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  • 1.
    Al-Ayish, Nadia
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, CBI Betonginstitutet.
    During, Otto
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, CBI Betonginstitutet.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, CBI Betonginstitutet.
    Silva, Nelson
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, CBI Betonginstitutet.
    Gudmundsson, Kjartan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    The influence of supplementary cementitious materials on climate impact of concrete bridges exposed to chlorides2018Inngår i: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 188, s. 391-398Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to reach a specific service life of reinforced concrete structures a certain cover thickness is needed. At present, this is regulated by national standards that also limit the amount and type of supplementary cementitious materials in different exposure environments. The regulations do not, however, consider the actual durability performance of concrete with supplementary cementitious materials. As a consequence, the LCA results might be misleading. This paper shows the environmental impact of concrete with supplementary cementitious materials in chloride environment considering their specific performances. Prescriptive and performance based service life prediction models for chloride ingress are applied and compared.

  • 2.
    André, Alann
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP AB.
    Haghani, R.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Biel, A.
    University of Skövde.
    Application of fracture mechanics to predict the failure load of adhesive joints used to bond CFRP laminates to steel members2012Inngår i: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 27, nr 1, s. 331-340Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of bolted or welded elements to upgrade metallic structures has been a common practice for many years. Moreover, the use of adhesively bonded carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) laminates, as an alternative method, has attracted a great deal of attention in recent years. One important aspect of the design of adhesive joints used to bond CFRP laminates to steel substrates is the determination of the properties of the CFRP/adhesive/steel interfaces, which have not yet been established in codes or standards. The purpose of this paper is experimentally to determine the fracture properties of the adhesive material and to evaluate the accuracy of numerical methods using this information, in order to predict the strength of adhesive joints in steel members bonded with CFRP laminates. The results from four series of experimental tests are compared with numerical results and discussed in terms of load-bearing capacity and failure modes. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 3.
    André, Alann
    et al.
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP AB.
    Kliger, R.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Asp, Leif
    RISE, Swerea, Swerea SICOMP AB.
    Compression failure mechanism in small scale timber specimens2014Inngår i: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 50, s. 130-139Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the failure mechanism of wood loaded in compression parallel to the grain has been shown to be an important parameter in the design of timber beams strengthened with fibre-reinforced plastics (FRP). In this paper, a constitutive relationship for wood under uniaxial compression load parallel to the grain was determined experimentally. Several parameters, such as silviculture, moisture content and radial position in the log in relation to the pith from where the specimen was sawn, were considered. Small clear-wood specimens were used. The strain localisation in the failure region (kinkband) was monitored using the digital image correlation method. The results show that silviculture and moisture content are two very important parameters which influence the compression failure mechanism. Furthermore, there is a significant difference in behaviour between specimens from the juvenile region of the log and specimens from mature wood. Based on experimental results, two numerical models were built, considering either a global or a local constitutive relationship. It was demonstrated that both numerical models yield accurate results and that, depending on the experimental equipment available, a constitutive relationship could be extracted and used as input in these numerical models. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 4.
    André, Alann
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, SICOMP.
    Kliger, R.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Olsson, Robin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, SICOMP.
    Compression failure mechanism in small-scale wood specimens reinforced with CFRP: An experimental study2013Inngår i: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 41, s. 790-800Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The optimal use of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) when strengthening timber beams loaded in bending involves considering placing the reinforcement on both the tension and the compression side, in order to utilise the ductile compression failure of the wood to the full. In this respect, a knowledge and understanding of the compression failure mechanism of the timber/CFRP system becomes a point of paramount importance. However, no testing method specific to the compression loading of small wood specimens reinforced with CFRP is currently available. This investigation focuses on the experimental developments of the geometry and test set-up necessary in order to determine the compression failure mechanism of small wood block specimens reinforced with CFRP loaded in compression parallel to the grain. The method is based on an existing testing method for unreinforced wood specimens. The Digital Image Correlation (DIC) method is used to monitor deformation during experiments. The experimental results of reinforced specimens are compared with those of paired unreinforced specimens tested in a previous study. The experimental method presented in this study shows that specific geometry and test considerations must be implemented when compared with the existing method for unreinforced specimens. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 5.
    Bedon, Chiara
    et al.
    University of Trieste, Italy.
    Zhang, Xidong
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Santos, Filipe
    NOVA University Lisbon, Portugal.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Kozłowski, Marcin
    Silesian University of Technology, Poland; Lund University, Sweden.
    Arrigoni, Michel
    ENSTA Bretagne, France.
    Figuli, Lucia
    University of Žilina, Slovakia.
    Lange, David
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Performance of structural glass facades under extreme loads – Design methods, existing research, current issues and trends2018Inngår i: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 163, s. 921-937Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Glass has been overwhelmingly used for windows and facades in modern constructions, for many practical reasons, including thermal, energy, light and aesthetics. Nevertheless, due to the relatively low tensile strength and mostly brittle behaviour of glass, compared to other traditional materials, as well as to a multitude of interacting structural and non-structural components, windows/facades are one of the most fragile and vulnerable components of buildings, being representative of the physical line of separation between interior and exterior spaces. As such, multidisciplinary approaches, as well as specific fail-safe design criteria and analysis methods are required, especially under extreme loading conditions, so that casualties and injuries in the event of failure could be avoided and appropriate safety levels could be guaranteed. In this context, this paper presents a review of the state of art on analysis and design methods in use for glass facades, with careful consideration for extreme loading configurations, including natural events, such as seismic events, extreme wind or other climatic exposures, and man-made threats, i.e. blast loads and fire. Major results of available experimental outcomes, current issues and trends are also reported, summarising still open challenges.

  • 6. Blyberg, Louise
    et al.
    Lang, Maria
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet.
    Lundstedt, Karin
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet.
    Schander, Matilda
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet.
    Serrano, Erik
    Silfverhielm, Magnus
    Stålhandske, Christina
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet.
    Glass, timber and adhesive joints: Innovative load bearing building components2014Inngår i: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 55, s. 470-478Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Structural glass-timber composite beams and shear wall elements were investigated in terms of their mechanical behaviour, energy performance and their LCA performance. The load bearing components were manufactured using annealed float glass which was adhesively bonded to the timber with different adhesives. The results show, among other things, that is is possible to join the two materials glass and timber and obtaining a non-brittle failure of the beams. The shear wall elements have the potential of being used as stabilising elements and load bearing walls in buildings of up to 4 storeys height. It is possible to combine glass and timber in a load bearing shear wall without loss of energy performance of a building or without loosing LCA performance. In addition to these benefits, the timber glass composite wall has, of course the benefit of being transparent. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 7.
    Debuyser, Michael
    et al.
    Ghent University, Belgium.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Lange, David
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Sonck, Dolphine
    Ghent University, Belgium.
    Belis, Jan
    Ghent University, Belgium.
    Behaviour of monolithic and laminated glass exposed to radiant heating2017Inngår i: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 130, s. 212-229Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Glass is seeing a growing interest as a structural material as a result of its relatively good strength to weight ratio and the obvious aesthetic benefits of its use in buildings. However due to the sensitivity of glass to thermal shock and the considerably temperature-dependent behaviour of interlayer materials as a result of their visco-elastic nature, the mechanical behaviour of laminated glass will be severely influenced by exposure to fire. Relatively little research has been conducted in the past to study the response of load bearing structural glass, and laminated glass in particular to radiant heating. This paper represents an effort to try to understand the effects of through depth radiation absorption and temperature conduction through laminated glass with a view to ultimately developing a model for studying load bearing glass exposed to elevated temperatures, such as those that would be expected in a fire. The paper reports on an experimental research programme in which several monolithic and laminated glass configurations were exposed to a radiant heat flux to study the different phenomena that occur upon exposure to fire conditions, including the ratios of absorbed, transmitted and reflected heat flux to the incident heat flux. The paper then presents a numerical heat transfer model which is developed based on these experimental results and that is able to determine the evolution of the temperature profile as a result of a given incident heat flux. The effectiveness of the heat transfer model is demonstrated through comparison with the temperatures measured during the experimental work.

  • 8. Falchi, L
    et al.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Influence and effectiveness of water-repellent admixtures on pozzolana-lime mortars for restoration application2013Inngår i: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 49, s. 272-280Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Pozzolana-lime mortars modified with water-repellent admixtures were designed and studied to obtain mortars for restoration application. Powdered silane and calcium stearates were mixed with pozzolana, lime and sand and the chemical-physical properties of the resulting mortars were evaluated by X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy (SEM-EDX), thermogravimetric analysis and FT-IR spectroscopy. The mechanical behavior, the pore structure and the hygric behavior were measured. The resistance of water-repellent mortars to the salt crystallization was evaluated. Both calcium stearates and powdered silane allowed good water-repellent protection even if the water-repellent agents and their dosage modified some physical properties and the hydration kinetic.

  • 9.
    Fortino, Stefania
    et al.
    VTT, Finland.
    Hradil, Petr
    VTT, Finland.
    Genoese, Andrea
    University of Roma Tre, Italy.
    Genoese, Allesandra
    University of Roma Tre, Italy.
    Pousette, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Numerical hygro-thermal analysis of coated wooden bridge members exposed to Northern European climates2019Inngår i: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 208, s. 492-505Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This work presents a numerical model to analyse the hygro-thermal behaviour of wooden bridge members. A multi-Fickian hygro-thermal model, previously implemented by some of the authors, is extended by including the dependency of wood sorption on temperature above and below zero degrees Celsius to predict moisture, temperature and relative humidity in wood under Northern European climates. The performance of the model in the presence of protective paints is particularly investigated. The finite element analysis based on the proposed model simulates the hygro-thermal behaviour of a glue-laminated beam of Älsvbacka Bridge located in Skellefteå (North of Sweden). The beam, coated by paints and claddings, was monitored by using wireless sensors in a previous research. Comparisons with the available measurements reveal that the numerical model is able to predict the moisture content in locations sheltered from rain and sun with moisture levels below the fibre saturation point. A study of the influence of different protective paints shows that the maximum and minimum moisture content at various depths along horizontal paths of the beam cross section, as well as the moisture gradients in different seasonal periods, are strongly affected by the type of paint. The proposed numerical approach is a promising tool to facilitate sensor-based monitoring techniques and to optimize the choice of protective paints for improved performance of timber bridges and other wooden structures under variable climates.

  • 10. Jensen, Jørgen L
    et al.
    Quenneville, Pierre
    Girhammar, Ulf
    Källsner, Bo
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Splitting of timber beams loaded perpendicular to grain by connections – Combined effect of edge and end distance2012Inngår i: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 35, s. 289-293Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 11.
    Lagerblad, Björn
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Gram, Hans-Erik
    Evaluation of the quality of fine materials and filler from crushed rocks in concrete production2014Inngår i: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 67, nr A, s. 121-126Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Crushed rocks are, in general, more flaky and irregular in shape than natural aggregates. Especially granitic rocks display variable amounts or flaky free micas in the finer fractions when crushed. Moreover, the crushed rocks result in more fine material. Fillers can, in combination with superplasticizers and if the quality is appropriate be used to expand the paste phase of the concrete and thus be used to lower the cement consumption. To utilize the filler optimally one needs to evaluate the filler quality._x000D_ _x000D_ There are several methods to evaluate the filler. In this article different methods both in regards to the material properties and the behavior in mortar and micro mortar tests are compared and evaluated. The analysis shows the importance of understanding the effect of both the particle shape and flakiness in the fine fractions and the properties of the material in the finest fraction i.e. <10 μm. This is very much related to the mineralogy of the rock.

  • 12.
    Miccoli, L.
    et al.
    BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Germany.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Fontana, P.
    BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Germany.
    Mechanical behaviour of earthen materials.: A comparison between earth block masonry, rammed earth and cob2014Inngår i: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 61, s. 327-339Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Earth represents one of the oldest construction materials, which is still utilised both in developed and in developing countries. In this paper a comparison of the mechanical performance of structural elements built in three basic techniques, earth block (adobe) masonry, rammed earth and cob, is presented. In order to gain better knowledge on the structural behaviour under static loads an extensive compression and diagonal compression (shear) test campaign was performed. First compression results showed brittle mechanical behaviour in the case of earth block masonry and rammed earth elements, whereas cob exhibited a very different stress-strain pattern: cob can deform beyond the elastic range with a gradual drop in capacity. Despite its low compressive strength, cob thus presents a relatively good performance within the earthen material range as far as shear behaviour is concerned. The data here reported represents a base for a further investigation on the dynamic behaviour of the three materials considered. The study was carried out within the framework of the project NIKER funded by the European Commission dealing with improving immovable Cultural Heritage assets against the risk of earthquakes.

  • 13.
    Miccoli, Lorenzo
    et al.
    BAM Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und –prüfung, Germany.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, CBI Betonginstitutet.
    Pospíšil, Stanislav
    Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Czech Republic.
    Rammed earth walls strengthened with polyester fabric strips: Experimental analysis under in-plane cyclic loading2017Inngår i: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 149, s. 29-36Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyses the mechanical behaviour under pseudo-dynamic loading of structural elements built in rammed earth and strengthened with polyester fabric strips. This strengthening technique was developed to exploit the strength potential of rammed earth and to solve its lack of tensile strength. For this reason, in-plane cyclic tests were carried out to investigate the shear behaviour of unstrengthened and strengthened walls. The strengthening technique requires low-tech equipment and workmanship, uses readily available, not expensive and industrially standardised materials. The experimental results were analysed in terms of stiffness degradation, energy dissipation capacity and equivalent viscous damping. Although the unstrengthened and strengthened walls confirmed a limited ductile behaviour, the findings confirm that the strengthening contributes to limit the spread of the diagonal cracks and provide an increase of strength in terms of horizontal load and displacement capacity.

  • 14.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Mechanical behaviour of earthen materials: A comparison between earth block masonry, rammed earth and cob2014Inngår i: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 61, s. 327-339Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Earth represents one of the oldest construction materials, which is still utilised both in developed and in developing countries. In this paper a comparison of the mechanical performance of structural elements built in three basic techniques, earth block (adobe) masonry, rammed earth and cob, is presented. In order to gain better knowledge on the structural behaviour under static loads an extensive compression and diagonal compression (shear) test campaign was performed. First compression results showed brittle mechanical behaviour in the case of earth block masonry and rammed earth elements, whereas cob exhibited a very different stress-strain pattern: cob can deform beyond the elastic range with a gradual drop in capacity. Despite its low compressive strength, cob thus presents a relatively good performance within the earthen material range as far as shear behaviour is concerned. The data here reported represents a base for a further investigation on the dynamic behaviour of the three materials considered. The study was carried out within the framework of the project NIKER funded by the European Commission dealing with improving immovable Cultural Heritage assets against the risk of earthquakes.

  • 15.
    Mueller, Urs
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    Miccoli, Lorenzo
    BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Germany.
    Fontana, Patrick
    BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Germany.
    Development of a lime based grout for cracks repair in earthen constructions2016Inngår i: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 110, s. 323-332Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The study presents the results from the development of a grouting material based on hydrated lime with addition of pozzolana, which is referred to as hydraulic lime, suitable for the repair of cracks in a variety of earthen building techniques. The goal was to develop a material also compatible with earthen structures exposed to dynamic loads. The grouting mortar was designed to be adaptable in strength properties and at the same time to have sufficient robustness for preparation and use on the construction site. Results showed a satisfactory performance of the grout concerning fresh and hardened mortar properties as well as injectability.

  • 16.
    Ong, Chee Beng
    et al.
    University of Bath, UK.
    Chang, Wen Shao
    University of Sheffield, UK.
    Ansell, Martin P.
    University of Bath, UK.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Sterley, Magdalena
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi, Biobaserade material.
    Walker, Pete
    University of Bath, UK.
    Bench-scale fire tests of Dark Red Meranti and Spruce finger joints in tension2018Inngår i: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 168, s. 257-265Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the secondary failure of Malaysian Dark Red Meranti (Shorea spp.) and Spruce (Picea abies) finger joints in a glulam beam in a fire test using a bench-scale test set-up. Secondary failure is the occurrence of failure of the bond lines due to fire and the falling off of the outermost tension layers, exposing the uncharred inner layers to a sudden increase of fire intensity. The lack of published work and the difficulties in describing the behaviour of the finger joints after the secondary failure in a full-scale fire test has identified the need for a simple bench-scale method, incorporating the conditions of the standard fire test. This paper focusses on the performance of the finger joints which together with other defects such as knots and splits are generally the weakest component in the glulam beam. The finger joints were bonded with structural adhesives, specifically phenol resorcinol formaldehyde (PRF) and polyurethane (PUR). They were tested in tension to imitate the failure of finger joints on the tension side of a standard fire test of a glulam beam. Constant heat flux was introduced to the finger-jointed specimens to replicate the secondary failure of a glulam beam in the standard fire test. The results of this study indicate a relationship between the charring rate and density of the specimens, with higher density Dark Red Meranti showing lower charring rate compared to the lower density Spruce specimens. Factors such as constant heat flux as opposed to the time-increasing heat flux exposure and specimen size influenced the charring rate of the specimens. The char rate was measured at the early stages of the fire test, which is known to have higher values since the build-up of the charred layers was not sufficiently substantial to protect the inner unburnt wood. Overall, the bench-scale fire test set-up was able to differentiate the fire performance of the adhesives, with PRF showing better fire performance compared to the specimens finger-jointed with PUR adhesive. In addition, tensile tests at ambient temperature showed no significant difference in tensile strength between finger joints bonded with different adhesives for the same wood species. The tensile strengths of the finger joints bonded with different adhesives were influenced by the temperature profile through the joint. The proposed bench-scale fire test was used to compare the quality of the adhesives in a fire situation, specifically with respect to secondary failure. The PRF was selected as the reference adhesive.

  • 17.
    Peñaloza, Diego
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Erlandsson, Martin
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Falk, Andreas
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Exploring the climate impact effects of increased use of bio-based materials in buildings2016Inngår i: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 125, s. 219-226Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Whenever Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is used to assess the climate impact of buildings, those with high content of biobased materials result with the lowest impact. Traditional approaches to LCA fail to capture aspects such as biogenic carbon exchanges, their timing and the effects from carbon storage. This paper explores a prospective increase of biobased materials in Swedish buildings, using traditional and dynamic LCA to assess the climate impact effects of this increase. Three alternative designs are analysed; one without biobased material content, a CLT building and an alternative timber design with “increased bio”. Different scenario setups explore the sensitivity to key assumptions such as the building's service life, end-of-life scenario, setting of forest sequestration before (growth) or after (regrowth) harvesting and time horizon of the dynamic LCA. Results show that increasing the biobased material content in a building reduces its climate impact when biogenic sequestration and emissions are accounted for using traditional or dynamic LCA in all the scenarios explored. The extent of these reductions is significantly sensitive to the end-of-life scenario assumed, the timing of the forest growth or regrowth and the time horizon of the integrated global warming impact in a dynamic LCA. A time horizon longer than one hundred years is necessary if biogenic flows from forest carbon sequestration and the building's life cycle are accounted for. Further climate impact reductions can be obtained by keeping the biogenic carbon dioxide stored after end-of-life or by extending the building's service life, but the time horizon and impact allocation among different life cycles must be properly addressed.

  • 18. Wang, Shuping
    et al.
    Peng, Xiaoqin
    Influence of inorganic admixtures on the 11 Å-tobermorite formation prepared from steel slags: XRD and FTIR analysis2014Inngår i: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 60, s. 42-47Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Calcium silicate hydrate is synthesized from steel slag by adding lime and quartz by dynamic hydrothermal method at 185 C. The products mainly consist of disordered calcium silicate hydrate, but more crystallized phase such as 11 Å-tobermorite forms for the presence of inorganic admixtures. The formation of tobermorite is affected by the types of ions according to XRD and FTIR results. Adding 2% crystallized tobermorite is beneficial to form the ordered structure; alkali cations and SO4 2- anions are effective accelerators; Al3+ plays a role of stabilization during the reaction. The products also vary with the initial alkalinities of steel slag.

  • 19. Williams Portal, Natalie
    et al.
    Fernandez Perez, Ignasi
    Pull-out of textile reinforcement in concrete2014Inngår i: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 71, s. 63-71Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 20.
    With, G. D.
    et al.
    NRG Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group, The Netherlands.
    Michalik, B.
    GIG Central Mining Institute, Poland.
    Hoffmann, B.
    BfS Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Germany.
    Döse, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, CBI Betonginstitutet.
    Development of a European harmonised standard to determine the natural radioactivity concentrations in building materials2018Inngår i: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 171, s. 913-918Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2013 the European Commission has published its latest basic safety standards for protection against the dangers arising from exposure to ionising radiation (Council Directive 2013/59/Euratom). The council directive regulates radiation exposure from building materials through the presence of radioactivity (226Ra, 232Th and 40K) in these materials. Pivotal to successful regulation is the availability of a harmonised test method for the determination of the radionuclide concentrations as these nuclides form the basis for dose assessment and compliance. In 2017 a Technical Specification (CEN, 2017) on the determination of the activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in construction products was published by the European Committee for Standardization (CEN). The purpose of this work is to give an outline of the proposed method, with the protocols for sampling, measurement and data processing as well as a summary of the robustness testing and the expert comments that have been received following the final consultation. 

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