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  • 1.
    Larsson Ivanov, Oskar
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Santandrea, Fabio
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Stripple, Håkan
    IVL, Sweden.
    Consideration of uncertainties in LCA for infrastructure using probabilistic methods2019In: Structure and Infrastructure Engineering, ISSN 1573-2479, E-ISSN 1744-8980, Vol. 15, no 6, p. 711-724Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The construction and usage of transport infrastructure are major causes of greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption. The effects of resource consumption and pollutant emissions are often quantified through Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) models. All decisions made in infrastructure projects during the whole life cycle are afflicted by uncertainty, e.g. physical properties of materials or amount of pollutants emitted by certain processes. The pervasive role of uncertainty is reflected in LCA models, which therefore should consider uncertainty from various sources and provide a sound quantification of their effects. The aim of the work presented in this paper is to give an overview of different sources of uncertainty in LCA of infrastructure projects and to describe systematic methods to evaluate their influence on the results. The possibility of including uncertainty in a LCA-tool for infrastructure is presented, studying the sensitivity of the model output to the input parameters and two alternative approaches for propagation of uncertainty using two case studies. It is shown that, besides the influence of uncertainty in emission factors, other inputs such as material amounts and service life could contribute significantly to the variability of model output and has to be considered if reliable results are sought. © 2019, © 2019 The Author(s).

  • 2. Lundgren, K
    et al.
    Kettil, P
    Analytical model for the bond-slip behaviour of corroded ribbed reinforcement2012In: Structure and Infrastructure Engineering, ISSN 1573-2479, E-ISSN 1744-8980, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 157-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Corrosion of reinforcement affects the bond mechanism between reinforcement and concrete, and thus the anchorage. Reliable models describing this are needed especially for assessment of the load-carrying capacity of existing structures. This paper presents an analytical one-dimensional model for bond-slip response of corroded reinforcement. The proposed model is an extension of the bond-slip model given in the CEB-FIP Model Code 1990, and is practically applicable for structural analyses to determine the load-carrying capacity of corroded structures. Furthermore, the anchorage length needed to anchor the yield force is calculated from the bond slip, using the one-dimensional bond-slip differential equation. Results of the proposed model are compared with experimental results as well as results from an advanced three-dimensional finite element model. The suggested model is shown to give results that are consistent with the physical behaviour.

  • 3.
    Nasr, Amro
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Kjellström, Erik
    SMHI Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Sweden.
    Björnsson, Ivar
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Ivanov, Oskar
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Jonas
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Bridges in a changing climate: a study of the potential impacts of climate change on bridges and their possible adaptations2019In: Structure and Infrastructure Engineering, ISSN 1573-2479, E-ISSN 1744-8980Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change may have multifaceted impacts on the safety and performance of infrastructure. Accounting for the different ways in which potential climate change scenarios can affect our infrastructure is paramount in determining appropriate adaptation and risk management strategies. Despite gaining some attention among researchers in recent years, this research area is still largely uninvestigated. Several studies have indicated bridges to be especially susceptible to the effects of climate change. This article presents the potential impacts of climate change on bridges and combines the findings of close to 70 research articles to construct a broad list of their possible adaptation techniques. Although this study focuses on bridges, many of the presented climate change impacts and their adaptations are of relevance also to other types of infrastructure.

  • 4.
    Plos, Mario
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Shu, Jiangpeng
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Zandi, Kamyab
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lundgren, Karin
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    A multi-level structural assessment strategy for reinforced concrete bridge deck slabs2017In: Structure and Infrastructure Engineering, ISSN 1573-2479, E-ISSN 1744-8980, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 223-241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a multi-level assessment strategy for reinforced concrete bridge deck slabs. The strategy is based on the principle of successively improved evaluation in structural assessment. It provides a structured approach to the use of simplified as well as advanced non-linear analysis methods. Such advanced methods have proven to possess great possibilities of achieving better understanding of the structural response and of revealing higher load-carrying capacity of existing structures. The proposed methods were used for the analysis of previously tested two-way slabs subjected to bending failure and a cantilever slab subjected to a shear type of failure, in both cases loaded with concentrated loads. As expected, the results show that more advanced methods yield an improved understanding of the structural response and are capable of demonstrating higher, yet conservative, predictions of the load-carrying capacity. Nevertheless, the proposed strategy clearly provides the engineering community a framework for using successively improved structural analysis methods for enhanced assessment in a straightforward manner.

  • 5.
    Tahershamsi, M.
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Fernandez, I.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lundgren, K.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Zandi, Kamyab
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Investigating correlations between crack width, corrosion level and anchorage capacity2017In: Structure and Infrastructure Engineering, ISSN 1573-2479, E-ISSN 1744-8980, Vol. 13, no 10, p. 1294-1307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In assessing existing structures, inspection results need to be linked to the effects on load-carrying capacity; to provide such information, this study has investigated the correlation between splitting crack width, corrosion level and anchorage capacity. The study was based on 13 reinforced concrete beams that had been exposed to natural corrosion for 32 years, 11 beams with splitting cracks and 2 without. The crack pattern and widths were documented before undergoing structural testing of anchorage capacity. Thereafter, the reinforcement bars were extracted and their corrosion levels measured using two methods, gravimetric weight loss and 3D scanning. The corrosion level from the weight loss method was approximately twice as large; possible reasons are horizontal or subsurface corrosion pits, and the cleaning method. Further, for the same corrosion level, the specimens in this study had much larger crack widths and slightly lower bond capacity than the artificially corroded tests in the literature; a possible reason is that these specimens had been subjected to combined corrosion and freezing. However, the corrosion level and reduction in bond capacity related to crack width were both lower in the present than in previous studies in the literature. Thus, by formulating a damage indicator from the damage visible in the form of crack widths from artificial test data, the structural capacity is estimated to be on the safe side.

  • 6.
    Zandi, Kamyab
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Corrosion-induced cover spalling and anchorage capacity2015In: Structure and Infrastructure Engineering, ISSN 1573-2479, E-ISSN 1744-8980, Vol. 11, no 12, p. 1547-1564Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to enhance our understanding of anchorage capacity in reinforced concrete structures with corrosion-induced cover spalling. Our objectives were to study the influence of corrosion-induced cover spalling on bond strength, and to validate an existing one-dimensional (1D) analysis for anchorage capacity in such cases. Thus, earlier developed bond and corrosion models suited for detailed three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) analysis were first combined with a new computation scheme to simulate corrosion-induced cover spalling. The 1D and 3D FE analyses were validated through two types of experiments, i.e. eccentric pull-out tests and beam tests, as well as a comparison with an existing empirical model. The application of 3D FE analysis showed that the corrosion of stirrups advances the emergence of cracking and spalling, while bond strength is only slightly influenced by the corrosion of stirrups after cover spalling if yielding of stirrups has not taken place. Moreover, it was shown that stresses in the stirrups due to corrosion in adjacent bars rapidly diminished within a short distance from the main bar, and that the corrosion of stirrups influenced the shear capacity more prominently than the induced stresses in stirrups due to the corrosion of main bars.

  • 7.
    Zandi, Kamyab
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Kettil, P
    Modelling the structural behaviour of frost-damaged reinforced concrete structures2013In: Structure and Infrastructure Engineering, ISSN 1573-2479, E-ISSN 1744-8980, Vol. 9, no 5, p. 416-431Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A methodology is introduced to predict the mechanical behaviour of reinforced concrete structures with an observed amount of frost damage at a given time. It is proposed that the effects of internal frost damage and surface scaling can be modelled as changes of material and bond properties, and geometry, respectively. These effects were studied and suggestions were made to relate the compressive strength and dynamic modulus of elasticity, as the indicators of damage, to the response of the damaged concrete in compression and tension, and to the bond behaviour. The methodology was applied to concrete beams affected by internal frost damage, using non-linear finite element analyses. A comparison of the results with available experimental data indicated that the changes in failure mode and, to a rather large extent, the effect on failure load caused by internal frost damage can be predicted. However, an uncertainty was the extension and distribution of the damaged region which affected the prediction of the load capacity.

  • 8.
    Zandi, Kamyab
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Lundgren, Karin
    Three-dimensional modelling of structural effects of corroding steel reinforcement in concrete2013In: Structure and Infrastructure Engineering, ISSN 1573-2479, E-ISSN 1744-8980, Vol. 9, no 7, p. 702-718Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of corrosion products flowing through cracks becomes significant when large corrosion penetrations take place in reinforced concrete structures and wide cracks develop; this is favourable, as it decreases the splitting stress around the bar. The effect becomes more important when the corrosion rate is low, such as for natural corrosion. Acorrosion model describing the expansion due to voluminous corrosive products was previously developed. The model is here extended to include the flow of corrosion products through cracks. The volume flow of corrosion products through a crack is assumed to depend on the splitting stress and the crack width. The splitting stress is evaluated from the strain in the corrosion products, and the crack width is computed from the displacements across the crack. A one-dimensional flow model is used to formulate the flow phenomenon and to estimate the volume flow of corrosion products. The extended corrosion model, applied in detailed three-dimensional non-linear finite element analyses of highly corroded eccentric pull-out specimens, resulted in more corrosion cracks with smaller crack openings, which better corresponded to measurements of the tested specimens. Moreover, the results indicated the important effect of the flow phenomenon on the bond strength.

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