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  • 1.
    Lu, Xiaohu
    et al.
    Nynas AB, Sweden.
    Sjövall, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Soenen, Hilde
    Nynas NV, Belgium.
    Blom, Johan
    Antwerp University, Belgium.
    Andersson, Martin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation.
    Structural and chemical imaging analysis of bitumen2019In: International Journal on Road Materials and Pavement Design, ISSN 1468-0629, E-ISSN 2164-7402Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microstructures of bitumen surfaces (both air-cooled and fractured) were imaged by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and chemically characterised by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). For certain air-cooled bitumen surfaces, bee structures were observed by AFM, and chemical explanation by wax crystallisation was confirmed by TOF-SIMS analysis. Unlike the air-cooled surfaces, the fracture surfaces generally did not show clear structure patterns. Furthermore, TOF-SIMS analysis was conducted on the tube-like or worm structures which were generated by environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) on the bitumen surfaces. In general, very small chemical differences were observed between the structured and unstructured areas, as well as between different areas of the structure. To understand the formation of the ESEM structures, possible contributing factors were examined, from which a mechanism involving electron-induced heating was proposed.

  • 2.
    Wallqvist, Viveca
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Micromechanical investigation of phase separation in bitumen by combining atomic force microscopy with differential scanning calorimetry results2013In: International Journal on Road Materials and Pavement Design, ISSN 1468-0629, E-ISSN 2164-7402, Vol. 14, no Suppl 1, p. 25-37Article in journal (Refereed)
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