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  • 1.
    Christodoulakis, John
    et al.
    National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece.
    Tzanis, Chris G.
    National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece.
    Varotsos, Costas A.
    National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece.
    Ferm, Martin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Tidblad, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Impacts of air pollution and climate on materials in Athens, Greece2017In: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 439-448Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For more than 10 years now the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece, has contributed to the UNECE (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe) ICP Materials (International Co-operative Programme on Effects on Materials including Historic and Cultural Monuments) programme for monitoring the corrosion/soiling levels of different kinds of materials due to environmental air-quality parameters. In this paper we present the results obtained from the analysis of observational data that were collected in Athens during the period 2003-2012. According to these results, the corrosion/soiling of the particular exposed materials tends to decrease over the years, except for the case of copper. Based on this long experimental database that is applicable to the multi-pollutant situation in the Athens basin, we present dose-response functions (DRFs) considering that "dose" stands for the air pollutant concentration, "response" for the material mass loss (normally per annum) and "function", the relationship derived by the best statistical fit to the data.

  • 2.
    David, Robert
    et al.
    ETH Zürich, Switzerland; University of Oslo, Norway.
    Fahrni, Jonas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy. Zürich University of Applied Sciences, Switzerland; .
    Marcolli, Claudia
    ETH Zürich, Switzerland.
    Mahrt, Fbaian
    ETH Zürich, Switzerland; University of British Columbia, Canada.
    Brühwiler, Dominik
    Zürich University of Applied Sciences, Switzerland.
    Kanji, Zamin
    ETH Zürich, Switzerland.
    The role of contact angle and pore width on pore condensation and freezing2020In: Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics, ISSN 1680-7316, E-ISSN 1680-7324, Vol. 20, no 15, p. 9419-9440Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has recently been shown that pore condensation and freezing (PCF) is a mechanism responsible for ice formation under cirrus cloud conditions. PCF is defined as the condensation of liquid water in narrow capillaries below water saturation due to the inverse Kelvin effect, followed by either heterogeneous or homogeneous nucleation depending on the temperature regime and presence of an ice-nucleating active site. By using sol-gel synthesized silica with well-defined pore diameters, morphology and distinct chemical surface-functionalization, the role of the water-silica contact angle and pore width on PCF is investigated. We find that for the pore diameters (2.2-9.2 nm) and water contact angles (15-78<span classCombining double low line"inline-formula">ĝ</span>) covered in this study, our results reveal that the water contact angle plays an important role in predicting the humidity required for pore filling, while the pore diameter determines the ability of pore water to freeze. For <span classCombining double low line"inline-formula"><i>T</i>>235</span> K and below water saturation, pore diameters and water contact angles were not able to predict the freezing ability of the particles, suggesting an absence of active sites; thus ice nucleation did not proceed via a PCF mechanism. Rather, the ice-nucleating ability of the particles depended solely on chemical functionalization. Therefore, parameterizations for the ice-nucleating abilities of particles in cirrus conditions should differ from parameterizations at mixed-phase clouds conditions. Our results support PCF as the atmospherically relevant ice nucleation mechanism below water saturation when porous surfaces are encountered in the troposphere. © Author(s) 2020. This work is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

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