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  • 1.
    Ahlgren, Serina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Morell, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Hallström, Elinor
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Mapping of biodiversity impacts and hotspot products in Nordic food consumption2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The climate impact of food production has been lively debated over the last decades. It is e.g. well known that some products have a higher climate impact in comparison to other food products. The biodiversity impact of different food products is however less known. To steer the food production in a positive direction as well as to enable consumers, restaurants, public kitchens, and the food industry to make well-informed decisions, we need to address and measure this impact. The aim of this study has been to examine the biodiversity impact of Nordic and European food consumption. In this report we present (1) a brief summary of biodiversity indicators linked to food production and consumption, (2) different methods to evaluate biodiversity impact of food products and (3) a literature review of studies that assess biodiversity impacts of food products and diets. Based on the literature review, we identify food products suggested to have a higher respectively lower negative impact on biodiversity and discuss what changes that could promote a Nordic diet with lower negative impact on biodiversity. Finally, we highlight knowledge gaps and possibilities for future work. There are different methods to examine the biodiversity impact on food products, such as life cycle assessment, input-output-model, and mapping tools. Biodiversity footprints are often based on the land use (area and intensity) in combination with parameters linked to where the production takes place and thus what biodiversity values can be affected. The consumed amount of food is also often considered – a product with a low impact per kg can get a high impact when consumed to a high degree and vice versa. Our literature review shows a variety of food products with high negative biodiversity impact. Particularly, products that are known drivers of deforestation in tropical regions, such as palm oil, coffee, and cacao – as well as meat and/or animal products that have been fed with soybeans derived from tropical regions have a high negative impact on biodiversity. On the other hand, consumption of foods as vegetables, starchy roots, and pulses – ideally with domestic origin – are examples of foods indicated to have lower biodiversity impact which would be beneficial to eat more of in the Nordic diet. There are also examples of agricultural systems where human interference is crucial for maintaining a high level of biodiversity, for example keeping grazing animals on high-naturevalue-grasslands. If these lands are abandoned or planted with forest, numerous of species will be extinct. Thus, meat linked to these grasslands can also support biodiversity, especially in the Nordic countries where there are relatively many of these landscapes left (in comparison to the rest of Europe). As the studies reviewed varied in their scope, methods, and results, they are difficult to compare. More research is needed to confirm our conclusions. Furthermore, none of the methods are flawless and there are obvious difficulties with finding a transferable and scalable unit – like CO2-equivalents – since biodiversity impacts are highly dynamic and sitespecific. Additionally, most of the reviewed studies do not consider transformation of natural areas driven by food production, e.g., deforestation, and may therefore be underestimating the impacts. In future studies, the reference systems may also be discussed and further developed, and more taxonomic groups (e.g., arthropods such as insects) should preferably be included.

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  • 2.
    Davis, Jennifer
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Östergren, Karin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Development of an LCA methodology to assess the environmental impacts of process changes: two case studies in Sweden2007In: Food Manufacturing Efficiency, ISSN 1750-2683, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Edman, Frida
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Pourazari, Fereshteh
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Ahlgren, Serina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Behaderovic, Danira
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Peetz Nielsen, Per
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Kardeby, Victor
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems.
    Potential to reduce climate impact with digitalisation in agriculture – literature review and a case study of milk2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The agricultural sector in Sweden needs to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Digitalisation has the potential to contribute to this reduction. The term digitalisation is used to describe a process for digital transformation of products and processes. The purpose is to enable better decisions by using an increased insight through collecting data, and to process the collected data using different smart algorithms. In this report, we present a literature review on research of the potential to reduce climate impact with digitalisation in agriculture. The result of the literature review was applied on a case study, where different scenarios with varying degrees of digitalisation were tested to quantify possible reductions in GHG emissions when introducing digitalisation techniques at a Swedish dairy farm. The results shows that implementation of various digitalisation technologies at a Swedish dairy farm has a potential to reduce the carbon footprint of Swedish milk by 16 %. Precision livestock farming shows the largest potential with an estimated reduction of 14 %, primarily due to feed efficiency and improved animal health and longevity, reducing the total number of animals while maintaining high milk output. It is however important to evaluate the whole system, as changes in the dairy system might impact other farms and food producing systems. This indicates a need for research to further investigate the potential GHG reduction when introducing digitalisation in agriculture.

  • 4.
    Joubin, Maxime
    et al.
    Agrocampus Ouest, France.
    Sindhöj, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Rodhe, Lena
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Animal slurry acidification: effects of slurry characteristics, use of different acids, slurry pH buffering: Student work2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Acidification of slurry is one method to reduce ammonia emissions. Mainly implemented in Denmark, SAT use sulfuric acid to decrease the pH in in-house, in storage or in field system. Organic acids could be a good alternative to sulfuric acid to develop SATs for organic farming. Successive acidifications of slurry could be a solution to keep a stable pH and avoid ammonia emissions during all the period of storage.

    In Experiment 1, sulfuric acid, nitric acid and four organic acids were tested in order to compare efficiency and the economic aspects for cattle and pig slurry acidification. In experiment 2, the buffer system of 9 different slurries (4 from cattle, 3 from pig, and 2 filtrated slurry of each) were studied after several acidifications with sulfuric acid to pH 5.5 in order to quantify the acid consumption and to determine by modelling which slurry characteristics influenced the most this consumption of acid. For both experiments, the storage temperature was 20°C.

    For acid solutions with the same normality, organic acid and nitric acid were as efficient as sulfuric acid. However, results show, considering commercial concentrated acid proprieties, sulfuric acid was still the best option with a third to half of the consumption compared to other acids and acidification cost divided by 10 to compare with the use of organic acid. Acid consumption and acidification cost were highest for nitric acid. For organic acids, the acid consumption and acidification cost depends on slurry types and the target pH value. Furthermore, sulfuric acid and acetic acid had better ability to maintain the pH value below 6.4.

    In experiment 2, for all slurries, the pH cannot be stabilized by successive acidifications, possibly due to the degradation of organic matter by acid hydrolysis and probably aerobic degradation of volatile fatty acids. The total acid consumption depended on slurry characteristics and varied between 5.97 to 8.06 liters per m3 for cattle slurry and 6.7 to 10.7 for pig slurry.

    The best model variable to explain the quantity of acid needed for the first acidification depended on the target pH. The total amount of acid needed was explained by total nitrogen, total solids, total carbon: total nitrogen ratio and volatile solids. For the total amount of acid needed for all re-acidification, total nitrogen, ammonium concentration, total carbon and volatile solids were the best sub model variables. The latter was not correlated with the acid consumption for the first titration, even though models have common variables. That supposes slurry characteristics are modified by acidification.

    In conclusion, the use of organic acids was more expensive than the use of sulfuric acid. The pH can’t be stabilized by successive acid additions due to the organic matter degradation and modification of slurry characteristics which influence the acid consumption.

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  • 5.
    Luostarinen, Sari
    et al.
    LUKE, Finland.
    Tampio, Elina
    LUKE, Finland.
    Laakso, Johanna
    LUKE, Finland.
    Sarvi, Minna
    LUKE, Finland.
    Ylivainio, Kari
    LUKE, Finland.
    Riiko, Kaisa
    HELCOM, Finland.
    Kuka, Katrin
    Julius Kühn Institut, Germany.
    Bloem, Elke
    Julius Kühn Institut, Germany.
    Sindhöj, Erik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Manure processing as a pathway to enhance nutrient recycling2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Circular economy is increasingly demanded across the world to minimize the need for non-renewable sources of materials and energy. The need to introduce new nutrients into the current demand from mineral resources could be reduced significantly via nutrient recycling. This means recovery of nutrients from different nutrient-rich side-streams and their reuse in different measures, the most significant being food production. Nutrients, especially phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N), are vital for crops to grow. The amounts required as fertilizer products are large. Still, at the time of writing nutrients are not effectively recycled, but a significant share is lost as final disposal and emissions. Recyclable nutrients are available in different side-streams from agriculture, municipalities and industry. The most significant recyclable material is animal manure which is traditionally used as a fertilizer. However, due to segregation of crop and animal production, manure is often regionally concentrated so that its nutrients may be available in excess to the region’s need. This may result in excessive use of manure in the regions of concentrated animal production, while the crop producing regions need to rely on mineral fertilizers. Both have negative environmental consequences. Thus, solutions for regional manure reallocation via improving the transportability of manure are needed to reallocate the nutrients to areas in nutrient deficit. To enable such transportation over long distances and to separate P and N from each other and thus enhance their reuse, manure processing could be used.  Manure can be processed with different technologies providing various end-products. The aim of processing is usually to reduce the mass of manure and to concentrate nutrients to improve their transportability. An important aim is also to produce such fertilizer products that replace mineral fertilizers and provide reduced emissions into the environment. Several processing technologies are available and more are being developed. At the time of writing, manure processing is still limited mainly due to challenges with profitability. The investment into large-scale manure processing as required by regional nutrient reallocation is significant and the market for the novel manure-based fertilizer products is only starting to develop. Development of practices for the storage and spreading of the products is also still required.  In this report, examples of regions in need of nutrient reallocation via manure processing are described for the Baltic Sea Region and the potential and challenges of manure processing as one solution to reduced nutrient emissions discussed. Summaries of available processing technologies and their end-products as fertilizer products are also presented.

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  • 6.
    Lyngsø Foged, Henning
    et al.
    Organe Institute ApS, Denmark.
    Szymanski, A
    CDR, Poland.
    Sindhöj, Erik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Kuka, K
    JKI, Germany.
    Krystoforski, M
    CDR, Poland.
    Sarvi, M
    LUKE, Finland.
    Kaasinen, S
    HELCOM, Finland.
    Melnalksne, Z
    Zemnieku Saeima, Latvia.
    Typical pitfalls leading to gaps between envisaged and realised impacts of manure and nutrient related projects - a gap analysis2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    SuMaNu is a thematic platform concerning nutrients and manure management, established “in order to strengthen the impact of projects’ outcomes in the selected thematic field”, especially via better integration of project results and conclusions into policies. The present gap analysis clarifies in this connection gaps between envisaged and realised impacts of seven projects to promote sustainable manure management, and specifies the impeding pitfalls, i.e. shortcomings and weaknesses that have caused the missing impact. The rationale behind the gap analysis is to help the design and implementation of future projects to achieve stronger impact. For this aim, it summarizes knowledge of selected projects' ability to produce results and recommendations and to communicate these to the end users for integration into policies. To conduct the gap analysis, an approach of deductive and theory-testing research was used based on a set of described and classified potential pitfalls in project design and implementation that could potentially lead to gaps between envisaged and realised policy impact of projects. Links between pitfall categories and implementation gaps were tested by the use of empirical data collected during this study. Six typical pitfalls were defined, and ten recommendations selected for the gap analysis. The analysis was as far as possible based on referenced documentation. Key target stakeholders representing Germany, Poland and Denmark as well as the BSR region were interviewed in order to increase the quality of the analysis and secure impartiality of the results.  Generally, there were found gaps between envisaged and realised policy impacts. Out of the six classified pitfalls, not all projects had planned to create policy recommendations or impact among end users. The observed projects performed best with respect to producing planned results, whereas the most common pitfall was the ability to communicate these results. There were found considerable differences between the seven projects’ ability to support policy development and create impacts among end-users. It was among others concluded that projects are more likely to be integrated into policies and be implemented by end users if they adhere to some basic principles: 

    1) Objectives are SMART and in line with end-user needs; 

    2) Activities match the objectives and lead to the production of the foreseen results; and 

    3) Representatives of the administration and the end-users are directly involved in project partnerships and activities.

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  • 7.
    Löfkvist, Klara
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Wändel, marie
    Wändels kvalitetsperenner, Sweden.
    Svenska perenner till svenska pollinerare2017Report (Other academic)
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  • 8.
    Rodhe, Lena
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Alverbäck, Adam
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Ascue, Johnny
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Edström, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Nordberg, Åke
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Pizzul, Leticia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Tersmeden, Marianne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Åtgärder för att minimera växthusgasutsläpp från lager med rötad och orötad gödsel2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ensuring low emissions of greenhouse gases from both undigested and digested animal slurry in storage requires a knowledge of effective, functional and economic measures. This three-year project has studied various potential measures for use in slurry storage. The greenhouse gases methane and nitrous oxide have been measured under summer conditions. Measures such as extended digestion time and acidification of slurry with sulfuric acid have been evaluated in a RISE pilot-scale plant for slurry storage. Measures to reduce nitrous oxide emissions formed in floating crust in a full-scale storage have been studied at farm level. Complementary theoretical calculations have been carried out to assess the effect of covering slurry stores. The impact of temperature on methane emissions has been studied in the laboratory.

    The fundamental point demonstrated on the laboratory scale is that the temperature is highly significant. As the temperature rose, methane production increased exponentially for digested slurry. For undigested slurry, the increase was considerably less. Most of the heat gained by the slurry can be attributed to solar radiation. Theoretical thermal balance calculations for slurry in storage indicated that it should be possible to reduce this heating significantly in spring by shading the slurry surface or provide the storage with a white roof.

    The studies in years 1 and 3 showed that methane emissions were significantly greater from digested than from undigested slurry. The total loss of methane from digested slurry was 2.5 and four times higher, respectively, during summer storage (approx. four months). It is therefore particularly important to implement measures to limit methane emissions from digested slurry in storage, thereby reducing the impact on the climate.

    One way to achieve lower methane emissions from digested slurry is to extend the duration of digestion, i.e. the hydraulic retention time in the digester. The studies in year 1 showed that doubling the retention time from 24 to 48 days reduced methane emissions from storage by 30 percent. At farms with digestion plants, a gas-tight roof with biogas collection is also an effective way to make the plant more efficient and prevent emissions of greenhouse gases from storage.

    Acidification of slurry with sulfuric acid is practiced in Denmark, to reduce ammonia emissions from slurry in housing, in storage and during spreading. The results show that it is also a very effective method for minimizing methane emissions from storage, with a reduction of more than 90 percent for both undigested and digested slurry. Acidification may be of interest as a way of reducing emissions of both ammonia and methane, particularly for types of slurry that do not naturally form a floating crust.

    Measures such as acidification of the floating crust to reduce nitrous oxide emissions did not prove to have effect because nitrous oxide emissions were relatively low, despite the floating crust being nearly half a metre thick. The chopped straw used for litter formed a smooth and dense floating crust on the surface of the slurry, and probably inhibited nitrous oxide formation because air was unable to penetrate the layer. Chopped straw litter in itself could therefore be a potential measure. This might also reduce straw consumption.

    Methane production from a digester is often difficult to measure and is therefore often calculated indirectly from the electricity produced. An example of key indicator for the climatic efficiency of the plant is given. For storage in summer, 10.2% of the methane produced was emitted during one-stage digestion over 24 days, and 5.5% during two-stage digestion over 48 days. The annual percentages are considerably lower because of low emissions in winter.

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  • 9.
    Rodhe, Lena
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Ascue, Johnny
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Tersmeden, Marianne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Pizzul, Leticia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Ammonia emissions from storage: non-digested and digested cattle slurry, with and without acid2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The study concerns acidification at the beginning of storage to reduce ammonia emissions during storage. The aim of the study was to evaluate the reduction of ammonia emissions by the acidification of cattle slurry, digested and non-digested, in storage under summer conditions.

    Cattle slurry (CS) and digested cattle slurry (DCS) were taken from a dairy farm with a digester plant. The sulphuric acid required for acidification to pH 5.5 was determined by titration before the pilot-scale experiment began. In the pilot-scale experiment, each slurry type was divided into two containers. One batch was acidified to pH<5.5 by adding sulphuric acid (96%) slowly with gentle mixing. The other batch was not acidified. During acidification, the pH was measured frequently and the total amounts of acid added were noted. Temperatures were measured during the four-month storage period with loggers at 0.1 m from the bottom and 0.1 m from the surface of each container. Data were continuously recorded hourly.

    Ammonia emissions were measured using a micrometeorological mass balance method with passive flux samplers. There were five measuring periods during the warm storage period from May to August. The length of the measuring periods ranged from 3 to 14 days, with the shortest period at the start of storage.

    On a pilot scale, the acid consumption for reaching pH< 5.5 was 1.1 L/m3 for CS and 6.2 L/m3 for DCS. The change in pH after acidification was rather limited and the pH stayed <6 throughout the four-month storage period for both CS and DCS.

    On a laboratory scale, more acid was needed to reach pH 5.5, and the pH increased more, with less buffering, than on a pilot scale. The reasons for this could be higher temperatures, frequent mixing, small volumes, and the use of diluted acid on a laboratory scale compared with on a pilot scale. On a laboratory scale, it was possible to show differences in acid demand between slurry types, but the amounts of acid needed seem to be different (higher) compared with pilot scale.

    The estimated cumulative NH3-N emissions corresponded to about 19% of total-N for CS and about 26% of total-N for DCS. The estimated cumulative NH3-N emissions were about the same as a percentage of TAN for CS and for DCS (57.8 and 53.9% respectively).

    Emissions from the acidified batches of slurry were overall negligibly low. The addition of acid decreased ammonia emissions very effectively, for both CS and DCS.

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  • 10.
    Rodhe, Lena
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Kalinowski, Mariusz
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Pizzul, Leticia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Ascue, Johnny
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Tersmeden, Marianne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Slurry acidification: Micro-structural analyses of concrete after exposure in acidified and non-acidified slurry2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Samples of three different concrete qualities were prepared and hardened, before exposure in cattle slurry without sulphuric acid (A) and with sulphuric acid added until pH<5.5 (B). The samples were exposed for two years in containers with about 45 L slurry. The boxes with slurry and concrete samples were placed in a ventilated room at 20 °C. The slurry and air temperatures were recorded continuously with temperature loggers, data being recorded every third hour. The slurry level in the boxes and the slurry pH were checked regularly during the experiment. Slurry or acid was added, if necessary, to maintain the level and pH<5.5. Before pH measurements, the slurry was stirred gently in both boxes. To restrict evaporation, the containers had non-airtight plastic covers between measurements.

    Half-way through exposure, the old slurry was replaced with fresh slurry (acidified and non-acidified treatments) to mimic conditions in farm storage where fresh slurry is added continuously during storage. After two years’ storage, the experiment was finalised. The concrete samples were taken out of the slurry, washed gently with water and put into labelled plastic bags.

    The samples were delivered to RISE CBI’s concrete laboratory, where the structural analyses were performed. These used petrographic microscopy techniques to examine the effects of exposure to two potentially aggressive environments, non-acidified and acidified cattle slurry, on concrete with three different mixes. The studied surfaces in the concrete samples were oriented vertically in the plastic containers. Polished sections were evaluated with a stereo microscope, and thin sections were evaluated using a polarising microscope and sources for visible and UV light.

    The results of the study show that the acidified slurry is more chemically aggressive to the cement paste in all the concrete mixes analysed. This can be explained by the solution’s lower pH.

    The extent of the chemical attack correlates with the initial quality of the concrete mix (water-powder ratio and type of binder). The deepest chemical attacks were observed in samples A1 and B1 consisting of “regular” concrete mix with w/c 0.59. The “long lasting quality” (LLC) concrete with a binder specially developed for low-pH environments shows markedly better resistance to chemical attack.

    The effects of the chemical attack on concrete after two years’ exposure can be classified as weak, consisting mainly of an increase in the capillary porosity of the cement paste in the outer layer of the concrete. The increase in porosity is considered to be due to the partial leaching of calcium hydroxide.

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  • 11.
    Råberg, Tora
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    van Noord, Michiel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Björnsson, Lars-Henrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Pettersson, Ida
    Ecogain, Sweden.
    Zinko, Ursula
    Ecogain, Sweden.
    Solcellsparker, biologisk mångfald och ekosystemtjänster: Påverkan och möjligheter för multifunktioner2021Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Land based solar parks are becoming more common, which risks affecting biodiversity, food production and other ecosystem services. Research and development projects have been carried out internationally around the coexistence of solar parks and biodiversity as well as ecosystem services. The authors of this study are not aware of any reports made for biodiversity, ecosystem services or agrophotovoltaics (combined agricultural production with solar energy generation) in Swedish or Nordic solar parks. 

    Practical experience with grazing animals to keep vegetation down between the rows of solar cells and which can benefit biological diversity have been made in Sweden but have not yet been evaluated. 

    In summary, there is a risk that land based solar parks will result in increasing the already existing competition for land with agricultural and the biological diversity. There are several possible adaptations for creating beneficial conditions to biodiversity and ecosystem services in connection with large-scale photovoltaic systems. With careful planning, biodiversity and ecosystem services can benefit and major environmental benefits can be achieved, while simultaneously improving the landowner's finances.

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  • 12.
    Røyne, Frida
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Berlin, Johanna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    The importance of including service life in the climate impact comparison of bioplastics and fossil-based plastics2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Bioplastics are gaining attention as a means of reducing fossil resource dependence. Most bioplastics differ from fossil-based plastics in molecular structure, and therefore in terms of properties and durability. Still, the life cycle environmental performance of bioplastics has attracted limited attention in research. The purpose of this study is therefore to examine the importance of applying a life cycle perspective and identify key considerations in the environmental evaluation of bioplastics and bioplastic products under development.

    The climate impact of the life cycle of an engine component storage box currently made of the fossil-based plastic acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) is compared to a hypothetical case study, based on laboratory observations, of the same box produced from a blend of polycarbonate and the bioplastic polylactic acid (PC/PLA) and a box made of biopolyamide (PA1010). The comparison is conducted with a cradle-to-grave attributional life cycle assessment. The functional unit of the study is five years of service life, which reflects the required function of the storage box.

    Whereas the climate impact of the production of the different plastic materials differ only slightly, the PC/PLA engine component storage box was found to have a significantly higher climate impact that the ABS and PA1010 boxes when the whole life cycle is taken into account. The dominant contributor to climate impact is premature material deterioration due to humidity and heat during service life, which prevents the product from fulfilling the required function. Two other influential aspects are the possibility of material reuse and the share of fossil or biogenic carbon in the product. Production of plastic materials and boxes, and transport distances, are of less importance.

    Results demonstrate the high significance of including service life and potential material deterioration when bioplastics and fossil-based plastics are compared. Our findings underline the importance of applying a life cycle perspective and taking into account the intended application and function of bioplastics as part of their development and environmental assessment.

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  • 13.
    Sindhöj, Erik
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Tamm, Kalvi
    Estonian Crop Research Institute, Estonia.
    Bryukhanov, Aleksandr
    Institute for Engineering and Environmental Problems in Agricultural Production, Russia.
    Casimir, Justin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Uvarov, Roman
    Institute for Engineering and Environmental Problems in Agricultural Production, Russia.
    Oblomkova, Natalia
    Institute for Engineering and Environmental Problems in Agricultural Production, Russia.
    Slurry acidification as a tool to reduce ammonia emissions2019In: Agricultural Machinery and Technologies, ISSN 2618-6748, Vol. 13, no 5, p. 4-10Article in journal (Refereed)
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    Slurry acidification techniques to reduce NH3 emissions
  • 14.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Nilsson, Katarina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Levermann, Nette
    Ministry of Fisheries Hunting and Agriculture, Greenland.
    Dorph, Masaana
    Ministry of Fisheries Hunting and Agriculture, Greenland.
    Lyberth, Bjarne
    KNAPK Association of Fishers and Hunters in Greenland, Greenland.
    Jessen, Amalie
    Ministry of Fisheries Hunting and Agriculture, Greenland.
    Desportes, Genevieve
    North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission, Norway.
    Local seal or imported meat?: Sustainability evaluation of food choices in greenland, based on life cycle assessment2021In: Foods, E-ISSN 2304-8158, Vol. 10, no 6, article id 1194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Achieving a sustainable global food chain is becoming particularly acute as modern Western diets are adopted in a growing number of countries and cultures around the world. Understanding the consequences that this shift has on health and sustainability is important. This exploratory study is the first to apply the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology to analyze the sustainability implication of ongoing dietary shifts in Greenland, where locally hunted seal meat is increasingly being replaced by imported livestock products, primarily pig and poultry produced in Denmark. This dietary shift, indirectly driven by international trade bans such as the EU seal product ban, has sustainability implications. To inform and support more comprehensive analyses and policy discussions, this paper explores the sustainability of these parallel Greenlandic food supply chains. A quantitative comparison of the greenhouse gas emissions of Greenlandic hunted seal and Danish pig and poultry is complemented by a qualitative discussion of nutrition, cultural food preferences, animal welfare, and the use of land, pesticides and antibiotics. Although the variability in the life cycle inventory data collected from Greenlandic hunters was considerable, greenhouse gas emissions of seal meat were consistently lower than those of imported livestock products. Emissions of the latter are dominated by biogenic emissions from feed production and manure management, while these are absent for seal meat, whose emissions instead are dominated by fossil fuel use. The implications of these results for sustainable national food policies in a modern global context as well as important areas for additional research are discussed. © 2021 by the authors. 

  • 15.
    Rodhe, Lena (Editor)
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Casimir, Justin (Editor)
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Sindhöj, Erik (Editor)
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Possibilities and bottlenecks for implementing slurry acidification techniques in the Baltic Sea Region2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report: 1) describes those slurry acidification techniques (SATs) that are commercially available today in Denmark including In-house, In-storage and In-field SATs, and 2) summarizes expert judgements on how these SATs could be implemented in each country in the Baltic Sea Region (BSR). Special focus on bottlenecks for implementing SATs with existing manure management systems was considered.

    Data from Eurostat and national statistics show that a large portion of manure in each country is handled as slurry and all the national experts considered implementing SATs as relevant for their respective countries.

    The In-field SATs were considered the most applicable SATs for implementation in the BSR. They are flexible and mobile and in general have the lowest acid consumption. If investments in In-field SATs are done by agricultural contractors or farmer cooperation’s, then acidification techniques will also be available to smaller farms.

    The In-storage SATs that acidify slurry just before spreading were ranked second of interest in most countries. Mobile equipment is ideal for contractors and co-operations and therefore each unit could potentially treat a lot of slurry. Another advantage is that once the slurry is acidified, any available spreading equipment can be used. The major drawback is that extra storage capacity is needed during acidification so the foaming will not overflow. Most farmers do not have this extra storage capacity, so if storages are full, some slurry would have to be spread untreated before the rest of the tank could be acidified.

    The stationary In-house SAT was thought to be of less interest in most countries, since it is perhaps the hardest SAT to implement into existing manure handling systems. They are best suited for new animal houses so the SAT can be integrated into the manure handling system from the start. Installing them in existing animal houses would, in many cases, probably require re-construction of slurry channels. Also, in some countries like Estonia and Sweden, flushing systems inside the barn are currently not allowed due to regulations. Another aspect is that In-house SATs are permanent installations which use more acid than In-field and In-storage SATs. However, In-house SATs have the best potential for reducing ammonia emissions so this might be of interest for farms in environmentally sensitive areas.

    Compared to In-house, there was greater interest in the In-storage SAT that acidifies all slurry sent to the storage, since this could likely more easy to implement into existing manure handling systems. It is still a stationary system for a specific farm, but installation would be simpler and emissions would be lower from both storage and spreading.

    In general, there is a good potential to implement currently available SATs into existing manure handling systems in BSR countries and most identified bottle-necks could be dealt with.

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