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  • 1.
    Fors, Susan M.
    et al.
    SIK – Svenska livmedelsinstitutet.
    Olofsson, Bertil K.
    SIK – Svenska livmedelsinstitutet.
    Alkylpyrazines, volatiles formed in the Maillard reaction.: I. Determination of odour detection thresholds and odour intensity functions by dynamic olfactometry1985In: Chemical Senses, ISSN 0379-864X, E-ISSN 1464-3553, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 287-296Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Maillard reaction plays an important role in the formation of the aroma and flavour of many foods, especially heat-treated foods. Among the volatiles formed, alkylpyrazines contribute to the sensory characteristics of a great number of foods. This article presents results obtained in an investigation of the odour properties of purified, synthetic alkylpyrazines. Dynamic air-dilution olfactometers were used to present the stimuli to 10 panellists. Odour detection thresholds were estimated for 13 alkylpyrazines. Panel results for the compounds investigated were in the range from 4 to 490 p.p.b. (v/v). Alkylpyrazines containing ethyl substituents had, in general, threshold values in the lower part of this range. Odour intensity functions (I = k x C(n)) of five alkylpyrazines were estimated by an odour intensity matching technique. n-Butanol was used as the odour inensity reference. The exponent n of the odour intensity functions ranged from 0.44 to 0.58.

  • 2.
    Fors, Susan M.
    et al.
    SIK – Svenska livmedelsinstitutet.
    Olofsson, Bertil K.
    SIK – Svenska livmedelsinstitutet.
    Alkylpyrazines, volatiles formed in the Maillard reaction.: II. Sensory properties of five alkylpyrazines1986In: Chemical Senses, ISSN 0379-864X, E-ISSN 1464-3553, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 65-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Odour profiles were determined for five selected alkylpyrazines. A list of 22 descriptors was elaborated and used by a panel of ten assessors to describe the odorants, each in four concentrations. Some of the descriptive terms such as pungent, solvent-like and sweet were used by the panel for most of the samples. Other descriptors were found to be applicable only for one or two odorants, for instance mousy, mouse-cage, rye crispbread, green, grassy, earthy, vegetable-like, musty, flowery and butterscotch. In general, the intensity of the descriptors increased with increased sample concentration. Chocolate, nutty and roasted are odour characters which have frequently been associated with alkylpyrazines in the literature. Surprisingly, these terms were rarely used by the panel in this investigation.

  • 3. Tuorila, H.
    et al.
    Theunissen, M.J.M.
    Ahlstrom, R.
    Recalling taste intensities in sweetened and salted liquids1996In: Chemical Senses, ISSN 0379-864X, E-ISSN 1464-3553, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 29-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of training on recalling taste intensities over 6 weeks was studied using an ad libitum mixing procedure. Subjects tasted sweet and salty standards labeled as 'weak' and 'strong' (3 and 8% sucrose in redcurrant juice; 0.4 and 1.2% NaCl in beef broth). They subsequently mixed unsweetened and sweetened juice, and unsalted and salted broth, to produce taste intensities that corresponded to the standards. A minimum training (MT) group (n = 13) produced comparison stimuli by tasting and directly comparing with standards in one session only; an extensive training (ET) group (n = 13) did this in six sessions before producing comparison stimuli based on memory only at 1 h, 1 day, 1 week and 6 weeks. An upward bias (chemically determined concentrations of comparison stimuli exceeding those of standards) occurred at 1 day or 1 week in MT subjects for 'weak' and 'strong' sweetness, and for 'strong' saltiness, and sustained thereafter. The upward tendency was also observed in ET subjects but was significant only for 'strong' sweetness. It is important to recognize memory effects such as the one described, as they affect food perceptions and can be a major source of bias in sensory food research.

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