equip their ageing infrastructures with online flow meters. These kinds of efforts are necessary for the realization of smart maintenance and for the decrease of the currently increasing amount of maintenance needs water utilities of today are experiencing. Liquid flowing in a pipe generates vibrations, detectable with accelerometers fitted along the pipe exterior. The correlated sound from synchronized accelerometers experience a lag which is dependent on the flow rate. Also, if the acquired sound is further processed, there exist a possibility to extract enough features to estimate some additional characteristics, in this case temperature. Experiments were performed at two nominal temperatures, 20 °C and 40 °C. A deep neural network was constructed for non-linear regression purposes to predict flow velocities based on lag and mean frequencies of the vibrations. Further, a proof of concept for this methodology was shown which reached a root mean square deviation from 100.8 L/min to 171.1 L/min for a nominal flow range of 0 to 1500 L/min. In addition, we train a k-nearest neighbour classifier to predict the nominal temperature of our validation dataset with 83 percent accuracy. The work was performed at RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, serving as Sweden's national metrology institute for liquid flow and acoustics. © 2021 The Authors

  • 12.
    Silva, Rui
    et al.
    University of Coimbra, Portugal.
    Garcia, Fernando A. P.
    University of Coimbra, Portugal.
    Faia, Pedro M.
    University of Coimbra, Portugal; CEMUC Centre of Mechanical Engineering, Portugal.
    Krochak, Paul
    RISE., Innventia.
    Söderberg, Daniel
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Lundell, Fredrik
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Rasteiro, Maria Graca
    University of Coimbra, Portugal.
    Validating dilute settling suspensions numerical data through MRI, UVP and EIT measurements2016Ingår i: Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, ISSN 0955-5986, E-ISSN 1873-6998, Vol. 50, s. 35-48Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The measurement of fluid dynamic quantities are of great interest both for extending the range of validity of current correlations to be used in equipment design and for verification of fundamental hydrodynamic models. Studies where comparisons are made between imaging techniques serve to provide confidence on the validity of each technique for the study of multiphase flow systems. The advantage of cross-validation is that it can help establish the limitations of each technique and the necessary steps towards improvement. A small amount of comparative studies are found in the literature and none of them reports the study of settling particles suspension flow using simultaneously Ultrasonic Velocity Profiling (UVP), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT), at least not to the best of the authors knowledge. In the present paper the authors report efforts made on the characterization of dilute suspensions of glass particles in turbulent flow, with increasing flow velocities and particles concentrations, in a pilot rig at a laboratorial scale, using both MRI, EIT and UVP: direct comparisons of EIT, MRI and UVP measurements acquired and mixture model numerical simulations are presented and the level of agreement explored.

  • 13.
    Wiklund, Johan
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Application of in-line ultrasound Doppler-based UVP-PD rheometry method to concentrated model and industrial suspensions2008Ingår i: Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, ISSN 0955-5986, E-ISSN 1873-6998, Vol. 19, nr 42067, s. 171-179Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The in-line ultrasound Doppler-based UVP-PD rheometry method was evaluated for non-invasive, real-time rheological characterization of complex model- and industrial suspensions. The method is based on the combination of ultrasound velocity profile (UVP) and pressure drop (PD) measurements. Experiments were carried out in pressure driven, steady shear flow at different volumetric flow rates in a flow loop, designed to mimic industrial conditions. Results showed that instantaneous velocity profiles and rheological properties could be monitored in real-time, in-line. A much wider range of model and industrial suspensions was covered compared to what has so far been reported in literature. Investigated suspensions differed in particle sizes, distributions, shapes and suspension characteristics. The agreement was good between shear viscosities measured in-line and off-line using conventional rheometers for particles smaller than the shear gap in the concentric cylinders. The UVP-PD method is applicable to suspensions for which conventional, off-line rheometers fail due to shear gap size restrictions. The UVP-PD method can be a valuable tool for process monitoring since rapid changes in rheology during processing can be monitored in real-time, in-line. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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