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  • 1.
    Andersson, Johnn
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hellsmark, Hans
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sandén, Björn
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Unpacking the directionality of technological innovation2020Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 2.
    Andersson, Johnn
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hojckova, Kristina
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sandén, Björn
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Clarifying the focus and improving the rigour of sustainability transitions research on emerging technologies2020Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 3.
    Apanasevic, Tatjana
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Prototypande samhälle.
    Öppna data publicerings process : Leverantörsreskontra, Varberg kommun. Uppföljningsstudie2021Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Nationell Skalning Öppna Data (NSÖD) projektet syftar till att utveckla specifikationer för öppna data och hjälpa kommuner att publicera vissa datamängder som öppna data. Inom projektet har vi analyserat samhällsekonomiska effekter av öppna data. Under år 2020 har vi genomfört studien inriktad mot samhällsekonomiska effekter av publicering av leverantörsreskontra som öppna data (Apanasevic, 2020). Under projektets gång har vi fått en unik möjlighet att följa arbetet med införandet av publiceringsprocessen för leverantörsreskontran i Varbergs kommun. Syftet med denna uppföljningsstudie är att beskriva hur Varbergs kommun införde en öppen datapubliceringsprocess och vilka lärdomar kommunen har dragit. Uppföljningsstudien genomfördes år 2021 och bestod av tre semistrukturerade intervjuer med ledaren för öppna data projekt (för leverantörsreskontra) i Varbergs kommun.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 4.
    Barreto, Carlos
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Reinert, Olof
    Umeå University, Sweden; Länsförsäkringar, Sweden.
    Wiesinger, Tobias
    Umeå University, Sweden; Länsförsäkringar, Sweden.
    Franke, Ulrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Duopoly insurers’ incentives for data quality under a mandatory cyber data sharing regime2023Inngår i: Computers & security (Print), ISSN 0167-4048, E-ISSN 1872-6208, Vol. 131, artikkel-id 103292Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the impact of data sharing policies on cyber insurance markets. These policies have been proposed to address the scarcity of data about cyber threats, which is essential to manage cyber risks. We propose a Cournot duopoly competition model in which two insurers choose the number of policies they offer (i.e., their production level) and also the resources they invest to ensure the quality of data regarding the cost of claims (i.e., the data quality of their production cost). We find that enacting mandatory data sharing sometimes creates situations in which at most one of the two insurers invests in data quality, whereas both insurers would invest when information sharing is not mandatory. This raises concerns about the merits of making data sharing mandatory. 

  • 5.
    Bokström, Tomas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Julin, Josefin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Norman, Dorthe
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Lidman, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    En unik social investering – slutrapport om det sociala utfallskontraktet i Norrköping2022Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden’s first Social Impact Bond (SIB) or, as preferred, Social Outcomes Contract (SOC), was a collaborative project between Norrköping local authority and private social investor Leksell Social Ventures (LSV) supported by the Swedish Association of Local Authorities and Regions (Mission Mental Health) and Lumell Associates. The aim was to address a social challenge – improving outcomes for youth and children placed in institutional care. After an intense period of feasibility studies and contracting negotiations, the SOC became operational in August 2016. Active work with the target group continued until first quarter 2019 and the evaluation phase was completed in February 2021. This report presents the results in terms of achieved outcomes as well as a broader perspective of learnings, for Norrköping and for the general development of social investment in Sweden. The SOC should be considered a form of social investment, where an initial cost leads to longer term social and economic benefits to society. There are many examples of social investments in Sweden where local authorities have reserved internal funding in so-called social investment funds. The Norrköping SOC was the first Swedish example of a social investment case where a private investor provided a loan to the local authority for upfront funding together with a risk sharing model connected to achieved outcomes. Norrköping and LSV agreed in the SOC that LSV would provide up to 10 million SEK (~1 MEUR) for the project. The associated risk sharing model was such that Norrköping would guarantee 40 % repayment on activity while the outstanding 60 % would be repaid if cost savings in social services would be achieved. Each SEK saved in social service costs would be divided between the parts corresponding to their financial risk (60/40) up to project break even. If the savings would be larger than project costs, LSV would be allowed a total ROI capped at 20 % conditional on improved school outcomes for the target group. The evaluation period was 24 months per individual in the target group and compared with a historic reference group. If the target group individual has lower costs over the evaluation period than its comparison group average, then this provides a positive net saving. If an individual improves when it comes to school performance over 24 months, a positive value is registered, if not, a negative value. Values are assigned from -3 to +3 following an ad hoc model designed for this project (to take into account the wide age span and different educational settings for the target group). Norrköping decided it to be outside legal scope to create a historic comparison group for school performance. Net results for costs and school performance are added for the target group and thus establishing contract outcomes. In addition to primary outcomes, the project was also monitoring mental wellbeing, substance abuse, supporting relations with family and social network and achievement of individual goals. Having a 24-month evaluation period (from when the intervention starts) turned out to be challenging with costs increasing with 7,5 million SEK. However, school performance and social outcomes were all positive. Data suggested that over time, net costs were decreasing, and the project partners agreed to extend the monitoring period to 36 months, but to do this outside of the contract. Over 36 months, the evaluation indicates reduced social service costs of 4 million SEK. The project cost is 7.5 million SEK leading to a net result of -3.5 million SEK. The result is distributed between parts so that Norrköping ends with +1 million and LSV with -4.5 million SEK. In summary, the contract did not perform in the sense that LSV was not eligible to be repaid more than the 40 % guarantee. But from a project and target group perspective, the results are quite positive, both in terms of social and school outcomes and in terms of the extended period cost savings. It can also be noticed that several hypothetically positive outcomes for the target group and for society are not included in the evaluation model. All in all, the SOC should be considered a successful social investment.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 6.
    Franke, Ulrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Dags för cybersäkerhetsekonomi2022Inngår i: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 50, nr 2, s. 71-74Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 7.
    Garrido Banuelos, Gonzalo
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    de Barros Alves, Helia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Mihnea, Mihaela
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. Örebro University, Sweden.
    Mapping the sensory fingerprint of swedish beer market through text and data mining and multivariate strategies2021Inngår i: Beverages, ISSN 2306-5710, Vol. 7, nr 4, artikkel-id 74Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The continuous increase of online data with consumers’ and experts’ reviews and preferences is a potential tool for sensory characterization. The present work aims to overview the Swedish beer market and understand the sensory fingerprint of Swedish beers based on text data extracted from the Swedish alcohol retail monopoly (Systembolaget) website. Different multivariate strategies such as heatmaps, correspondence analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis were used to understand the sensory space of the different beer styles. Additionally, sensory space for specific hop cultivars was also investigated. Results highlighted Gothenburg as the main producing area in Sweden. The style Indian Pale Ale (IPA) is the largest available at the retail monopoly. From a sensory perspective, commonalities and differences were found between beer types and styles. Based on the aroma description, different types of ale and lager can cluster together (such as Porter and Stout and Dark lagers). Additionally, an associative relationship between specific aromas and hop cultivars from text data information was successfully achieved. © 2021 by the authors.

  • 8.
    James, Natasha
    et al.
    USDA Forest Service, USA.
    Lundberg, Liv
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Sills, Erin
    The Implications of Learning on Bidding Behavior in a Repeated First Price Conservation Auction with Targeting2021Inngår i: Strategic Behavior and the Environment, ISSN 1944-012X, E-ISSN 1944-0138, Vol. 9, nr 1-2, s. 69-101Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Conservation auctions have been advocated as a way to increase the cost-effectiveness of payment for ecosystem services (PES) programs by reducing the informational rents captured by participating landowners. Most PES programs have continual or periodic (rather than one-time) enrollment. In repeated auctions, it is possible for participants to learn the winning bids from previous auctions and use this information to strategically set their bids, thereby capturing more informational rents. We develop an agent-based model, using data from Costa Rica’s Pago de Servicios Ambientales

  • 9.
    Leland, Suzanne
    et al.
    University of North Carolina at Charlotte, USA.
    Pinka, Robert
    University of North Carolina at Charlotte, USA.
    Boyer, Robert
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Who shares?: Participation in the sharing economy in the U.S.2023Inngår i: Journal of Urban Affairs, ISSN 0735-2166, E-ISSN 1467-9906Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An increasing number of goods and services are now available through peer-to-peer networks, product service systems, and redistribution markets—collectively labeled the “sharing economy.” This has implications for government in the areas of regulation and the built environment. This research explores who participates in the sharing economy based on factors such as race, density, demographics and political attitudes in the U.S. Respondents who live in urban ZIP codes are more likely to have used car sharing, bicycle sharing, couch surfing, and household goods applications. However, black individuals living in more dense areas are less likely to use some of these service categories, which may be in part to discrimination or access. Age, extraversion, and presence of children in the household are also positively associated with most applications, income, and ideology appear to be largely unrelated suggesting policy beliefs are likely not a driving factor in survey respondents’ preferences. Environmental concerns only influence who participates in carsharing. 

  • 10.
    Nikoui, Tina
    et al.
    Islamic Azad University, Iran.
    Rahmani, Amir
    National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Taiwan.
    Balador, Ali
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Industriella system.
    Haj Seyyed Javadi, Hamid
    Shahed University, Iran.
    Analytical model for task offloading in a fog computing system with batch-size-dependent service2022Inngår i: Computer Communications, ISSN 0140-3664, E-ISSN 1873-703X, Vol. 190, s. 201-215Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Task offloading is one of the main concepts in fog computing which improves the system efficiency and decreases latency. Previously proposed models, such as exponential queue models, addressed the offloading models in a simple model. This study proposes a novel analytical model that examines batch queuing systems and the influence of batch size-dependent service time on system performance. Some of the system's properties are indicated using this model, and the correctness of the suggested model via numerical evaluations and simulations is shown. The evaluation results show that our proposed model provides acceptable accuracy and enables efficient task offloading, applied to fog computing systems. 

  • 11.
    Nunes, Claudia
    et al.
    Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal.
    Oliveira, Carlos
    Universidade de Lisboa and REM, Portugal.
    Pimentel, Rita
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. NTNU, Norway.
    Quasi-analytical solution of an investment problem with decreasing investment cost due to technological innovations2021Inngår i: Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, ISSN 0165-1889, E-ISSN 1879-1743, Vol. 130, artikkel-id 104154Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we address, in the context of real options, an investment problem with two sources of uncertainty: the price (reflected in the revenue of the firm) and the level of technology. The level of technology impacts in the investment cost, that decreases when there is a technology innovation. The price follows a geometric Brownian motion, whereas the technology innovations are driven by a Poisson process. As a consequence, the investment region may be attained in a continuous way (due to an increase of the price) or in a discontinuous way (due to a sudden decrease of the investment cost). For this problem no analytical solution is known, and threfore we propose a quasi-analytical method to find an approximated solution that preserves the qualitative features of the exact solution. This method is based on a truncation procedure. We prove that the truncated solution converges to the solution of the original problem. We provide results of the comparative statics for the investment thresholds. These results show interesting behaviors. In particular the investment may be postponed or anticipated with the intensity of the technology innovations and with the impact on the investment cost.

  • 12.
    Ordoñez, Isabel
    et al.
    , Spain.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Social factors and behavioural change in waste packaging collection systems – literature review and existing case studies2022Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The collection and recycling of packaging and life cycle assessments have traditionally been developed from a technical perspective, not including the actors in the chain. However, how recycling should be done depends on who you ask, and whether you look at the issue from an energy, material, legal or user-based perspective. FTI, the Packaging and Newspaper Collection organization is responsible for better circularity and collecting in Sweden's municipalities. They ensure that containers are emptied, that the collection points remain clean, that contents go to the right treatment, and that materials are recycled as much as possible. When recyclable materials end up in the wrong place, it causes problems leading to increased energy use in the life cycle. The ongoing project Tjårven, aims to reduce energy use in connection with packaging collection, as well as potential energy gains in the second stage of the packaging life cycle, by redesigning packaging collection from a user centred perspective. For this, design methods that consider users’ sorting and recycling behaviour as a starting point, will be used for the re-design. To show the energy use in the lifecycle and include the actors, an actor-based LCA method will be used. This literature review can be divided into two sections, the first one focusing on household waste sorting behaviour insights, and the second one focusing on EPR for PPP and how it fits into waste collection systems and recycling behaviour. The literature review has been performed initially on recycling behaviour and extended producer responsibility. The literature review has been further performed on social indicators and existing case studies of nudging has been added, as well as literature on the “ladder of change” has been added to the literature review to increase the understanding of behaviour change and behavioural context. The literature study included 36 reported interventions and from good practices to improve recycling performance from 162 articles. The literature shows that social modelling, environmental interventions, and communication strategies are the type of interventions that obtain best results. Additionally, it is advisable that the project team uses EXPRA content as a EPR for PPP specific benchmark platform. The Swedish regulations that define how FTI operates might be subjected to change based on shifting criteria at the EU, influenced by other EPR frontrunners. It is advisable to sort the social factors for changing behaviours in the literature into design factors: social design factors to provide positive feedback and to adopt to everyday life, physical design factors to provide accessibility, clarity, and comparability, as well as service design factors to provide user-and operator friendly service. It is advisable to look at Nudging, and service design since 30% reduction is possible. Additionally, it is advisable to build a new ladder of change to understand the context of change for the service provider and the user behaviour, including the following steps: (1) Awareness and willingness to change, (2) Knowledge raising, (3) Possibility e.g. simplifying, available, attractive, (4) Relationships and feedback, (5) Dare.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 13.
    Piechnik, Kira
    et al.
    Otto-von-Guericke-UniversityMagdeburg, Germany.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik. NTNU Norwegian Universityof Science and Technology, Norway.
    Fires without flames: fundamentals and fire investigation cases2021Annet (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 14.
    Shinde, Priyanka
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Kouveliotis-Lysikatos, Iasonas
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Amelin, Mikael
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Song, Meng
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    A Modified Progressive Hedging Approach for Multistage Intraday Trade of EV aggregators2022Inngår i: Electric power systems research, ISSN 0378-7796, E-ISSN 1873-2046, Vol. 212, artikkel-id 108518Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The growing prominence of electric vehicle (EV) aggregators in the modern power system is drawing more attention towards modeling their behavior in the short-term electricity markets. The demand-side flexibility offered by the EVs can be leveraged to reduce their charging costs. In this paper, the participation of an EV aggregator in the intraday and balancing market is modeled as a multistage stochastic programming problem. The computational complexity introduced by the peculiarities of the intraday market is solved by a progressive hedging algorithm (PHA), a scenario-based decomposition technique. A randomized scenario sampling approach is implemented to accelerate the PHA which is further improved with a parallel randomized PHA. Finally, an asynchronous version of the parallel randomized PHA is leveraged to speed up the multistage model of EV aggregator trading. We compare the computation time of the modified versions of the PHA algorithm with the conventional PHA for the proposed EV aggregator model. Furthermore, we also show the value of EV aggregator trading in the intraday and balancing markets by comparing its cost to baseline models. © 2022 The Author(s)

  • 15.
    Sjöberg, Per-Olof
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system.
    Edström, Adam
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Prototypande samhälle.
    Andersson, Adam
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Salter, Michael
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Samel, Björn
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Andersson, Dag
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Sverige i halvledarvärlden – analys och förslag till strategi2022Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den brist på halvledare som industrin upplevt under 2021 har satt den annars tämligen anonyma halvledarindustrin i rampljuset såväl i Sverige som i Europa, USA och globalt. Hur länge denna brist kommer att bestå är en viktig fråga för industrin, som dock är svår att svara på. Enligt internationella analytiker kommer industrin att uppleva halvledarbrist fram till sommaren 2022 och eventuellt in på nästa höst eller eventuellt längre, varefter det föreligger en risk för överproduktion då lager förmodligen byggts upp bland avnämare. Erfarenheterna från tidigare halvledarbrister är att de så småningom övergår i överskott. Men den nuvarande bristen kan sannolikt kräva längre tid för detta än tidigare brister. Främsta skälet är att de halvledarfabriker som för närvarande är under uppbyggnad för att råda bot på bristen lider av samma överhettade försörjningskedjor som övrig industri, med förseningar av allt från vitala utrustningar till förbrukningsmateriel, och att det därför troligen kommer att ta längre tid än planerat att få dem i drift. Detta kan i värsta fall innebära att det rentav kan ta ett eller flera år längre tid än analytikerna förutspått innan försörjningsläget är normalt. Sverige är en del av det globala halvledarekosystemet – ett komplext ekosystem som kännetecknas av hög grad av arbetsfördelning, hög kapitalintensitet, hög kunskapsintensitet, långa produktionstider, stark internationalisering och starka inlåsningseffekter. Sverige interagerar med detta globala ekosystem på två sätt - som leverantör av produkter och tjänster i ett antal nischer där vi uppvisar global spetskompetens samt som avnämare av halvledarprodukter för industriella behov. Båda dessa sidor behöver stärkas för att a) våra SMF och stora företag ska kunna få tillgång till de halvledare och system byggda på halvledare som krävs för den produktion av produkter och tjänster som bidrar till Sveriges välstånd, b) svenska industriföretag ska kunna säkra tillgång till den kompetens och de tjänster som krävs då industrins produkter innehåller allt större mängd halvledare, och c) för att maximera möjligheterna för svenska halvledar- och elektronikinnovationer att hävda sig på världsmarknaden, och på så sätt bidra till landets välstånd. Det övergripande målet för Sverige bör vara att använda vår nationella styrka inom innovation som hävstång, och fokusera de starka specialiserade kompetenserna som finns här i landet, jämte långsiktiga investeringar i forskning inom halvledarteknik, systemdesign och halvledarmaterial, i syfte att med samlad kraft nå följande strategiska mål: 1) Etablera Sverige som ett halvledarinnovationsland genom att stärka vårt innovationssystem för halvledare och halvledarmaterial. 2) Få utväxling på de svenska investeringarna i forsknings- och innovationsinfrastruktur för design och produktion av halvledare. 3) Säkra och vidmakthåll en roll för Sverige i halvledarindustrin, inte minst genom svensk representation i de organ och församlingar som beslutar om framtida europeiska investeringar. För att nå dessa mål krävs stark samverkan mellan industri, akademi, institut och offentlig sektor, och långsiktiga såväl publika som privata investeringar i utbildning, forskningsinfrastruktur, test- och demonstrationsanläggningar och i startup- och scaleup-bolag. RISE åsikt är att Sverige därtill bör ta aktiv del i EU-initiativ som den europeiska halvledaralliansen (Alliance on Processor and Semiconductor Technologies) och European Chips Act. Påpekas bör att dessa mål är långsiktiga och kräver kontinuerligt arbete och finansiering under många år framöver. De löser inte industrins kortsiktiga behov av halvledare, och det kommer att ta tid att säkra industrins behov av halvledarkompetens. Med en väl genomförd strategi skulle dock dessa behov i högre grad kunna tillgodoses samtidigt som vårt lands bidrag till det globala halvledarekosystemet skulle växa kraftigt, till fromma för vårt gemensamma välstånd.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 16.
    Strokirk, Cecilia
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Maritima avdelningen.
    Klintenberg, Henrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Maritima avdelningen.
    Rogerson, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Maritima avdelningen.
    Bach, Andreas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Maritima avdelningen.
    Raza, Zeeshan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Maritima avdelningen.
    Nyttan med svenskflaggade fartyg och betydelsen av en ökad inflaggning för Sverige2022Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Shipping transport plays a crucial role in supporting the domestic and global trade and economic growth by handling nearly 90% of Sweden’s import and export, transporting millions of passengers. The Swedish shipping industry provides employment directly to more than thirty thousand people and in addition, significantly contributes to the total GDP of Sweden by generating over 85 billion SEK annually (NRIA Shipping 2021). Over the past few decades despite shipping’s substantial importance for Swedish economy, Swedish ship-owners have largely adopted a “flagging out” model by placing vessels under alternative flags, which provides cost savings by reducing tax payments as well as more flexible standards related to ship operations. Existing literature and industry reports suggest that a reduced national flagged fleet has disturbing long-term implications for Sweden, and there is a need to increase the size of Swedish-flagged fleet. However, there is a lack of clear evidence regarding the benefits and importance of an increased national fleet for Sweden. Hence, relying on the existing literature and interviews with experts from Swedish Maritime and Transport Agencies, Swedish Shipowners’ Association, ship-owners, and Swedish Navy this feasibility study aims to shed light on the benefits of Swedish-flagged ships and how increased flagging would affect Sweden as a nation and society from a broad perspective. The findings of this study show that the existence of a strong Swedish shipping sector is important from several perspectives. In a complex world with humanitarian crises, natural disasters, piracy, supply chain disruptions and wars, Sweden has an obligation to protect and assist both its own citizens, industries, and economy as well as its international partners all over the globe within its limited means. In addition, the Swedish fleet provides an infrastructure link between Sweden and the rest of the world, promotes maritime cluster formation in the country, boosts tax revenues and GDP, increases employment opportunities, and contributes to Swedish industry’s globalized supply chains. Moreover, a competitive and sustainable Swedish fleet can assist Sweden in achieving national and global sustainable development goals (SDG). The SDGs are a global call for action to protect the planet, ensure better lives for all people and ascertain economic growth, peace, and prosperity. Similarly, one of the main goals set by the government of Sweden is to become world’s first fossil free welfare nation. A sustainable Swedish-flagged fleet is an important enabler to achieve the government’s business policy goal of strengthening Swedish competitiveness and creating conditions for more jobs and growing Swedish companies and economy. For Sweden to achieve an efficient and climate-smart transport system, all modes of transport need to be used in the best way. Sweden has also stated a clear goal in the national freight transport strategy to move goods from road transport to rail and sea. Shipping is an energy efficient transport mode. A shift from road haulage to shipping can relieve the heavily loaded road infrastructure to a greater extent and can thus reduce congestion, traffic accidents, longer wait times, noise, and emissions. A modal shift to shipping as a result can support the national and European policy of moving goods from road to sea. A positive outcome of using more shipping compared to trucking is that society does not have to spend as many resources on construction and maintenance of the road infrastructure. The findings of this study indicate that the Swedish government can play an important role to attract more vessels to use Swedish flag by providing a long term and consistent business conditions for the maritime industry. In our research Tax “Stämpelskatt” appears to be one of the key factors which makes Swedish flag unattractive for ship-owners who want to register their vessels in Sweden. Several scientific articles, reports and examples from other EU member states emphasize that tax exemptions and state subsidies for maritime transport are pivotal to form maritime clusters that in turn outweigh the reduction in tax revenues from shipping following tax relaxation, offering various socio-economic benefits in form of more jobs and a strong economic growth. Among other measures, the establishment of second ship registers is one of the most effective ways to increase the Swedish-flagged fleet, as shown by the success of Norwegian and Danish international ship registers. The Swedish state must understand that a Swedish-flagged fleet is a market issue and that the terms and conditions offered by the state both affect and determine who can do business in the market.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 17.
    Thidevall, Niklas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Schnurr, Maria
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Modernare och enklare skattesystem för privat bildelning2021Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The tax situation for private (peer-to-peer, P2P) carsharing in Sweden has been identified by platform operators and end-users as one of the key barriers for growth. Given a tax declaration system in Sweden that requires less to no effort on the individual’s side – declarations usually are pre-infilled and only need to be confirmed, via a digital interface – certain additional revenues like the ones from private carsharing, even if small, need to be filled in manually, posing a seemingly insurmountable barrier for the average Swedish taxpayer. Multiple platform operators within P2P carsharing shared their concerns over how this keeps people from starting to share their cars, while at the same time taking up quite some time on the platform operators’ sides for handling customers’ tax-related questions. Another issue is of course the tax burden itself – 30 percent of the revenues, minus a mileage deduction, which feels high, especially for individuals that choose to share their vehicles out of an environmental motivation and not with the main purpose to generate significant incomes. During a time where the car sharing market is growing significantly– many more people needed access to cars during the Covid-19 pandemic to avoid public transportation – and where all kinds of sharing need to be encouraged to achieve climate and environmental goals, this situation seemed inacceptable and prompted a Drive Sweden funded so-called policy lab project led by RISE Research Institutes of Sweden (RISE). Together with key stakeholders, namely platform operators for private carsharing and sharing of other private assets, the main challenges where identified, along with possible solutions. During the project the Swedish government conveniently proposed a tax deduction of SEK 20,000 (appr. EUR 2,000) for individuals’ revenues from the sharing economy, and the EU came with a directive to introduce a common tax reporting system for the sharing (and “gig”) economy throughout Europe (DAC-7). For both proposals, the project group identified improvement areas in order to foster long-term growth of the sharing economy, in line with national and international development goals. The report sheds light on these and other issues that came up in the numerous discussions and exchanges between a very heterogenous group of stakeholders, opening for further discussion and analyses to come.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 18.
    Tobiasson, Wenche
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Llorca, Manuel
    Copenhagen Business School, Denmark.
    Jamasb, Tooraj
    Copenhagen Business School, Denmark.
    Performance effects of network structure and ownership: The norwegian electricity distribution sector2021Inngår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 14, nr 21, artikkel-id 7160Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Transmission and distribution networks are capital intensive segments of the electricity sector and are generally considered natural monopolies. Due to their non-competitive nature, these are subject to independent regulation to prevent the abuse of monopolistic power and to induce competitive behaviour. Effective economic regulation of the electricity networks has become a key target in most developed economies after the 1980s. In Norway, incentive regulation and efficiency benchmarking were introduced in 1997. In Norway, the electricity grid is divided into three levels, namely, central, regional and distribution networks. In this paper, we study two overlooked aspects when analysing the performance of electricity networks: vertical integration and ownership structure. We use a stochastic frontier analysis approach to analyse the performance of Norwegian electricity distribution utilities for the period 2007–2014. We observe that vertical integration between distribution and regional transmission implies higher cost inefficiencies. This indicates that the efficiency gains due to separate management of the networks exceed the economies of coordination from vertical economies of scope. In addition, we find that council ownership entails higher efficiencies. This could be explained by the state having an interest in high-voltage electricity networks, rather than low-voltage ones, and the decentralised model from which the now centralised system was once developed. © 2021 by the authors. 

  • 19.
    von Platten, Jenny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation. Lund University, Sweden.
    Energy Poverty in Sweden2021Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
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