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  • 1.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    et al.
    Halmstad University, Sweden ; VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Detournay, Jerome
    Halmstad University, Sweden ; VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria. Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Frimodig, Viktor
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Jansson, Oscar U.
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Larsson, Tony
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Mostowski, Wojciech
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Diez Rodriguez, Victor
    Halmstad University, Sweden; VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Rosenstatter, Thomas
    Halmstad University, Sweden; Salzburg University of Applied Sciences, Austria.
    Shahanoor, Golam
    Halmstad University, Sweden .
    Team Halmstad Approach to Cooperative Driving in the Grand Cooperative Driving Challenge 20162018In: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 1248-1261Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is an experience report of team Halmstad from the participation in a competition organised by the i-GAME project, the Grand Cooperative Driving Challenge 2016. The competition was held in Helmond, The Netherlands, during the last weekend of May 2016. We give an overview of our car's control and communication system that was developed for the competition following the requirements and specifications of the i-GAME project. In particular, we describe our implementation of cooperative adaptive cruise control, our solution to the communication and logging requirements, as well as the high level decision making support. For the actual competition we did not manage to completely reach all of the goals set out by the organizers as well as ourselves. However, this did not prevent us from outperforming the competition. Moreover, the competition allowed us to collect data for further evaluation of our solutions to cooperative driving. Thus, we discuss what we believe were the strong points of our system, and discuss post-competition evaluation of the developments that were not fully integrated into our system during competition time.

  • 2.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Safety in Vehicle Platooning: A Systematic Literature Review2017In: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, Vol. 18, p. 1033-1045, article id 7547317Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vehicle platooning has been studied for several decades, with objectives such as improved traffic throughput on existing infrastructure or reduced energy consumption. All the time, it has been apparent that safety is an important issue. However, there are no comprehensive analyses of what is needed to achieve safety in platooning, but only scattered pieces of information. This paper investigates, through a systematic literature review, what is known about safety for platooning, including what analysis methods have been used, what hazards and failures have been identified, and solution elements that have been proposed to improve safety. Based on this, a gap analysis is performed to identify outstanding questions that need to be addressed in future research. These include dealing with a business ecosystem of actors that cooperate and compete around platooning, refining safety analysis methods to make them suitable for systems-of-systems, dealing with variability in vehicles, and finding solutions to various human factors issues.

  • 3.
    Benderius, Ola
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Berger, Christian
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Malmsten Lundgren, Victor
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    The Best Rated Human-Machine Interface Design for Autonomous Vehicles in the 2016 Grand Cooperative Driving Challenge2018In: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 1302-1307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides an in-depth description of the best rated human-machine interface that was presented during the 2016 Grand Cooperative Driving Challenge. It was demonstrated by the Chalmers Truck Team as the envisioned interface to their open source software framework OpenDLV, which is used to power Chalmers' fleet of self-driving vehicles. The design originates from the postulate that the vehicle is fully autonomous to handle even complex traffic scenarios. Thus, by including external and internal interfaces, and introducing a show, don't tell principle, it aims at fulfilling the needs of the vehicle occupants as well as other participants in the traffic environment. The design also attempts to comply with, and slightly extend, the current traffic rules and legislation for the purpose of being realistic for full-scale implementation.

  • 4. Chen, Lei
    et al.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria. Halmstad University, Sweden; Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Cooperative Intersection Management: A Survey2016In: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 570-586, article id 7244203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intersection management is one of the most challenging problems within the transport system. Traffic light-based methods have been efficient but are not able to deal with the growing mobility and social challenges. On the other hand, the advancements of automation and communications have enabled cooperative intersection management, where road users, infrastructure, and traffic control centers are able to communicate and coordinate the traffic safely and efficiently. Major techniques and solutions for cooperative intersections are surveyed in this paper for both signalized and nonsignalized intersections, whereas focuses are put on the latter. Cooperative methods, including time slots and space reservation, trajectory planning, and virtual traffic lights, are discussed in detail. Vehicle collision warning and avoidance methods are discussed to deal with uncertainties. Concerning vulnerable road users, pedestrian collision avoidance methods are discussed. In addition, an introduction to major projects related to cooperative intersection management is presented. A further discussion of the presented works is given with highlights of future research topics. This paper serves as a comprehensive survey of the field, aiming at stimulating new methods and accelerating the advancement of automated and cooperative intersections.

  • 5. deMatos, C J S
    et al.
    Torres, P
    Valente, L C G
    Margulis, W
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Stubbe, R
    Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) characterization shaping by local pressure2001In: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, Vol. 19, no 8, p. 1206-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6. Deng, L
    et al.
    Pang, X
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Tafur Monroy, I
    Tang, M
    Shum, P
    Liu, D
    Experimental Demonstration of Nonlinearity Phase Noise Tolerant 16-QAM OFDM W-B(75 -110 GHz) Signal Over Fiber System2014In: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, Vol. 32, no 8, p. 1442-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Djupsjöbacka, A
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Berntson, A
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Mårtensson, J
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    A Method to Calculate PMD-Induced Eye-Opening Penalty Signal Outage for RZ-Modulated Signal Formats2008In: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, Vol. 26, p. 3186-89Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Djupsjöbacka, A
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Jacobsen, G
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Tromborg, B
    Dynamic stimulated Brillouin scattering analysis2000In: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, Vol. 18, p. 416-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Forzati, M
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Berntson, A
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Mårtensson, J
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Davies, RJ
    Performance Analysis of Single-MZM APRZ Transmitters2006In: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, Vol. 24, p. 2006-14Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Forzati, M
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Berntson, A
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Mårtensson, J
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Djupsjöbacka, A
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Asynchronous Phase Modulation for the Suppression of IFWM2007In: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, Vol. 25, p. 2969-75Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11. Hu, X
    et al.
    Johannesson, L
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Murgovski, N
    Egardt, B
    Longevity-conscious dimensioning power management of the hybrid energy storage system in a fuel cell hybrid electric bus2014In: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, Vol. 137, p. 913-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy storage systems (ESSs) play an important role in the performance economy of electrified vehicles. Hybrid energy storage system (HESS) combining both lithium-ion cells supercapacitors is one of the most promising solutions. This paper discusses the optimal HESS dimensioning energy management of a fuel cell hybrid electric bus. Three novel contributions are added to the relevant literature. First, efficient convex programming is used to simultaneously optimize the HESS dimension (including sizes of both the lithium-ion battery pack the supercapacitor stack) the power allocation between the HESS the fuel cell system (FCS) of the hybrid bus. In the combined plant/controller optimization problem, a dynamic battery State-of-Health (SOH) model is integrated to quantitatively examine the impact of the battery replacement strategy on both the HESS size the bus economy. Second, the HESS the battery-only ESS options are systematically compared in the proposed optimization framework. Finally, the battery-health-perceptive HESS optimization outcome is contrasted to the ideal one neglecting the battery degradation (assuming that the battery is durable over the bus service period without deliberate power regulation)._x000D_

  • 12.
    Jacobsen, G
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Wildhagen, P
    A general rigorous WDM receiver model targeting 10 - 40 Gb/s channel bit-rates2001In: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, Vol. 19, p. 966-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Kakkar, Aditya
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Navarro, Jaime Rodrigo
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Schatz, Richard
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Louchet, Hadrien
    VPIPhotonics GmBH, Germany.
    Pang, Xiaodan
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Ozolins, Oskars
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Jacobsen, Gunnar
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Popov, Sergei
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Comprehensive Study of Equalization-Enhanced Phase Noise in Coherent Optical Systems2015In: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, Vol. 33, no 23, p. 4834 -4841Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A thorough analysis of equalization-enhanced phase noise (EEPN) and its impact on the coherent optical system is presented. We show with a time-domain analysis that EEPN is caused due to the interference of multiple delayed versions of the dispersed signal, generated by intermixing of the received dispersed signal, and the noise side bands of the local oscillator (LO) in the photodetectors. We derive statistical properties such as the mean, variance, and error vector magnitude of the received signal influenced with EEPN. We show that in coherent optical systems utilizing electronic dispersion compensation, this noise corresponds to multipath fading in wireless communication systems. Closed-form expressions of necessary LO linewidth and/or mitigation bandwidth for a general system configuration and specified OSNR penalty are given. The expressions for system design parameters, validated with system simulations, show that higher order modulation formats, such as 16-quadrature amplitude modulation and beyond, put stringent demands on the LO linewidth unless a mitigation technique is used.

  • 14. Karimi, M
    et al.
    Surre, F
    Sun, T
    Grattan, KTV
    Margulis, W
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Fonjallaz, P
    Directional Force Measurement Using Specialized Single-Mode Polarization-Maintaining Fibers2011In: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, Vol. 29, no 24, p. 3611-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15. Karimi, M
    et al.
    Surre, F
    Sun, T
    Grattan, KTV
    Margulis, W
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Fonjallaz, P
    Theoretical Analysis of a Non-Symmetric Polarization-Maintaining Single-Mode Fiber for Sensor Applications2012In: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 362-7Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16. Kianfar, Roozbeh
    et al.
    Augusto, Bruno
    Ebadighajari, Alireza
    Hakeem, Usman
    Nilsson, Josef
    Raza, Ali
    Tabar, Reza S.
    Irukulapati, Naga VishnuKanth
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Falcone, Paolo
    Papanastasiou, Stylianos
    Svensson, Lennart
    Wymeersch, Henk
    Design and Experimental Validation of a Cooperative Driving System in the Grand Cooperative Driving Challenge2012In: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 994-1007Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present the Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC) architecture, which was proposed and im- plemented by the team from Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden, that joined the Grand Cooperative Driving Challenge (GCDC) in 2011. The proposedCACCarchitecture con- sists of the following three main components, which are described in detail: 1) communication; 2) sensor fusion; and 3) control. Both simulation and experimental results are provided, demonstrating that the proposed CACC system can drive within a vehicle platoon while minimizing the inter-vehicle spacing within the allowed range of safety distances, tracking a desired speed profile, and attenuating acceleration shockwaves.

  • 17. Larsson, V
    et al.
    Johannesson, L
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Egardt, B
    Karlsson, S
    Commuter Route Optimized Energy Management of Hybrid Electric Vehicles2014In: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 1145-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Optimal energy management of hybrid electric vehicles requires a priori_x000D_ information regarding future driving conditions, the acquisition processing of this_x000D_ information is nevertheless often neglected in academic research. This paper introduces a_x000D_ commuter route optimized energy management system, where the bulk of the computations_x000D_ are performed on a server. The idea is to identify commuter routes from historical driving_x000D_ data, using hierarchical agglomerative clustering, then precompute an optimal ..._x000D_

  • 18. Leong, MY
    et al.
    Larsen, K
    Jacobsen, G
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Popov, S
    Zibar, D
    Sergeyev, S
    Dimensioning BCH codes for coherent DQPSK systems with laser phase noise cycle slips2014In: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, Vol. 32, no 21, p. 4048-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Lidström, K
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Sjöberg, K
    Holmberg, U
    Andersson, J
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Bergh, F
    Bjde, M
    Mak, S
    A Modular CACC System Integration Design2012In: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 1050-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the Halmstad University entry in the GrCooperative Driving Challenge, which is a competition in vehicle platooning. Cooperative platooning has the potential to improve traffic flow by mitigating shock wave effects, which otherwise may occur in dense traffic. A longitudinal controller that uses information exchanged via wireless communication with other cooperative vehicles to achieve string-stable platooning is developed. The controller is integrated into a production vehicle, together with a positioning system, communication system, human€“machine interface (HMI). A highly modular system architecture enabled rapid development testing of the various subsystems. In the competition, which took place in May 2011 on a closed-off highway in The Netherlands, the Halmstad University team finished second among nine competing teams._x000D_

  • 20.
    Piels, Molly
    et al.
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Olmedo, Miguel Iglesias
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Xue, Weigi
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Pang, Xiaodan
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Schäffer, Christian
    Helmut Schmidt University, Germany.
    Schatz, Richard
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Jacobsen, Gunnar
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Monroy, Idelfonso Tafur
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Moerk, Jesper
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Popov, Sergei
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Zibar, Darko
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Laser Rate Equation-Based Filtering for Carrier Recovery in Characterization and Communication2015In: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, Vol. 33, no 15, p. 3271-3279, article id 7102689Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We formulate a semiconductor laser rate equation-based approach to carrier recovery in a Bayesian filtering framework. Filter stability and the effect of model inaccuracies (unknown or unuseable rate equation coefficients) are discussed. Two potential application areas are explored: Laser characterization and carrier recovery in coherent communication. Two rate equation-based Bayesian filters, the particle filter and extended Kalman filter, are used in conjunction with a coherent receiver to measure frequency noise spectrum of a photonic crystal cavity laser with less than 20 nW of fiber-coupled output power. The extended Kalman filter is also used to recover a 28-GBd DP-16 QAM signal where a decision-directed phase-locked loop fails.

  • 21.
    Ploeg, Jeroen
    et al.
    Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Nijmeijer, Henk
    University of Twente, The Netherlands.
    Semsar-Kazerooni, Elham
    TNO Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research, The Netherlands.
    Shladover, Steven E
    University of California at Berkeley, USA.
    Voronov, Alexey
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Van de Wouw, Nathan
    Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Guest Editorial Introduction to the Special Issue on the 2016 Grand Cooperative Driving Challenge2018In: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 1208-1212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cooperative driving is based on wireless communications between vehicles and between vehicles and roadside infrastructure, aiming for increased traffic flow and traffic safety, while decreasing fuel consumption and emissions. To support and accelerate the introduction of cooperative vehicles in everyday traffic, in 2011, nine international teams joined the Grand Cooperative Driving Challenge (GCDC). The challenge was to perform platooning, in which vehicles drive in road trains with short intervehicle distances. The results were reported in a Special Issue of IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, published in September 2012 [item 1 in the Appendix].

  • 22.
    Ploeg, Jeroen
    et al.
    TNO Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research, The Netherlands.
    Semsar-Kazerooni, Elham
    TNO Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research, The Netherlands.
    Morales Medina, Alejandro
    Eindhoven University of Technology,The Netherlands.
    de Jongh, Jan F C M
    TNO Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research, The Netherlands.
    van de Sluis, Jacco
    TNO Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research, The Netherlands.
    Voronov, Alexey
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.
    Bril, Reindner
    Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Salunkhe, Hrishikesh
    Thermo Fisher Scientific, The Netherlands.
    Arrue, Alvaro
    Applus+ IDIADA, Spain.
    Ruano, Aitor
    Applus+ IDIADA, Spain.
    Garcia-Sol, Lorena
    Applus+ IDIADA, Spain.
    van Nunen, Ellen
    TNO Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research, The Netherlands.
    van de Wouw, Nathan
    Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Cooperative Automated Maneuvering at the 2016 Grand Cooperative Driving Challenge2018In: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 1213-1226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cooperative adaptive cruise control and platooning are well- known applications in the field of cooperative automated driving. However, extension toward maneuvering is desired to accommodate common highway maneuvers, such as merging, and to enable urban applications. To this end, a layered control architecture is adopted. In this architecture, the tactical layer hosts the interaction protocols, describing the wireless information exchange to initiate the vehicle maneuvers, supported by a novel wireless message set, whereas the operational layer involves the vehicle controllers to realize the desired maneuvers. This hierarchical approach was the basis for the Grand Cooperative Driving Challenge (GCDC), which was held in May 2016 in The Netherlands. The GCDC provided the opportunity for participating teams to cooperatively execute a highway lane-reduction scenario and an urban intersection-crossing scenario. The GCDC was set up as a competition and, hence, also involving assessment of the teams' individual performance in a cooperative setting. As a result, the hierarchical architecture proved to be a viable approach, whereas the GCDC appeared to be an effective instrument to advance the field of cooperative automated driving.

  • 23.
    Rosenstatter, Thomas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, Sweden ; Salzburg University of Applied Sciences, Austria ; Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria. Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Modelling the Level of Trust in a Cooperative Automated Vehicle Control System2018In: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 1267-1247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vehicle-to-vehicle communication is a key technology for achieving increased perception for automated vehicles, where the communication enables virtual sensing by means of sensors in other vehicles. In addition, this technology also allows detection and recognition of objects that are out-of-sight. This paper presents a trust system that allows a cooperative and automated vehicle to make more reliable and safe decisions. The system evaluates the current situation and generates a trust index indicating the level of trust in the environment, the ego vehicle, and the surrounding vehicles. This research goes beyond secure communication and concerns the verification of the received data on a system level. The results show that the proposed method is capable of correctly identifying various traffic situations and how the trust index is used while manoeuvring in a platoon merge scenario.

  • 24. Srkimukka, S
    et al.
    Djupsjöbacka, A
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Gavler, A
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Jacobsen, G
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Mitigation of polarization-mode dispersion in optical multi-channel systems.2000In: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, Vol. 18, p. 1374-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25. Sunnerud, H
    et al.
    Li, J
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Xie, C
    Andrekson, P A
    "Experimental Quantification of Soliton Robustness to Polarization-Mode Dispersion in Conventional Dispersion-Managed Systems2001In: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, Vol. 19, p. 1453-61Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Vanin, E V
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Persson, U
    Jacobsen, G
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Acreo.
    Spectral functional forms for gain noise characterization of erbium doped fiber amplifiers2002In: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, Vol. 20, p. 243-49Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 27. Xiaosong, H
    et al.
    Murgovski, N
    Johannesson, L
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Egardt, B
    Comparison of three electrochemical energy buffers applied to a hybrid bus powertrain with simultaneous optimal sizing energy management2014In: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 1193-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper comparatively examines three different electrochemical energy storage systems (ESSs), i.e., a Li-ion battery pack, a supercapacitor pack, a dual buffer, for a hybrid bus powertrain operated in Gothenburg, Sweden. Existing studies focus on comparing these ESSs, in terms of either general attributes (e.g., energy density power density) or their implications to the fuel economy of hybrid vehicles with a heuristic/nonoptimal ESS size power management strategy. This paper adds four original contributions to the related literature. First, the three ESSs are compared in a framework of simultaneous optimal ESS sizing energy management, where the ESSs can serve the powertrain in the most cost-effective manner. Second, convex optimization is used to implement the framework, which allows the hybrid powertrain designers/integrators to rapidly optimally perform integrated ESS selection, sizing, power management. Third, both hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) plug-in HEV (PHEV) scenarios for the powertrain are considered, in order to systematically examine how different the ESS requirements are for HEV PHEV applications. Finally, a sensitivity analysis is carried out to evaluate how price variations of the onboard energy carriers affect the results conclusions._x000D_

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