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  • 1.
    Amann, D.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Swedish Defence University, Sweden.
    Kihlander, Ingrid
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Magnusson, M.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Affordability Aspects in the Development of Defence Equipment: Case Studies of Concept Generation in the Defence Industry2021Ingår i: Defence and Peace Economics, ISSN 1024-2694, E-ISSN 1476-8267, Vol. 32, nr 7, s. 847-863Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cost escalation for many complex defence equipment is arguably not sustainable. Customer driven requirements have led to an exponential increase in costs by pushing frontiers of technology to support primarily incremental improvements of traditional equipment concepts. Accordingly, affordability has become a more discussed subject in defence acquisition. This paper addresses the process of generating complex defence equipment concepts. The purpose is to explore how affordability is managed in that process and to identify possible leads to how an unsustainable cost escalation for this type of equipment can be curbed. This is done by studying two cases of concept generation of future combat air equipment systems from a company process perspective. This applied micro perspective on cost escalation showed that none of the concepts generated in these two cases were assessed to curb the cost escalation. Further, the innovation model for the generated concepts, with only one notable exception, was incremental. Nevertheless, the empirical observations from these two cases offer leads on how to potentially foster a more innovative and affordability-oriented concept generation process for future defence equipment, as well as indicating avenues for future research.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Johnn
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hellsmark, Hans
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sandén, Björn
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Unpacking the directionality of technological innovation2020Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 3.
    Andersson, Johnn
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hojckova, Kristina
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sandén, Björn
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Clarifying the focus and improving the rigour of sustainability transitions research on emerging technologies2020Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 4.
    Apanasevic, Tatjana
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Prototypande samhälle.
    Samhällsekonomisk analys av öppna leverantörsreskontradata: Handledning2021Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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  • 5.
    Apanasevic, Tatjana
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Prototypande samhälle.
    Öppna data publicerings process : Leverantörsreskontra, Varberg kommun. Uppföljningsstudie2021Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Nationell Skalning Öppna Data (NSÖD) projektet syftar till att utveckla specifikationer för öppna data och hjälpa kommuner att publicera vissa datamängder som öppna data. Inom projektet har vi analyserat samhällsekonomiska effekter av öppna data. Under år 2020 har vi genomfört studien inriktad mot samhällsekonomiska effekter av publicering av leverantörsreskontra som öppna data (Apanasevic, 2020). Under projektets gång har vi fått en unik möjlighet att följa arbetet med införandet av publiceringsprocessen för leverantörsreskontran i Varbergs kommun. Syftet med denna uppföljningsstudie är att beskriva hur Varbergs kommun införde en öppen datapubliceringsprocess och vilka lärdomar kommunen har dragit. Uppföljningsstudien genomfördes år 2021 och bestod av tre semistrukturerade intervjuer med ledaren för öppna data projekt (för leverantörsreskontra) i Varbergs kommun.

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  • 6.
    Apanasevic, Tatjana
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Prototypande samhälle.
    Rudmark, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Crowdsourcing and Public Transportation: Barriers and Opportunities2021Ingår i: Proc of 23rd ITS Biennial Conference, 2021Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the last decade, private companies have successfully used crowdsourcing to revolutionise mobility, while public transport companies are still mostly failing to utilise the benefits of crowdsourcing. The application of crowdsourcing in public transport is a new area of academic research, and research on crowdsourcing en route in real-time is missing. This research aims to address this gap, explore opportunities and challenges of this type of crowdsourcing, and conceptualise this phenomenon. The research is based on empirical data collected in five Northern European countries. Our research findings help identify areas where crowdsourcing en route can add value to public transport: new forms of communication, opportunities to communicate with third parties, and improved transit planning and optimisation. Identified challenges are related to behavioural change for users, a need to develop infrastructure to enable crowdsourcing en route, and financial rationalities.

  • 7.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Svenson, Pontus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    On the Concepts of Capability and Constituent System Independence in Systems-of-Systems2022Ingår i: 2022 17th Annual System of Systems Engineering Conference, SOSE 2022, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2022, s. 247-252Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Systems-of-systems are designed to provide a capability that their constituent systems cannot achieve individually. A key property is that the constituent systems have some degree of operational and managerial independence. The concepts of capability and independence are thus central to the field of systems-of-systems. Yet the contemporary literature and standards only give vague definitions of these terms. This vagueness is a barrier to progress in the field, and this paper aims at contributing with a more detailed conceptualization. It describes a system capability as a state-transforming process that uses certain resources. Independence means that the system has a choice about when and how its capabilities should be activated. This requires that the system is an intelligent agent with a notion of utility, a perception of the world around it, and a decision-making capability. When given a mission, the system can complete that mission by activating appropriate combinations of capabilities. A system-of-systems can decompose its mission into parts that correspond to the capabilities of various constituent systems.

  • 8.
    Bardh, Jonas
    RISE., Swerea, SWECAST.
    Trycktäthet i gjutgods2012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport är en sammanställning av det arbete som gjorts i projekt G833M, ”Trycktäthet i gjutgods”. Idag finns problem med läckande gjutgods och ibland får det stora konsekvenser. Ur miljösynpunkt så får t ex inte olja läcka ut från en motor på en bil. Så ämnet är högaktuellt i dagens samhälle där miljöfrågor får ett allt större fokus. Uppgiften med arbetet var att tydliggöra vad som menas med trycktätt gods, (hur man definierar begreppet trycktäthet). Hur ett tätkrav bör vara utformat och vilka provningsmetoder som finns, och vilka begränsningar de har, har också gåtts igenom. Syftet med artetet har varit att ge en ökad förståelsen för trycktäthet och de provningsmetoder som finns. En korrekt utformad kravsättning bidrar också till att säkerställa att rätt provningsmetod används. Allt för ofta är det kommunikationen mellan köpare och tillverkare som är bristfällig vilket leder till läckageproblem. Genom en ökad kunskap och förståelse hos båda parter bidrar till rätt ställda förväntningar på det färdiga godset. Arbetet har till största del bedrivits genom litteraturstudier och genom några studiebesök hos ett antal företag i branschen.

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  • 9.
    Barreto, Carlos
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Reinert, Olof
    Umeå University, Sweden; Länsförsäkringar, Sweden.
    Wiesinger, Tobias
    Umeå University, Sweden; Länsförsäkringar, Sweden.
    Franke, Ulrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Duopoly insurers’ incentives for data quality under a mandatory cyber data sharing regime2023Ingår i: Computers & security (Print), ISSN 0167-4048, E-ISSN 1872-6208, Vol. 131, artikel-id 103292Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the impact of data sharing policies on cyber insurance markets. These policies have been proposed to address the scarcity of data about cyber threats, which is essential to manage cyber risks. We propose a Cournot duopoly competition model in which two insurers choose the number of policies they offer (i.e., their production level) and also the resources they invest to ensure the quality of data regarding the cost of claims (i.e., the data quality of their production cost). We find that enacting mandatory data sharing sometimes creates situations in which at most one of the two insurers invests in data quality, whereas both insurers would invest when information sharing is not mandatory. This raises concerns about the merits of making data sharing mandatory. 

  • 10.
    Berg, Hanna
    et al.
    Stockholm School of Economics, Sweden.
    Söderlund, Magnus
    Stockholm School of Economics, Sweden.
    Lindström, Annika
    RISE., Innventia. Stockholm School of Economics, Sweden; Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Spreading joy: examining the effects of smiling models on consumer joy and attitudes2015Ingår i: Journal of Consumer Marketing, ISSN 0736-3761, E-ISSN 2052-1200, Vol. 32, nr 6, s. 459-469Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine consumer response to pictures of smiling models in marketing, focusing on the roles of emotional contagion from the smiling models and the perceived typicality of marketing with smiling models. Design/methodology/approach – This paper reports the findings from three experimental studies, comparing consumer response to two versions of an advertisement (Study 1) and a packaging design (Study 2 and 3), including either a picture of a smiling or a non-smiling model. To measure consumer response, a combination of self-report questionnaires and eye-tracking methodology was used. Findings – The pictures of smiling models produced more consumer joy and more positive attitudes for the marketing. The positive effects on attitudes were mediated by consumer joy, and the effects on consumer joy were mediated by the perceived typicality of the marketing with smiling models. Originality/value – Despite the ubiquity of photos of smiling faces in marketing, very few studies have isolated the effects of the smile appeal on consumer response to marketing objects. By comparing marketing where the same model is shown smiling or with a neutral facial expression, the positive effects were isolated. The roles of emotional contagion and perceived typicality in this mechanism were also examined and implications of the findings for research and practitioners are discussed.

  • 11.
    Björkdahl, Joakim
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Fallahi, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Prototypande samhälle.
    Holmén, Magnus
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Explaining business model innovation processes: A problem formulation and problem solving perspective2022Ingår i: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 105, s. 223-239Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explains the business model innovation processes in industrial firms. Drawing on three case studies of leading business-to-business firms shifting from product-based to service-based business models, it introduces problems as a theoretical concept to explain business model innovation processes. We show how formulating and solving problems guide the search for a viable business model and why some problem formulation and solving activities lead firms to shift between backward-looking and forward-looking searches. The decision to shift to a forward-looking search is triggered by the perception of failure to continue with an established way of working, while the shift to a backward-looking search is based on the perception of high alternative costs. We contribute to the business model innovation and servitization literature by theorizing the process of business model innovation and providing implications for managers.

  • 12.
    Bloom, Jörgen
    RISE., Swerea, SWECAST.
    Engångskärnor i pressgjutgods2013Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Traditionellt har kärnor i pressgjutgods varit tillverkade av stål. Dessa stålkärnor är rörliga och dras ut ur pressgjutgodset innan gjutgodset stöts ut ur gjutverktyget. Detta innebär att formen på dessa stålkärnor har släppningsvinkel som gör dem möjliga att dra. Övriga gjutmetoder, som använder gravitationen eller låga gastryck för att få in smältan i formen, har länge använt engångskärnor av sand för att skapa håligheter i gjutgodset. Sandkärnorna faller sönder efter gjutningen vilket gör att kärnans form inte behöver begränsas av släppningsvinklar. Hitintills har sandkärnornas begränsade hållfasthet inte möjliggjort användning vid pressgjutning på grund av pressgjutmaskinernas höga inloppshastigheter och eftertryck. För utformningen av pressgjutgods vore det i många fall önskvärt att kunna använda engångskärnor. Utvecklingen går framåt med flera olika metoder för att tillverka engångskärnor som har tillräcklig hållfasthet för att tåla påfrestningar under pressgjutning. Kostnaden för att producera gjutgods med engångskärnor är i flera fall betydligt lägre än att produera samma gjutgods med gravitationsgjutning. Användning av engångskärnor kan även möjliggöra nya utformningar av gjutgods som kan medföra exempelvis nya funktioner, nytt utseende samt viktbesparingar.

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  • 13.
    Bokström, Tomas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Julin, Josefin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Norman, Dorthe
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Lidman, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Arbetsmiljö och hälsa i fokus – En lärande utvärdering om Botkyrkas pilotprojekt kring preventivt arbete för minskad sjukfrånvaro och mer välmående arbetsplatser2021Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Botkyrka kommun har under 2018-2021 bedrivit pilotprojektet Arbetsmiljö och Hälsa i Fokus i syfte att förebygga och minska korttidssjukfrånvaro och för att stödja en mer hälsofrämjande organisation. Arbetet har skett i samarbete med Sveriges Kommuner och Regioner (SKR), Sveriges Forskningsinstitut RISE samt Aino Health som varit utförare för en del av insatserna. Föreliggande rapport utvärderar projektet och är tänkt att utgöra en läranderapport som illustrerar hur arbetet utvecklats under projekttiden, och sammanfattar de lärdomar som framkommit under projektets gång. Pilotprojektet har utvecklats löpande och anpassats efter de utmaningar och lärdomar som dykt upp under projekttiden. Pandemin har påverkat projektet både i det praktiska arbetet och vad gäller den på förhand uppsatta utvärderingsmodellen. Trots det finns det goda indikationer på att arbetssätten kan medföra en positiv påverkan på sjukfrånvaro och det systematiska arbetsmiljöarbetet. Utvärderingen visar att antalet nettodagar korttidsfrånvaro minskade jämfört med referensperioden under de första 17 månaderna fram till att pandemin slog igenom mars 2020. Det går inte att veta hur korttidsfrånvaron hade utvecklats under resterande projekttid utan pandemin. Men baserat på hypotesen som föranledde projektet och erfarenheter från andra håll finns det goda skäl att anta att projektets insatser visat sig effektiva för att minska korttidssjukfrånvaron i Botkyrka. Det bedöms som sannolikt att insatsen Hälsosupport ger den relativt snabba effekt på sjukfrånvaron som kunnat skönjas. När det gäller Chefsstödet hade det varit önskvärt med en längre uppföljningsperiod för att kunna urskilja effekter. Men det finns positiva indikationer. Ett återkommande mönster är att gruppen arbetsplatser som fått stöd på arbetsplatsnivå av Chefsstödet inte haft en lika kraftig ökning i sjukfrånvaro som en följd av pandemin som övriga arbetsplatser inom samma förvaltning. Vid uppföljande mätningar av det Arbetshälsoekonomiska analysverktyget (KI- mätning) visas i genomsnitt en lägre indikerad nivå av produktionsbortfall kopplad till ohälsa. Detta kan vara tecken på att ett mer systematiskt arbetsmiljöarbete etablerats och hunnit ge viss effekt på de arbetsplatser där Chefsstödet verkat. Den ekonomiska kalkylen för projektet, som tar fasta på värdet av en korttidssjukfrånvarodag enligt Försäkringskassans beräkningsmetod, tyder på att insatserna på relativt kort sikt är självfinansierade. Det ska då beaktas att flera potentiella värden av en bättre arbetsmiljö inte tas med i kalkylen. Att kostnadsbesparingar kan realiseras så pass snabbt är ovanligt för sociala investeringar och pekar på värdet av att investera i systematiskt arbetsmiljöarbete. En utgångspunkt för arbetet är insikten att det behövs stödjande insatser på såväl individ- som organisationsnivå. Samtidigt har utmaningar med att förena dessa perspektiv i ett sammanhållet utvecklingsoch implementeringsarbete synliggjorts. Behov att utveckla kompetens i förändringsledning för att skapa ökad kapacitet i kommunens förvaltningar för ständig utveckling kvarstår.

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  • 14.
    Bokström, Tomas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Julin, Josefin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Norman, Dorthe
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Lidman, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    En unik social investering – slutrapport om det sociala utfallskontraktet i Norrköping2022Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden’s first Social Impact Bond (SIB) or, as preferred, Social Outcomes Contract (SOC), was a collaborative project between Norrköping local authority and private social investor Leksell Social Ventures (LSV) supported by the Swedish Association of Local Authorities and Regions (Mission Mental Health) and Lumell Associates. The aim was to address a social challenge – improving outcomes for youth and children placed in institutional care. After an intense period of feasibility studies and contracting negotiations, the SOC became operational in August 2016. Active work with the target group continued until first quarter 2019 and the evaluation phase was completed in February 2021. This report presents the results in terms of achieved outcomes as well as a broader perspective of learnings, for Norrköping and for the general development of social investment in Sweden. The SOC should be considered a form of social investment, where an initial cost leads to longer term social and economic benefits to society. There are many examples of social investments in Sweden where local authorities have reserved internal funding in so-called social investment funds. The Norrköping SOC was the first Swedish example of a social investment case where a private investor provided a loan to the local authority for upfront funding together with a risk sharing model connected to achieved outcomes. Norrköping and LSV agreed in the SOC that LSV would provide up to 10 million SEK (~1 MEUR) for the project. The associated risk sharing model was such that Norrköping would guarantee 40 % repayment on activity while the outstanding 60 % would be repaid if cost savings in social services would be achieved. Each SEK saved in social service costs would be divided between the parts corresponding to their financial risk (60/40) up to project break even. If the savings would be larger than project costs, LSV would be allowed a total ROI capped at 20 % conditional on improved school outcomes for the target group. The evaluation period was 24 months per individual in the target group and compared with a historic reference group. If the target group individual has lower costs over the evaluation period than its comparison group average, then this provides a positive net saving. If an individual improves when it comes to school performance over 24 months, a positive value is registered, if not, a negative value. Values are assigned from -3 to +3 following an ad hoc model designed for this project (to take into account the wide age span and different educational settings for the target group). Norrköping decided it to be outside legal scope to create a historic comparison group for school performance. Net results for costs and school performance are added for the target group and thus establishing contract outcomes. In addition to primary outcomes, the project was also monitoring mental wellbeing, substance abuse, supporting relations with family and social network and achievement of individual goals. Having a 24-month evaluation period (from when the intervention starts) turned out to be challenging with costs increasing with 7,5 million SEK. However, school performance and social outcomes were all positive. Data suggested that over time, net costs were decreasing, and the project partners agreed to extend the monitoring period to 36 months, but to do this outside of the contract. Over 36 months, the evaluation indicates reduced social service costs of 4 million SEK. The project cost is 7.5 million SEK leading to a net result of -3.5 million SEK. The result is distributed between parts so that Norrköping ends with +1 million and LSV with -4.5 million SEK. In summary, the contract did not perform in the sense that LSV was not eligible to be repaid more than the 40 % guarantee. But from a project and target group perspective, the results are quite positive, both in terms of social and school outcomes and in terms of the extended period cost savings. It can also be noticed that several hypothetically positive outcomes for the target group and for society are not included in the evaluation model. All in all, the SOC should be considered a successful social investment.

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  • 15.
    Boyer, Robert
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Hunka, Agnieszka
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Whalen, Katherine
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Consumer demand for circular products: Identifying customer segments in the circular economy2021Ingår i: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 13, nr 22, artikel-id 12348Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding consumer preferences in the circular economy can help producers develop profitable strategies, lowering the risk involved in transitioning to circular business models and circular product design. This study uses a choice experiment to identify customer segments for mobile phones and robot vacuum cleaners at different levels of circularity. The experiment observes how a product’s theoretical Circular Economy Score (ranging from 0 to 100) influences consumer preferences as compared to other product attributes like price, appearance, warranty, battery life, reseller type, or ease of repair. Drawing from 800 UK respondents, the results indicate the presence of three customer segments that are sensitive to a product’s Circular Economy Score, including two that appear willing to purchase recirculated items and one that expresses a preference against them. The results offer initial evidence that a market for recirculated consumer electronics exists and that circularity labeling is a marketable option. The results also present a strong rationale for further research that probes a greater variety of products and contexts. © 2021 by the authors

  • 16.
    Boyer, Robert
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Linden, Hanna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Norefjäll, Fredric
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Rex, Emma
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Vanacore, Emanuela
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Three dimensions of circularity : A systematic approach to circular procurement: Discussion material2020Övrigt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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  • 17.
    Boyer, Robert
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Linden, Hanna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Norefjäll, Fredric
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Rex, Emma
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Vanacore, Emanuela
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Tre dimensioner av cirkularitet: Ett systematiskt förhållningssätt till cirkulär upphandling: Diskussionsmaterial2020Övrigt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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  • 18.
    Brettmo, Alena
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    The role of influencing organisations in promoting sustainability of urban freight transport2021Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The research in this thesis focused on organisations that can contribute to increased sustainability development in urban freight transport activities. In this study, these organisations were identified, studied, grouped together and labelled as influencing organisations. Four types of influencing organisations in urban freight transport were identified: Business Improvement Districts (BIDs), facility management companies, property owners and public procurement organisations. The results indicated that influencing organisations use a variety of measures and engage in a wide range of urban freight transport initiatives. The way that they engage depends on the types of organisations involved and the relationships the influencers had with said organisations. The findings suggest that influencing organisations have certain characteristics, including: i) the ability to unite other actors, notably goods receivers (such as shops, offices, hotels, restaurants), ii) high motivation to engage in urban freight transport-related questions and sustainability, iii) possessing effective tools to promote sustainable measures, such as the capability to orchestrate and consolidate physical flows, leverage based on contractual relationships, administrative power, outreach power and serving as a common voice for establishments. This places them in a strong position to support the upscaling of sustainable urban freight transport initiatives and broaden the level of implementation. This study paid attention to actors beyond those that are directly associated with urban freight supply chains (carriers, shippers, goods receivers and regulators) to increase the understanding of the role of these organisations in promoting sustainability improvements in urban freight transport activities. The in-depth analysis of the activities carried out by influencing organisations shows why it is important to include them within the scope of urban freight measures and policies: i) they help to overcome the inertia inhibiting the implementation of sustainable urban freight transport initiatives, and ii) they have a connection to many goods receivers as well as the leverage to influence and possibly unite them. Moreover, influencers often have available resources to invest in new infrastructural solutions or processes and the motivation and incentives to carry out these initiatives, thus allowing this engagement to be beneficial both for them and the sustainable development of cities. The results of this thesis provide insights for policymakers about forming policies and regulations to stimulate the engagement of influencers in urban freight transport. This research illustrates to the influencing organisations themselves that they can play a valuable role in the future trajectory of urban freight transport development, as well as examples of ways to change urban freight transport to be more sustainable. 

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  • 19.
    Brettmo, Alena
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Browne, Michael
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    An exploratory study of the scope for receivers to influence urban freight consolidation through changes in their procurement practices.2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract 

    Purpose: During the past 5-10 years there has been an increasing interest in urban freight activities due to desire to reduce the environmental impact of freight movements in cities while at the same time maintaining efficiency. One way that has been promoted to achieve this has been the urban consolidation centers. However, some of these initiatives have been argued to be costly and their take up has been limited. The purpose of this research is to contribute to the research on receivers by comparing two organisations that provide procurement services - one in the public sector and one in the private sector. Potential differences exist between public sector and private sector procurement behavior and the research will explore this and consider the possible importance of intermediary organisations that can provide a link between the receivers and the carriers.

    Research Approach: The paper adopts an exploratory research approach based on a review of relevant literature about transport purchasing and the purchasing behavior of managers in the public and private sectors. This review is then supported by several in-depth interviews. Following the interviews two case studies have been prepared one concerned with public sector procurement and the other with the private sector. These case studies are summarised in the paper and similarities and differences are considered.

    Findings and Originality: Most urban freight research has focused on carriers. However, receivers possess considerable supply chain power and their decisions can strongly influence urban goods deliveries. This research identifies some important features of the role played by organisations which are neither receivers nor carriers but instead play an intermediary role within the urban supply chain.

    Research Impact: In particular, the focus of this paper is on the procurement patterns of public and private organizations and potential difference between them. Potential impact of this work would be the contribution to the knowledge about the receivers’ side and their purchasing behavior in relation to the freight generation aspect of urban freight. This study can contribute to the knowledge about consolidation of the goods delivered to the receivers and how the receivers or those organisations working with receivers can trigger it by their procurement practices.

    Practical Impact: Practical impact can be the knowledge on the influence of goods consolidation activities via changes in organization procurement practices.

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  • 20.
    Brettmo, Alena
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Browne, Michael
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Business Improvement Districts as important influencers for changing to sustainable urban freight2020Ingår i: Cities, ISSN 0264-2751, E-ISSN 1873-6084, Vol. 97, artikel-id 102558Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the ways in which Business Improvement Districts (BIDs) can promote initiatives that lead to more sustainable urban goods movements in urban areas. The qualitative research was conducted by studying eight BIDs in three cities and in three countries - all the BIDs studied had considered or taken actions related to urban freight and sustainability. The results show that BIDs in different countries have similarities and differences in their organisational structure and functions, the main services provided and readiness to promote initiatives related to urban freight improvements. We identified that differences in their accomplishments relate to their motivation, awareness of the scope to influence urban freight and the extent of their collaboration with local and city authorities concerning urban freight initiatives. In general, we suggest that BIDs have the potential to act as important influencers in urban freight as they (i) unite the receivers and encourage them to address joint operations that bring economic and environmental benefits (ii) give the receivers the possibility to implement changes through the power of collective action (iii) facilitate the dialogue and collaboration with local and city authorities. As a result, we suggest that the measures directed to BIDs on improving urban freight can have much more significant return on time and funds invested than if invested in a single businesses and organisations. Our recommendation to BIDs that would like to reach higher level of accomplishments is to ensure stakeholder engagement including engaging and collaboration with local authorities and to demonstrate their willingness to take a lead.

  • 21.
    Brettmo, Alena
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Browne, Michael
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Holguin-Veras, Jose
    Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, USA.
    Wojtowicz, Jeff
    Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, USA.
    Allen, Julian
    University of Westminster, UK.
    The role of intermediary organizations in influencing urban deliveries to receivers/establishments2017Ingår i: / [ed] Eiichi Taniguchi and Russell G. Thompson, 2017Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Most urban freight research has focused on the need to change the behaviour of transport operators (carriers) either through incentives or more commonly through regulation. In the past few years researchers have started to address the scope to involve receivers (mainly retailers) in the reduction of urban freight trips. Typical initiatives include joint procurement or the possible use of consolidation centres. However, this focus on carriers and receivers potentially ignores the role of intermediary organisations that can strongly influence the patterns of urban freight movements and the way in which deliveries are made in urban centres. These intermediary organizations cover a wide variety of types including: Business Improvement Districts (BIDs), public sector purchasing coordinators that establish framework contracts and in the private sector - facilities managers. The paper explores the activities of 10 intermediary organisations in Sweden, UK and USA. An exploratory case study approach has been adopted and the activities of the organisations are summarised in order to enable acomparative assessment to be made. Findings support the contention that intermediary organisations have a powerful role to play in influencing urban freight demand and that their ability to bring together individual receivers is a significant opportunity for achieving more rapid and profound changes in urban freight flows and vehicle movements. The scope for changing procurement in both the public and private sector is also highlighted as one outcome of the research.

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  • 22.
    Brettmo, Alena
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ringsberg, Henrik
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Browne, Michael
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    EVALUATION OF THE USE OF PUBLIC SPACE IN CITIES: A PILOT-STUDY OF COMPETING USES INCLUDING URBAN LOGISTICS2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: During the last decade, the establishment of distribution systems in cities has attracted an increased interest in the society as well as in academia. City-logistic implies distribution of goods critical to the everyday life in a flexible urban environment with regard to public- and industrial stakeholder interests. Based on different stakeholder interests, there is a standing need to evaluate the use of public space (PS) an urban environment. Yet, there is still an uncertainty about stakeholder interests as well as stakeholders rights to influence the use of PS in the urban environment. The purpose of this paper is to present a conceptual framework to evaluate the use of PS with regard to stakeholder interests.

    Research Approach: A literature review of published research on city-logistics was conducted to create a framework for evaluation interests in PS. The conceptual framework includes the use of PS in urban environment. Based on the presented conceptual framework, stakeholder interests and rights to influence the usage of PS in an urban environment have been evaluated based on empirical data from a single in-depth case study of a Swedish city. Empirical data from participant observations and a survey questionnaire were used as empirical evidence in the evaluation.

    Findings and Originality: The findings illustrate evaluation of stakeholder interests and rights to influence the use of PS in an urban environment. Main findings include enhanced understanding of different stakeholder interests. The paper contributes to the understanding of an issue is been important in implementing city-logistics, but still not much addressed in published logistics literature: the use of PS. The combination of published research on city-logistics, and analysis of different stakeholder's interests and rights to influence the use of PS provides interesting insight from which further research can be developed to enrich theory and management of city-logistics.

    Research Impact: The paper contributes to existing research on city-logistics. In particular, it presents a conceptual framework to evaluate stakeholder interests’ and rights to influence the use of PS for implementation of city-logistics.

    Practical Impact: Managers are recommended to sue the framework to evaluate stakeholder rights to influence to use of use of PS for city-logistic purposes.

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  • 23.
    Brettmo, Alena
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sanchez-Diaz, Ivan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Property owners as possible game changers for sustainable urban freight2022Ingår i: Research in Transportation Business and Management (RTBM), ISSN 2210-5395, E-ISSN 2210-5409, Vol. 45, s. 100745-100745, artikel-id 100745Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Commercial activity and the underlying freight movements supporting them are essential to urban life. Unfortunately, urban freight has negative effects on sustainability and requires innovative approaches to enhance the positive aspects and minimize the negative ones. There is a common understanding among practitioners, with support from the literature, that the negative impacts of urban freight can be alleviated with better knowledge about the system and by identifying and engaging influential stakeholders. This paper focuses on property owners and their role in encouraging initiatives that lead to more sustainable urban freight delivery practices. Property owners engage in sustainability issues in real estate because they are interested in developing their properties to increase their attractiveness, competitiveness, and future market value. A shopping mall is an example of a property that generates a lot of freight traffic due to intense commercial activity. This paper studies the delivery patterns to a centrally located shopping mall in the city of Gothenburg and identifies how property owners could influence the delivery patterns of their tenants. A range of initiatives is proposed based on the literature and considering the delivery patterns observed. The results show that property owners can include freight deliveries in their sustainability strategy, focusing on fostering collaboration and communication between the tenants and promoting supply chain strategies that consider the type of activities that take place and the scope to reduce the number of truck movements and increase the efficient and sustainable goods deliveries.

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  • 24.
    Brettmo, Alena
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Williamsson, Jon
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    INFLUENCERS´ IN URBAN FREIGHT –A  BUSINESS MODEL PERSPECTIVE2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores how norm-setting third-party urban freight stakeholders, referred to as ´influencers’, may indirectly put pressure on carriers in the urban freight setting. The paper indicates that influencers have a potential to initiate considerable change in how carriers shape their business models. The results thus bring to light the often-overlooked power that influencers have in relation to the development of actor behavior along the urban freight supply chain.

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  • 25.
    Brettmo, Alena
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Williamsson, Jon
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    The Role of ‘Influencers’ as Drivers of a More Sustainable Urban Freight Sector2020Ingår i: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 12, nr 7, s. 2850-2850Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of stakeholders in the development of a sustainable urban freight sector has been highlighted in recent research. Not all stakeholders have a direct link to the supply chain, but they may still play a role in creating sustainable urban freight initiatives. This study explores the initiatives that norm-setting indirect stakeholders in urban freight, referred to as ‘influencers’, establish to support a more sustainable urban freight sector, and how those initiatives may impact the business models of carriers. The study uses data gathered for ongoing research into the roles of indirect stakeholders in the development of sustainable urban freight initiatives. The results indicate that influencers can put pressure on receivers regarding logistical issues and shape the physical environment in which deliveries are conducted. Influencers use three primary strategies to support sustainable urban freight: vehicle-focused measures, consolidation linked to physical infrastructure, and consolidation through behavioural changes. These initiatives impact the relationship between receivers and carriers and may push carriers to adopt more sustainable practices as well as take decisions that impact their business models. The results highlight the often-overlooked power of influencers in relation to the development of actor behaviour in the urban freight supply chain and show the potential for both conflict and change arising from the use of this power.

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  • 26.
    Brolin, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport.
    Fahnestock, Jesse
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad.
    Rootzen, Johan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Industry’s Electrification and Role in the Future Electricity System: A Strategic Innovation Agenda2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Trends visible today suggest that a transformation of industrial firms’ use of electricity, and a change in their role in the electricity system, could take place as a part of a long-term transition towards a low-carbon Swedish economy. The shape of these changes remains highly uncertain, but electrification, flexible electricity use, and emerging roles in the electricity system for industrial consumers are interdependent developments and should be investigated from a holistic perspective where possible.

    Swedish industry is relatively energy intensive, and has stood for roughly 37% of the country’s electricity use for a decade. The Swedish Energy Agency’s Vivace scenario suggests that this share could expand, despite improved efficiency, to 49% by 2050. The increased use of electricity to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and take advantage of market conditions would play out differently in different sectors, and depending on the development of different technologies. However large-scale opportunities may exist in the long-term, such as using electrolysis to produce hydrogen for replacing coke in the iron and steel industry and as a feedstock in the petrochemical industry.

    Smaller-scale but still important options for electrification include electric/hybrid boilers in the pulp and paper industry and a variety of electro-thermal technologies for heating and drying.

    Increased use of electricity in industry is likely to go hand-in-hand with increasingly flexible use of electricity. In some cases, such as the production of hydrogen or process media, this flexibility will be in-built since the storable energy carriers create new production planning options. In other cases, new approaches to planning, process design, and the use of automation may allow firms to match electricity use to favourable market conditions.

    The expected high penetration of intermittent renewable electricity in the power system may create incentives for this flexibility. These incentives should appear on the wholesale market, in the form of high- and low-price periods. They may also appear via new capacity markets, or through markets for new system services needed to support stability in both transmission and distribution networks. The frameworks and regulations needed to create these markets are not yet in place, and firms will also need to develop technical and management capabilities to take advantage of them.

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  • 27.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Börjesson, Emma
    City of Malmö, Sweden.
    Pedersen, Lisa
    City of Malmö, Sweden.
    Green and circular procurement in public organizations: From single use to reuse of furniture and prolonging lifetime of electronics2021Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The project aims to increase the knowledge of public organizations’ potential to increase the efficiency and circularity of their material flows through procurement, purchase procedures and behavioral change which benefit saving and sharing. The project will be implemented by the City of Malmö’s Environmental Department and Central Procurement Unit in cooperation with the research institute RISE. Through the project, the purchase and waste flows within the City of Malmö’s organization will be mapped and analyzed to identify possibilities for increased reuse, prolonged life/optimization of life and circular use of resources, focusing on a number of product categories to be chosen within the project. The chosen product categories and scenarios: from single use plastics to multiple use products, from procurement to reuse of furniture, prolonging lifetime of electronics (computer, mobile phones). Based on previous research, a consumption based LCA methodology for public organizations will be developed and applied for climate and resource use. Within the project the positive effects of circular procurement on resource use and climate impacts will be analyzed. The role of budget procedures for stimulating circular resource use will also be analyzed, with regards to barriers and possibilities for change. In addition, the project will investigate possibilities for using the saved resources for well-being of the City’s employees, or ordinary citizen., The results will be presented in a draft roadmap for circular economy for the City of Malmö.

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  • 28.
    Burden, Håkan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Amanuel, Mahdere DW
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Förarlösa tjänster i Västra Skaraborg - En förstudie inom SMaRT-projektet2022Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Inom projektet SMaRT har RISE utfört en förstudie för att analysera möjligheterna till förarlösa tjänster inom Västra Skaraborg. Målet för de svenska deltagarna i SMaRTprojektet var att undersöka hur besökare kan ta sig till attraktiva besöksplatser utan egen bil. I den här förstudien har vi undersökt när en möjlig lösning skulle kunna vara förarlösa tjänster. Arbetet utfördes i nära samarbete med representanter från de berörda kommunerna. Vi har identifierat en potentiell rutt i Vara tätort där man förutom själva tjänsten även skulle kunna få synergieffekter mellan tjänsten och kommunala mål för trafiken i tätorten. En mer generell slutsats är att förarlösa tjänster i sig inte nödvändigtvis är värt investeringen, utan man bör se hur tjänsten passar in i ett större systemperspektiv för att bedöma dess lämplighet. Vi har också inom arbetet identifierat en rad platser där det finns enklare och mer omedelbara insatser om man vill nå allmänna mål kring smart besöksnäring och konkretare mål för den unika platsen. I många fall pågår redan ett sådant arbete och vi rekommenderar att fortsätta på det spåret hellre än att klämma in en förarlös tjänst. Ett exempel är hur många av de platser vi besökt är omtalade för naturupplevelsen samtidigt som det finns ett ökande behov av parkeringsplatser för att tillgodose alla besökare. Här kan man planera annorlunda för framtiden så att första parkett inte ges till de som fikar i den egna bilen utan till de som cyklat, tågluffat eller åkt tillsammans med andra. Och då också tillhandahålla de mobilitetsalternativen.

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  • 29.
    Béland, Marie-Claude
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Granberg, Hjalmar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Exploring How Material Demonstrators Accelerate the Transition to a Circular Bioeconomy2023Ingår i: diid disegno industriale industrial design, E-ISSN 2785-2245, nr 79, s. 44-Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Taking ideas to market can be a long, iterative, and complex process. When dealing with new bio-based materials, under-standing factors that help bridge the lab-to-market gap and how materials are selected for new product development have the potential to speed up the transition to a circular bioeconomy. This article defines abstract and conceptual material demonstrators and explores how they support the innovation process in different ways. Nine roles are iden-tified, including how material demonstrators contribute to generating and expressing new ideas, enable a shared understanding of technology, support the discovery of market value and the visualization of potential applications as well as helping to articulate internal and external strategies and communications. Abstract and conceptual material dem-onstrators are exemplified with both technology-driven and market-driven bio-based materials used in packaging.

  • 30.
    Carlgren, Lisa
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    BenMahmoud-Jouini, Sihem
    GREGHEC-HEC Paris, France; i3-CRG-Ecole Polytechnique, France.
    When cultures collide: What can we learn from frictions in the implementation of design thinking?2022Ingår i: The Journal of product innovation management, ISSN 0737-6782, E-ISSN 1540-5885, Vol. 39, nr 1, s. 44-65Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing interest in the use of design thinking (DT) in innovation has called into question its integration in organizational settings. We draw upon literature on management innovation and new practice implementation that highlights potential cultural conflicts between the values and assumptions underpinning the new practice and the culture of the organization that adopts it. We investigate the cultural fit between DT and the adopting firm through qualitative studies of 13 cases of DT implementation in large established firms complemented with data collected during eight workshops with DT practitioners and scholars. We abductively propose a cultural archetype of DT comprising eight dimensions: subjective and aesthetic ways of knowing, long-term and nonlinear views about time, intrinsic motivation and sense of purpose, flexibility and change, relationships, empathy, and emotions at work, collaboration and inclusion, team autonomy and informality, and external orientation. We identify challenges and consequences associated with cultural misfits encountered in the implementation of DT: lack of legitimacy, lack of depth, disengagement, incrementalism, poor teamwork and alienation, collaboration lip service, micromanaged processes, and lack of external orientation. We thus (i) develop a characterization of DT by providing a detailed cultural archetype that we discuss relative to previous literature on DT and (ii) enrich the research on the recursive relationship between organizational culture and DT implementation, contributing to research on emotions in management and innovation culture. We also (iii) contribute to research on the challenges encountered by firms when adopting DT, extending the research on difficulties linked to cultural misfits when implementing new practices. Finally, we (iv) contribute to research on practice implementation and management innovation by highlighting the interplay between cultural fit, legitimacy, and the implementation climate.

  • 31.
    Collier, Elizabeth S
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Oberrauter, Lisa-Maria
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Normann, Anne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Norman, Cecilia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Svensson, Marlene
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Niimi, Jun
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Bergman, Penny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Identifying barriers to decreasing meat consumption and increasing acceptance of meat substitutes among Swedish consumers2021Ingår i: Appetite, ISSN 0195-6663, E-ISSN 1095-8304, Vol. 167, artikel-id 105643Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A key lifestyle change people could make to reduce their environmental impact is to reduce their meat consumption. However, meat is still a staple in many people's diet, and some consumers are reluctant to cut down. Meat substitutes, if accepted as adequate replacements for meat, may offer a suitable alternative without leaving consumers feeling dissatisfied. The aim of the present study was to identify psychological barriers to reducing meat consumption and increasing use of meat substitutes among Swedish consumers. Participants engaged in focus group discussions around purchasing, preparing, and consuming meat and meat substitutes. Four main themes were identified through thematic analysis: uncertainty, scepticism, health, and identity. These are discussed in relation to previous work on the barriers to reducing meat consumption. Strategies to communicate the environmental impact of meat to consumers and effect change through behavioural interventions are considered. © 2021 The Authors

  • 32.
    De Goey, Heleen
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, IVF.
    Hilletofth, Per
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Eriksson, David
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Enablers and barriers to design-driven innovation: a case study at a Swedish wood furniture wholesaler2016Ingår i: Proceedings of the 23rd International Annual EurOMA Conference, 2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the enablers and barriers to design-driven innovation at a Swedish wood furniture wholesaler. Design-driven innovation focuses on innovating the purpose a product has to a customer. This is a relatively new concept which is not yet thoroughly explored. A case study is conducted to identify the enablers and barriers to this type of innovation. In line with literature, the enablers were identified prior, throughout and after product development, whereas the barriers were only found in later phases. To conclude, this paper will present implications and suggestions for further research on the enablers and barriers to design-driven innovation.

  • 33.
    Degerman, Helene
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Säkerhetsforskning. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Barriers towards Resilient Performance among Public Critical Infrastructure Organizations: The Refugee Influx Case of 2015 in Sweden2021Ingår i: infrastructures, E-ISSN 2412-3811, Vol. 6, nr 8, artikel-id 106Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    During the autumn of 2015, Europe experienced a sharp increase in refugee influx, and many refugees arrived in the European Øresund Region. Refugees travelled through Denmark and over the Øresund Bridge, arriving in the third largest city in Sweden, Malmö. Private, public and voluntary organizations in Malmö had to change the way they worked to meet the new entry demands. Flexible adaptations to changing circumstances can be described as resilient performance and are supported or hindered by societal and organizational drivers and barriers. Qualitative interview data from Swedish organizations managing the refugee reception in Malmö were analyzed through the theoretical lens of Resilience Engineering (RE). The analysis results showed that necessary adaptations were not supported by the managerial design of the responsible public organizations. The analysis also showed that preconditions created from societal steering hinders value responsiveness at the public management level, i.e., the public management level has barriers towards becoming familiar with the organization’s value structures. Familiarity with the system value and goal structure is essential for an efficient prioritizing of conflicting goals, which is why it is suggested that this aspect be explicitly included in RE principles.

  • 34.
    Degerman, Helene
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet. Linköping University, SWeden.
    Wallo, Andreas
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Conceptualising learning from resilient performance: A scoping literature review2024Ingår i: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 115, artikel-id 104165Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Resilient performance is a crucial characteristic of complex socio-technical systems, enabling them to sustain essential functionality during changing or stressful conditions. Resilience Engineering (RE), a sub-field of safety research, focuses on this perspective of resilience. RE emphasises its “cornerstone model”, presenting the RE system goals of “anticipating, monitoring, responding and learning”. The cornerstone of learning remains fragmented and undertheorized in the existing literature. This paper aims to enrich RE research and its practical implications by developing a nuanced and comprehensive understanding of the role of learning from resilient performance. To achieve this aim, a scoping literature review was conducted to assess how learning is conceptualised in the RE literature and the theoretical foundations on which previous work rest. The main findings show that RE researchers view learning as the process of understanding the system, sharing knowledge, and re-designing system properties. The application of established learning theories is limited. This paper contributes to research by proposing an organisational process for the RE cornerstone of learning, paving the way for deeper discussions in future studies about learning from resilient performance within complex socio-technical systems. 

  • 35.
    Dexe, Jacob
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Prototypande samhälle.
    Franke, Ulrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Rad, Alexander
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Transparency and insurance professionals: a study of Swedish insurance practice attitudes and future development.2021Ingår i: Geneva papers on risk and insurance. Issues and practice, ISSN 1018-5895, E-ISSN 1468-0440, Vol. 46, s. 547-572Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The insurance industry is being challenged by increased adoption of automated decision-making. AI advances could conceivably automate everything: marketing, customer service, underwriting and claims management alike. However, such automation challenges consumer trust, as there is considerable public and scholarly debate over the 'black box' character of many algorithms. Insurance being a business of trust, this suggests a dilemma. One suggested solution involves adopting algorithms in a transparent manner. This article reports a study of how Swedish insurers deal with this dilemma, based on (i) eight interviews with insurance professionals representing four companies with a joint market share of 45-50% of the Swedish property insurance market and (ii) a questionnaire answered by 71 professionals in a Swedish insurance company. The results show that while transparency is seen as potentially valuable, most Swedish insurers do not use it to gain a competitive advantage or identify clear limits to transparency and are not using AI extensively.

  • 36.
    Diener, Derek
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Fallahi, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Prototypande samhälle.
    Mellquist, Ann-Charlotte
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Vanacore, Emanuela
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Ways of operating in business ecosystems to drive circular transitions2021Ingår i: New Business Models in a Decade of Action:  Sustainable • Evidence-based • Impactful. Full Conference Proceedings. New Business Models 2021, Halmstad, Sweden, 2021, s. 150-156Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The circular economy megatrend demands that manufacturing firms change their business model, implying that great changes must happen in business ecosystems. This short paper is based on observations from research in three ecosystems and identifies avenues firms can take in business ecosystems when orchestrating implementation of circular economy goals.

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  • 37.
    Dominic, Chris
    RISE., Innventia.
    Supply and demand chain integration:: A case study conducted in the packaging industry2013Ingår i: Packaging technology & science, ISSN 0894-3214, E-ISSN 1099-1522, nr 1, s. 51-63Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this work was to study the packaging supplier and the integration of integrating packaging suppliers into the supply and demand chain (SDC). The packaging industry has been analyzed using a structured market analysis, and the companies studied have been positioned in an integration model for packaging suppliers. In addition, case studies were conducted to study the development of the packaging industry and its integration within the SDC in the Scandinavian region. The analysis shows that there are gaps in the business relations between the packaging companies studied and the SDC. Most of the packaging suppliers were not integrated into the SDC. Valuable information, available in the network, seldom reaches the packaging supplier who holds the knowledge necessary to create and offer innovative packaging solutions. The article provides an empirical exploration into the field of packaging, logistics and SDC integration and an original conceptual framework that could serve as a theoretical framework for future research work applied in the packaging industry and an interesting business model to the increase understanding of packaging supply chain integration.

  • 38.
    Ernits, Heiti
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Planering på gränsen och gränsen för planering - En studie av gränsöverskridande samhällsplanering2023Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This exploratory thesis aims to describe and analyze how boundaries emerge, affect planning practices, and how boundaries are managed over time in order to achieve integrated planning processes. This thesis is particularly interested in how the interplay between boundary-spanning and boundary-crossing activities in relation to the organization of strategic spatial planning can be understood from an institutional perspective. The overall research question was sub-divided into three further research questions: How do boundaries emerge, and how are they managed, when planning is organized? What boundary arrangements emerge over time for the managing of boundaries? How can the choice of boundary arrangement be understood in relation to institutional orders? The thesis involves a case study of two urban planning projects and an organizational planning reform. Using a qualitative research approach, empirical data were collected through participant observations when planners collaborated, shadowing planners in their work environment, conducting semi-structured interviews with planners, hosting focus group discussions, and analyzing relevant documents. The findings of the present study demonstrate that planners face multiple challenges related to boundaries, which in turn encourages continuous transformation processes. Negotiations are revealed to play a crucial role in managing and modifying boundaries. More specifically, different and conflicting views on how boundaries should be drawn and desired characteristics of the boundaries converge in negotiation processes. Drawing on the institutional theoretical framework of the study, the organizing principles of egalitarianism and hierarchy are positioned in opposition to one another. Negotiations ultimately result in an egalitarian approach to boundary management, which involves preserving formal boundaries and organizing planning work across boundaries. An informal planning organization emerges alongside the formal planning organization, and specific boundary arrangements and approaches to organize collective action in a polycentric planning environment become institutionalized. This development, however, gives rise to new problematic boundaries between the formal and informal planning organization, which in turn leads to further negotiation and incremental changes to boundary arrangements and planning practices.

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  • 39.
    Fahnestock, Jesse
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    AERTOs Bio-Based Economy: Forward-Looking Analysis2016Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The Forward-Looking Analysis portion of the AERTOs Bio-Based Economy project seeks to develop contextual, exploratory analysis that helps the participating research institutes better evaluate their bioeconomy strategies. The analysis takes a 15-20 year perspective and focuses on the level of the bioeconomy, rather than on specific technologies or biorefinery concepts.

    The analysis contends that RTOs and their industrial partners should consider the uncertainties of the future bioeconomy at different levels – The World and Sustainability, Europe and the Bioeconomy, and the RTOs and Industry – and through the lenses of three alternative logics.

    The logic of environmental sustainability pushes the bioeconomy and its component technologies in the direction of large scale, efficiently incentivized substitution of fossil-based emissions through bio-based alternatives, benefiting biofuel production and creating opportunities for RTOs to take a leadership role in their work to make industrial bioeconomy more sustainable.

    The logic of competitive innovation pushes countries and companies to search for defensible advantages in the bioeconomy. The scale of fossil substitution is smaller but the margins for successful companies are higher, and advanced bio-based materials and chemicals are a dynamic sector for investment. The RTOs have a smaller role and work increasingly on product performance issues.

    The logic of resource utilization sees countries and companies working to maximize the value of existing assets, particularly natural biomass endowments. The bioeconomy is driven primarily through national strategies and the Forest Biorefinery creates national champions in the Nordics. RTOs have a stable workflow and focus on increasing the efficiency of biorefinery systems.

    Uncertainties related to the quantitative boundaries of the future bioeconomy can be assessed through a review of scenario literature on biomass availability, biofuels and bio-based chemicals production. There is a wide range of estimates available, but central estimates suggest that potential supply of sustainable biomass to industry could exceed demand by 70% in the long-term. Pressures created by changes at the margin of markets and through regional variations may nonetheless make realizing this potential difficult. Pathways applying the logic of environmental sustainability, to the extent that it generates common standards, will likely reduce supply-side risks.

    Because the transition to a bio-based economy will occur stepwise, accusations of ‘greenwashing’ may plague early bio-based products and strategies if they are not fully-fossil free or certified sustainable. Nonetheless these first attempts may also generate positive awareness and will need to continue in interplay with the development of standards and certifications. Pathways applying the logic of competitive innovation are likely to be those that create incentives for greenwashing and reputational risks to the bioeconomy.

    Uncertainties about feedstocks and technology costs have made feedstock flexibility a topic of interest in biorefinery development. Here, too, multiple concepts exist, from modular concepts that are truly feedstock agnostic to robust concepts designed to handle heterogeneity within a narrower feedstock basis. Once again the logical pathway applied will be likely to influence the approach to feedstock flexibility.

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  • 40.
    Fallahi, Sara
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Prototypande samhälle.
    Mellquist, Ann-Charlotte
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Mogren, Olof
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Datavetenskap.
    Zec, Edvin Listo
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Datavetenskap.
    Algurén, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Hallquist, Lukas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Financing solutions for circular business models: Exploring the role of business ecosystems and artificial intelligence2023Ingår i: Business Strategy and the Environment, ISSN 0964-4733, E-ISSN 1099-0836, Vol. 32, nr 6Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The circular economy promotes a transition away from linear modes of production and consumption to systems with circular material flows that can significantly improve resource productivity. However, transforming linear business models to circular business models posits a number of financial consequences for product companies as they need to secure more capital in a stock of products that will be rented out over time and therefore will encounter a slower, more volatile cash flow in the short term compared to linear direct sales of products. This paper discusses the role of financial actors in circular business ecosystems and alternative financing solutions when moving from product-dominant business models to Product-as-a-Service (PaaS) or function-based business models. Furthermore, the paper demonstrates a solution where state-of-the-art artificial intelligence (AI) modeling can be incorporated for financial risk assessment. We provide an open implementation and a thorough empirical evaluation of an AI-model, which learns to predict residual value of stocks of used items. Furthermore, the paper highlights solutions, managerial implications, and potentials for financing circular business models, argues the importance of different forms of data in future business ecosystems, and offers recommendations for how AI can help mitigate some of the challenges businesses face as they transition to circular business models. © 2022 The Authors. 

  • 41.
    Fernqvist, Niklas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hansla, André
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    It's all about the functionality: Psychological determinants of acceptance of energy efficient water taps in freshwater abundant urban areas2021Ingår i: Energy and Climate Change, E-ISSN 2666-2787, Vol. 2, artikel-id 100053Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Global climate changes will intensify the competition for fresh water. Technologies for reducing household tap water consumption may be an effective measure for sustainable water consumption. However, such technologies may come with a potential perceived reduction in comfort. This field study thus examines whether and how tenants, who live in apartments in water abundant areas and have a standard cost for water included in their rent, accept reduction in tap-water comfort over a six-month period of technology familiarisation, A repeated questionnaire study (n = 38) was conducted to mesasure changes in acceptance and perceived functionality of water efficient faucets over time. We also tested to what extent motivational factors posited by the value-belief-norm (VBN) theory accounted for acceptance of hands-on experiences in the early-stage of familiarisation. Unlike the familiarisation hypothesis, our results show decreased acceptance for bathroom and kitchen faucets mediated by impaired perceived functionalities (in flow and temperature). No such changes were observed for shower faucets. Moreover, while the casual chain hypothesised by the VBN theory (i.e., moving from values to awareness of consequences to a personal norm of water conservation) is shown to account for acceptance, no ascription of responsibility is disclosed. Overreliance and boundary conditions for familiarisation effects are discussed.

  • 42.
    Forcellati, Corrado Lillelund
    et al.
    Risk Consulting/Sustainability, Singapore.
    Georgeson, Claire
    City University of London, UK.
    Lind, Mikael
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Säkerhetsforskning. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Singh, Sukhjit
    University of Trinidad and Tobago, Trinidad and Tobago.
    Sjöberger, Carl
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Woxenius, Johan
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Support for Financial Decision-Making2021Ingår i: Maritime Informatics, s. 255-273Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter explores some of the financial processes where maritime informatics could make a difference and improve existing practices. The chapter takes the principle logic of how maritime transport serves the cargo owner, the passenger, or the transport buyer. The chapter acknowledges different types of costs and risks associated with maritime transport, such as capital, operational, voyage costs and environmental, social, and governance (ESG)-related costs to meet business needs and comply with regulatory requirements. Building upon the role of maritime informatics to achieve transparency, control, mitigate risks, and reduce the costs within each of these categories, different opportunities are acknowledged and associated with different shipping segments. Consideration is also given to economic advantage, resilience, compliance, and sustainability emerging from transparency in financial processes that comes with digital data sharing. The chapter provides a practical framework to identifying the role of maritime informatics in supporting financial management and decision-making by classifying cost/risk categories and digital data streams of relevance by looking at three dimensions: resiliency, compliance, and sustainability.

  • 43.
    Franke, Ulrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Cybersäkerhet för en uppkopplad ekonomi2020Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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  • 44.
    Franke, Ulrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Dags för cybersäkerhetsekonomi2022Ingår i: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 50, nr 2, s. 71-74Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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  • 45.
    Franke, Ulrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system.
    Transparenta algoritmer i försäkringsbranschen2021Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport utgör slutrapport för projektet Transparenta algoritmer i försäkringsbranschen (TALFÖR) som har genomförts vid RISE och KTH med finansiering från Länsförsäkringars forskningsfond från 2018 till 2021. Inledningsvis diskuterar rapporten några av de svårigheter som kan uppstå med automatiserat beslutsfattande och algoritmer som liknar svarta lådor, liksom möjligheterna att genom lämplig transparens komma till rätta med dessa. Därefter presenteras några forskningsresultat. Utifrån en analys av de nordiska ländernas nationella AI-strategier konstateras att etik spelar en framträdande roll i dessa: etisk AI sägs vara en konkurrensfördel. Däremot lägger dokumenten inte fram några övertygande argument för denna ståndpunkt och ger inte heller någon tydlig vägledning i etiska frågor. Baserat på två genomförda försök diskuteras utsikterna att använda metoden Value Sensitive Design för design med hänsyn till transparens och andra värden. Metoden bedöms ha god potential för användning i konkret designarbete, exempelvis i försäkringsbranschen. En empirisk undersökning av hur GDPR-rätten till förklaring fungerar hos svenska försäkringsbolag finner stora skillnader bolagen emellan. Svarstiderna var långa och själva innehållet i svaren skiljer sig betänkligt åt. En uppföljande studie i fler EU-länder planeras och kommer på sikt att ge en bättre bild av vad GDPR-rätten till meningsfull information faktiskt innebär i praktiken. Utifrån intervjuer med ett trettiotal högre chefer och styrelseledamöter inom bank och försäkring diskuteras möjligheter och utmaningar med att införa transparent och förklarbar AI i större organisationer. Svårigheterna handlar bland annat om att hantera olika utgångspunkter och lyckas skapa gemensamma referensramar. Den svenska försäkringsbranschens syn på AI och transparens undersöktes också genom intervjuer. Det finns en spridd uppfattning om att transparens kan vara en konkurrensfördel, men de flesta informanter är osäkra på hur denna faktiskt kan realiseras. Det är också uppenbart att AI ännu inte används i försäkringsbolagens kärnverksamhet i Sverige, vilket innebär att frågorna om transparens och förklarbarhet än så länge är lite teoretiska för branschen. Samtidigt väntas de bli viktiga på sikt. Rapporten avslutas med några iakttagelser av praktisk relevans för försäkringsbranschen och några uppslag till framtida forskning.

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    Rapport
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    Bilaga
  • 46.
    Galaz, Victor
    et al.
    Stockholm Resilience Center, Sweden; Stockholm University, Sweden; Beijer Institute, Sweden; The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Wilson, Erik
    AI Sweden, Sweden.
    Schewenius, Maria
    Stockholm Resilience Center, Sweden; Stockholm University, Sweden; University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Janson, Sverker
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Datavetenskap.
    AI i klimatets tjänst: en kartläggning av svensk kompetens i ett internationellt perspektiv2021Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Klimatutmaningen ställer mycket stora krav på samhället. I takt med att klimatförändringarnas effekter blir allt tydligare genom bland annat omfattande skogsbränder, smältande havsisar, och extremoväder, så får klimatfrågan också allt större uppmärksamhet i det offentliga samtalet, hos beslutsfattare, och inom näringsliv och civilsamhälle. Teknikutvecklingen har alltid varit viktig i diskussionen om klimatfrågans orsaker och lösningar, liksom för forskning om hållbar utveckling i stort. I takt med att artificiell intelligens (AI) sett en språngvis utveckling och dess tillämpningar tycks öka på flera samhällsområden, så ökar också intresset för hur AI kan bidra till att tackla klimatutmaningen i alla dess dimensioner - från grundläggande klimatforskning, till klimatanpassning och klimatinnovation. Följande rapport, AI i klimatets tjänst, ger en överblick av potentialen hos AI för klimatutmaningen. Rapporten presenterar också en kartläggning av potentialen för Sverige att bli internationellt ledande inom detta område. Analysen bygger på en litteraturöversikt, intervjuer, en enkätundersökning och en systematisk genomgång av klimatrelaterad AI-forskning i Sverige och utomlands. Resultaten är på intet sätt slutgiltiga, utan ger en överblicksbild av ett snabbt växande område. Vi hoppas att rapporten ska kunna fungera som ett första diskussionsunderlag för de myndigheter, företag, forskare och andra som är intresserade av att vidareutveckla potentialen hos AI-tekniker och deras användning för klimatutmaningen.

  • 47.
    Garrido Banuelos, Gonzalo
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    de Barros Alves, Helia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Mihnea, Mihaela
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. Örebro University, Sweden.
    Mapping the sensory fingerprint of swedish beer market through text and data mining and multivariate strategies2021Ingår i: Beverages, ISSN 2306-5710, Vol. 7, nr 4, artikel-id 74Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The continuous increase of online data with consumers’ and experts’ reviews and preferences is a potential tool for sensory characterization. The present work aims to overview the Swedish beer market and understand the sensory fingerprint of Swedish beers based on text data extracted from the Swedish alcohol retail monopoly (Systembolaget) website. Different multivariate strategies such as heatmaps, correspondence analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis were used to understand the sensory space of the different beer styles. Additionally, sensory space for specific hop cultivars was also investigated. Results highlighted Gothenburg as the main producing area in Sweden. The style Indian Pale Ale (IPA) is the largest available at the retail monopoly. From a sensory perspective, commonalities and differences were found between beer types and styles. Based on the aroma description, different types of ale and lager can cluster together (such as Porter and Stout and Dark lagers). Additionally, an associative relationship between specific aromas and hop cultivars from text data information was successfully achieved. © 2021 by the authors.

  • 48.
    Grahn, Sten
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Metodik för produktframtagning. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Granlund, Anna
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Lindhult, Erik
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Barriers to value specification when carrying out digitalization projects2021Ingår i: Technology Innovation Management Review, E-ISSN 1927-0321, Vol. 11, nr 5, s. 54-64Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    If digitalization projects aim to effectively create value for a company, one precondition is having a shared view among company staff and project members of what the "desirable" value is. However, it has been shown that few companies fully understand the value that digitalization projects can create for them, while many companies still launch digitalization projects without this understanding. This contributes to the current "alarmingly" low success rate for digitalization projects. Development of effective methods to specify the desired values of digitalization projects is thus important. One step in developing improved specification methods is to ask what the possible barriers are to improving current value specification practices. The purpose of the current study is to address this. We analyzed several digitalization projects regarding how specifications of desired project value were carried out, finding that very limited resources are spent on specifying desired values in digitalization projects, and that this limits project success. Likewise, there are several barriers to increasing resources for specifying desired values. Our findings contribute to understanding the development of value specification methods that aim to overcome these barriers and thus could help improve the success rate of digitalization projects. 

  • 49.
    Grahn, Sten
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF AB.
    Granlund, Anna
    Mälardalen University.
    Wiktorsson, Magnus
    Mälardalen University.
    Friedler, Niklas
    Mälardalen University.
    Defining 'benefit' when making production investments: an inquiry of current standards2014Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Investments in production equipment are made to generate desired production benefit. This work examines how benefit generally is defined and to what extent the benefit is well defined when equipment investments are made. The study revealed that benefit from investments often is unclearly or inconsistently defined, with a narrow system view and often has a weak correlation with benefit for a production system with broader boundaries. This could hamper the possibility to capitalize on industrial trends that indicate a shift in focus, from products, to the benefit utilization of the products can deliver.

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  • 50.
    Granlund, Anna
    et al.
    Mälardalen University.
    Wiktorsson, Magnus
    Mälardalen University.
    Grahn, Sten
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF AB.
    Friedler, Niklas
    Mälardalen University.
    Lean automation development: applying lean principles to the automation development process2014Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    By a broad empirical study it is indicated that automation development show potential of improvement. In the paper, 13 lean product development principles are contrasted to the automation development process and it is suggested why and how these principles can facilitate, support and improve the automation development process. The paper summarises a description of what characterises a lean automation development process and what consequences it entails. Main differences compared to current practice are also identified. The incentives for, and expected effects of, applying the identified lean principles to the automation development process are discussed. Lean automation development: applying lean principles to the automation development process. 

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