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  • 1.
    Andersson, Johan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Nordberg, Åke
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Westin, Gunnar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Processum.
    Askfilter för rening av svavelväte i deponigas2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfill gas is formed under anaerobic conditions in landfills by microbial degradation of organic material. The gas composition can vary, but at Swedish landfills the gas generally consists of 40-60% methane, 30-40% carbon dioxide and 5-20% nitrogen. Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is a highly toxic and corrosive gas, which occur in landfill gas in varying concentrations, from 10 to 30,000 ppm (equivalent to 0.001 to 3.0%). It is desirable that the landfill gas is used for electricity and/or heat production, but to do that there is a need to clean the gas to reach <200 ppm H2S. High levels of H2S increases wear on the engine/boiler and thus the frequency of servicing. This leads to expensive maintenance costs, and ultimately shortens the economic life of the plant. To reduce corrosion, it is common to adjust the flue gas temperature, but this also leads to a lower efficiency and thus reduces the energy utilization of the gas. In some cases the gas concentration of H2S is judged to be too high to be used for energy production at all. In 2015, approximately 53 GWh of landfill gas was flared in Sweden, which in many cases is due to problems with high levels of H2S.

     

    Cleaning of landfill gas from H2S leads to several values; the gas energy is used efficiently, maintenance and service costs of the engines/boiler are reduced, and emissions of acidifying sulphur dioxide from combustion of landfill gas decreases. There are commercial cleaning technologies for H2S but they are expensive, both in terms of capital cost and operating cost. Thus, there is a need to develop new cost efficient cleaning technologies that improve the economic outcome at landfills and that enables landfill gas with high H2S concentrations to be utilized for valuable energy transformation.

     

    RISE (formerly JTI – Swedish Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering) together with SLU develops new, potentially cost-efficient methods for upgrading biogas to fuel quality. One of the methods is based on the gas passing through a bed of moist ash (a so-called ash filter), where carbon dioxide and H2S are fixed. The hypothesis of this project was that ashes originating from the incineration of waste, recycled waste wood etc., can be used to clean the high levels of H2S in landfill gas. This type of ashes will usually be disposed of in landfills anyway and if the treatment effect is good, it would generate synergy effects in the form of the ash first being used to clean landfill gas from sulphur before it is used as a construction material at landfills.

     

    This project performed two trials in pilot scale at a Swedish landfill with very high concentration of H2S, approximately 15,000 ppm. Different gas flow rates were studied (0.7 to 7.6 m3 / h), while the volume of ash used were similar in the two trials, 0,37 m3. The concentration of H2S in the cleaned gas was consistently very low during treatment, < 10 ppm at low gas flow rates and < 200 ppm at high gas flow rates. Two types of ash were investigated and both proved to have very good capacity to fix H2S, 44-61 g H2S/kg dry ash. In comparison with literature values, there is only one study showing an uptake capacity in the same order. Other studies report an order of magnitude lower uptake capacity.

    Based on the experimental results, the technical and economic potential for an ash filter as the cleaning method was assessed. The calculations were made for various typical landfills to cover the different range of landfills. For normal sized landfills with gas flow rates of 100-1 000 m3/h and H2S concentrations between 100 and 1 000 ppm, the amount of ash needed is 10-130 tons of dry ash per year. For the special case where the H2S concentration is extremely high, the amount of ash increases and a plant with 15 000 ppm H2S and a gas flow rate of 200 m3/h requires approximately 800 tons of dry ash per year. However, overall modest amounts of ash is required and considering all Swedish landfills the requirement of ash would be only 0.2-0.3% of the annual production of ash in Sweden.

     

    The economic calculations show that the ash filter is a competitive method for removal of H2S. For the special case of extremely high levels of H2S, it turned out that the cost of the ash filter is approximately 20% lower in comparison with the cheapest feasible conventional cleaning technology on the market. Also for the cleaning of landfill gas at more normal levels of H2S, the ash filter is competitive. At low gas flow rates (100 m3/h), the ash filter is clearly competitive compared to literature values for conventional cleaning technologies. The economy of scale seems to be higher for the conventional cleaning technologies, and consequently the difference between the cost of ash filter cleaning and other technologies is less at higher gas flow rates.

     

    The low treatment cost of the ash filter reveals opportunities for landfills that currently do not clean the gas from H2S. During the project 15 Swedish landfills was contacted and none of these reported any form of H2S cleaning. When using cleaning, the landfill gas can be used effectively, i.e. reduced flaring, increased efficiency of electricity and heat production with reduced wear on boilers and combustion equipment as well as reduced emissions of sulphur into the atmosphere, which also reduces the potential odour problems around the landfill.

     

    For further development, the design of an ash filter module prototype at full-scale is important. Furthermore, the treated ashes should be analysed for leaching characteristics, storability and usability as construction materials or as cover landfills along with an assessment of the overall environmental impact. Further tests at full scale should be made at other landfills with various gas flow rates and H2S concentrations to verify the performance of the conducted pilot tests.

  • 2. Berghel, J.
    et al.
    Frodeson, S.
    Granström, K.
    Renström, R.
    Stahl, M.
    Nordgren, D.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Tomani, P.
    RISE, Innventia.
    The effects of kraft lignin additives on wood fuel pellet quality, energy use and shelf life2013In: Fuel processing technology, ISSN 0378-3820, E-ISSN 1873-7188, p. 64-69Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Berglin, Niklas
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    von Schenck, Anna
    RISE, Innventia.
    Hoffstedt, Christian
    RISE, Innventia.
    Co-production of renewable polymers and ethanol from eucalyptus-based pulp mills2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4. Carrick, C.
    et al.
    Lindström, S.B.
    Larsson, P.T.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Wågberg, L.
    Lightweight, highly compressible, noncrystalline cellulose capsules2014In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 30, no 26, p. 7635-6744Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5. Celaya, J.
    et al.
    Bridgwater, A.V.
    Toven, K.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Fast pyrolysis bio-oil production from Scandinavian forest residues2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6. Celaya, J.
    et al.
    Bridgwater, A.V.
    Toven, K.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Fast pyrolysis bio-oil production from Scandinavian forest residues2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7. Chacha, N.
    et al.
    Toven, K.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Mtui, G.
    Katima, J.
    Mrema, G.
    Steam pretreatment of pine (Pinus patula) for fuel ethanol production in Tanzania2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Davis, Jennifer
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Östergren, Karin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Development of an LCA methodology to assess the environmental impacts of process changes: two case studies in Sweden2007In: Food Manufacturing Efficiency, ISSN 1750-2683, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9. Dyrset, N.
    et al.
    Øyaas, K.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Hobley, T.J.
    Alfrén, J.
    Hreggvidson, G.
    Uusitalo, J.
    Schenck, A.V.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Sustainable Biofuel: Innovations in Bioethanol Production Technologies (SusBioFuel)2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10. Dyrset, Nils
    et al.
    Öyaas, Karin
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Hobley, Timothy John
    Alfthen, Johan
    RISE, Innventia.
    Hreggvidsson, Gudmundir
    Uusitalo, Jaana
    von Schenck, Anna
    RISE, Innventia.
    Ochoa-Fernandez, Esther
    Einen, Jörn
    Sustainable biofuel: innovations in bioethanol production technologies (SusBioFuel)2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Edström, Mats
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Sindhöj, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Ljung, Emelie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Halldorf, Stefan
    Persson, Sven
    Welander, Ulrika
    Rupar-Gadd, Katarina
    Rötning av fjäderfägödsel med gödselförädling i tillämpad skala2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Digestion of poultry manure with digestate processing in pilot scale tests

    Twenty farmers in the municipality of Mönsterås in southern Sweden are jointly planning to build a large biogas plant. The plant will digest a very high proportion of poultry manure, resulting in significantly greater biogas yield than normally expected, and higher nitrogen contents in the digestate. A major obstacle to realising the biogas plant is controlling digestion operation under high nitrogen levels resulting from the considerable amounts of poultry manure substrate. Poultry manure also contains both heavy and light particles that can cause challenges with poor stability in the digestion process, formation of sediments and crust in digester tanks. The high nitrogen contents together with high phosphorus and solids concentrations will also create difficulties for digestate management and use as fertiliser. 

    Today solid poultry manure is mainly used as a phosphorus fertiliser, not only due to high concentration of phosphorus but also due to relatively poor utilisation of the nitrogen by crops. However, due to the high concentration of phosphorus, the application rate needed to meet plant needs is lower than modern solid manure spreaders can evenly apply. Over application and inefficient use of nitrogen increases risk of nutrient losses to waters and the environment.

    To study these issues for biogas production, Vinnova (Sweden's innovation agency) has supported this research project in applied digestion and digestate processing.

    The project contained the following components: i) 6 months digestion tests with prospective substrates in a pilot-plant with 5 m3 active digesting volume, provided with mixers and pumps commonly used in full-scale plants, ii) laboratory tests to determine biogas potential for feedstocks, and to determine the potential for increased gas production by post-digestion, iii) applied trials of separating and concentrating the digestate with centrifuge followed by industrial evaporation of the liquid phase, iv) analysis of the nutrient value and the function of the concentrated fertilizer in organic farming.

    The biological and technical operational performance in the pilot test was evaluated in a complete stirred tank reactor at mesophilic temperature during co-digestion of poultry manure, liquid manure and glycerol. The poultry manure contributed with approx. 70% of dry matter in the substrate mixture and 80% of the nitrogen and phosphorus. The digestion process was stable with NH4-N levels close to 6 g/l. To control hydrogen sulphide in the biogas to approx. 100 ppm, ferric chloride was added to the digester. Volumetric methane production reached 1,1 m3 CH4/ m3 digester and day. Significant formation of sediment occurred in both digester and in pipes, however, no crust formation was observed in the digester. The outflow of ammonia from the digester by the digestate was 3.7 times higher than the ammonia inflow by the substrate mixture. Thirteen tonnes of digestate was produced during the pilot test. The digestate was separated with a decanter centrifuge generating a solid fraction corresponding to 23% of digestate weight and approx. 70% of the phosphorus in the digestate. Sulfuric acid was added to the liquid fraction generated by the centrifuge before evaporation to stabilize the ammonium nitrogen. Industrial evaporation of the liquid fraction produced a concentrate corresponding to 23% of digestate weight and containing approx. 70% of the ammonium nitrogen in the digestate.

    The pilot test generated four different fertilisers, (digestate, solid fraction, liquid fraction and concentrate) each with very different physical and chemical properties. Digestate processing increased the N/P ration of the liquid fraction and concentrate allowing more balanced N and P supply to crop demand, reducing the risk of nutrient losses to waters but also increasing the resource use efficiency of the plant nutrients. Processing was also successful at concentrating the two of the fertilisers, enabling cost effective long-distance transport for use in areas with low animal density and a need for the soil amendment properties of from manure.

    These project results have contributed to plans for a full-scale plant by developing the basis of design and the credibility for implementation, resulting in an investment grant and the formation of a new economically stronger company.  Based on the results from the project, the estimated production of biogas in a full-scale plant is 70 GWh /year for renewable automotive fuels. Post-digestion of the digestate with 10 days retention time can increase biogas production with an extra 3 GWh/year (4%). The solid and liquid products can fertilise 12 000 ha/year of organic cultivation with nitrogen and up to 20 000 up to ha/year with phosphorus.

  • 12. Ek, M.
    et al.
    Chirat, C.
    Fogelström, L.
    Iversen, T.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Li, D.
    Malmström, E.
    Norström, E.
    Sixta, H.
    Testova, L.
    Wawro, D.
    Wobama - Wood based materials and fuels2014In: Cellulose Chemistry and Technology, ISSN 0576-9787, Vol. 48, no 9-10, p. 773-779Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Fogelberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Recknagel, Jürgen
    Center for Agricultural Technology Augustenberg, Germany.
    Developing soy production in central and Northern Europe2017In: Legumes in Cropping Systems, CABI International , 2017, p. 109-124Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The soybean is an important ingredient of livestock feed in Europe and is also widely used in foods. Most soy used in Europe is imported (about 97% as beans and meal), mainly from South America and the USA. European soy production is currently concentrated in the south (Italy) and south-east (Balkan countries). Based on research conducted in Sweden and Germany, this chapter provides pointers to the development of the soy crop in central and northern Europe. It provides an overview of the history of the development of the crop in northern Europe, outlines relevant recent field research, and discusses aspects of good production practice. We focus on new production areas, generally north of traditional production areas. In recent years, interest in growing soybeans has spread east and north from Romania and Italy and parts of France to Austria, Germany, Hungary, Slovakia, the Czech Republic, Poland and even the BeNeLux countries, the Baltic and Scandinavian countries, with subsequently rising acreages. In order to succeed with soybean cropping in central and northern Europe, cultivars of the 00, 000 or 0000 maturity groups should be used. Grain yield in Scandinavia is about 2 t/ha. Crops in Germany and Austria produce about 2.5-3.5 t/ha. Knowledge about locally adapted cultivars and production technology is needed to support the development of the crop in new production regions. To ensure profitability of this new cropping, infrastructure for processing to feed and food has also to be developed. © CAB International 2017.

  • 14.
    Fors, Kikki
    et al.
    Hushållningssällskapet i Uppsala, Sweden.
    Adolfsson, Niklas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Bannbers, Hanna
    Hushållningssällskapet i Uppsala, Sweden.
    Rodhe, Lena
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Strand, Line
    Hushållningssällskapet i Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sindhöj, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Arbetsmiljö och säkerhet vid surgörning av flytgödsel: Rapport från WP2, Aktivitet 52018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Stallgödsel från animalieproduktion är en källa för kvävetillförseln till Östersjön i form av utsläpp till vatten och atmosfäriskt nedfall. Ammoniakavgång kommer från gödseln vid hantering i stallar, vid lagring och spridning. Jordbruket står för största delen av ammoniakutsläppen och åtgärder för att minska ammoniak-avgången från jordbruket har därför stor effekt på de totala utsläppsmängderna. Att minska kväveläckaget från jordbruket är en viktig del i att minska övergöd-ningen av Östersjön. Minskade kväveförluster från stallgödseln ger även ökad växtnäring till de odlade grödorna och en effektivare recirkulation av kvävet. Ökat växtnäringsvärde hos stallgödseln leder till bättre utvecklade grödor, som förmår att ta upp mer av miljöbelastande fosfor jämfört med sämre utvecklade grödor. Att minska kväveförlusterna genom att förbättra hanteringen av stall-gödseln ger därmed många vinster för miljön och odlaren.

    Surgörning av flytgödsel är en känd metod för att minska ammoniakavgången från stallgödsel i stall, i lager och vid och efter spridning i fält (Petersen, 2012). Metoden praktiseras dock inte i Sverige, till stor del för att tekniken inte är till-gänglig och för att det i stort saknas erfarenheter. Teknik för surgörning finns nu utvecklad i Danmark, där 18 % av all flytgödsel försurades år 2014 (SEGES, 2015). Vid surgörningen minskas förlusterna av kväve genom att den kemiska jämvikten mellan ammonium och ammoniak förskjuts mot större andel ammoniumkväve, som inte kan avgå i gasform.

    Teknik finns för surgörning i stallar, i lager respektive vid spridning. I stallar och lager strävar man efter att pH-värdet i gödseln ska vara mindre än 5,5 för att få effekt under längre tid dvs. under efterföljande lagring och spridning. I test enligt VERA:s testprotokoll minskade ammoniakavgången i medeltal med 64 % från de två studerade svinstallarna när man surgjorde gödseln i stallet med tekniken från JH Forsuring NH4+ jämfört med ingen surgörning (ETA-Danmark, 2011). I ett av de två studerade stallarna kunde man påvisa en årlig luktminskning med 29 procent vid surgörning. För Sverige är det dock inte aktuellt med surgörning i stallar med nuvarande system och lagstiftning. Istället kan system för tillförsel av syra i lager vara aktuellt. Vid tillförsel i lager strax innan spridning eftersträvas pH<6. För att begränsa mängden syra som behöver tillsättas är det då viktigt att snarast möjligt påbörja spridningen efter att svavelsyran blandats med gödseln i lagret, med tanke på gödselns buffrande förmåga (pH stiger). För att surgöra flytgödseln under spridning doseras svavelsyran till gödseln automatiskt under körning i fält med på marknaden olika tekniker. Målet är då att gödseln håller pH <6,4 vid spridningstillfället för att det ska vara godkänt i Danmark som ammoniakbegränsande åtgärd, och ett alternativ till att mylla ner gödseln vid spridning. Enligt VERA:s testprotokoll så minskade ammoniakavgången med 49 % vid surgörning till pH 6,4 vid spridning med tekniken SyreN jämfört med ingen försurning (VERA, 2012). Det gick inte att påvisa någon luktminskning med surgörning.

  • 15. Francey, S.
    et al.
    Tran, H.
    Berglin, N.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Global survey on lime kiln operation energy consumption and alternative fuel usage2011In: TAPPI Journal, ISSN 0734-1415, no 8, p. 19-26Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Gustafsson, Linnea
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Lindahl, Cecilia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Tekniker för att mäta köttkvalitet och slaktkroppsegenskaper på nötkreatur och lamm före slakt2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Meat quality is a broad concept that can include e.g. retail product, ethical traits and eating quality. This report mainly focuses on the eating quality, i.e. the sensory properties, of the meat. Studies have shown that tenderness and taste is the most important eating quality traits in meat. The tenderness and taste are partly influenced by the amount of intramuscular fat (marbling) in the meat. Swedish carcasses of cattle and lamb is mainly classified according to the EUROP-system, which classifies the carcasses’ shape and external fat deposition. There is also a Swedish standard for classification of marbling in beef, which is optional for the abattoirs to use. These parameters are only possible to influence when the animal is alive. The marbling of the meat is affected by e.g. breed, sex, age and feeding regime. In general, animals with lower growth rates have a greater potential to produce marbled meat. Also, an intense feeding regime has been shown to have a positive impact on the marbling grade. Marbling is a moderately heritable trait in cattle, which means that genetic progress can be achieved by selecting for marbling within a breed. To measure meat quality on live animals can provide valuable information in the aim to improve meat quality in Swedish beef.

    This review presents techniques that have been evaluated in the application to measure carcass meat quality traits on live cattle and lambs. The techniques covered in the report are ultrasound, bioelectrical impedance (BIA), computed tomography, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), 3D-imaging and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Studies have shown that marbling in cattle can be measured with similar accuracy by ultrasound and BIA, and there is also potential to develop NMR for measurement of marbling in shallow muscles. Both fat and muscles in cattle can be measured with ultrasound, BIA, computed tomography and there is also potential to develop 3D-imaging for these traits. Fewer studies have focused on lamb meat quality and for marbling, only studies on computed tomography was found. Muscles and fat content in live lambs have been successfully measured by ultrasound, BIA, computed tomography and DXA. At present, ultrasound and 3D-imaging are the techniques considered to have the potential to be practically applicable for measuring carcass meat quality traits in live animals in Sweden.

  • 17.
    Gustafsson, Linnea
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Lindahl, Cecilia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Ultraljud - mätning av köttkvalitet på levande nötkreatur2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Meatquality, i.e. sensory quality, includes traits such as tenderness and texture,flavour and juiciness. Tenderness and flavour are considered to be the mostimportant meat quality traits and are related to the amount of marbling of themeat, i.e. the amount of intramuscular fat. The marbling of the meat isaffected by e.g. sex, age, breed, genetic disposition and feeding regime.Marbling is moderately heritable in cattle, which mean that genetic progresscan be achieved by selecting for marbling within a breed. In Sweden, a standardfor beef marbling scoring has been developed, which is optional for theslaughterhouses to use. However, few slaughterhouses have implemented themarbling scoring system in their payment model to farmers, which means thatthere are no apparent financial incentives for meat producers to produceanimals of high eating quality. The possibility to predict the marbling score in live animals mayincrease the interest for eating quality traits of beef in Sweden and improve productionplanning, the prediction of time for slaughter and breeding. Ultrasound isalready an established method for estimating beef carcass characteristics andis used e.g. in the USA and Canada.

    The study aimed to evaluate ultrasound as amethod to measure carcass meat quality traits on live cattle in Sweden. Data of94 cattle was included in the study. The animals were scanned with ultrasoundbefore slaughter and ultrasound and carcass measurements of marbling, backfatthickness and muscle depth were then compared. The results showed a relativelylow correlation between marbling score by ultrasound and marbling assessedvisually on the carcass, but it was within the range of results from previousstudies. However, the distribution of data was limited with few animals withhigh marbling scores, which means that a correlation analysis may not bereliable. Therefore, the marbling score was also analysed as a categoricalvariable with Fisher’s exact test, and the results showed a significantrelationship between marbling grade before and after slaughter. The ultrasound measurements made a correct classifying in around half of the cases. The results also showed a lower correlation for measurement of backfat compared toprevious studies (r= 0,51 at the 12/13th rib and r=0,43 at the 10/11thrib), while the results for measurement of muscle depth was moderatelycorrelated to the carcass measurement.  Theresults can most likely be improved by better knowledge and understanding ofthe ultrasound technique and handling skills of both ultrasound hardware andsoftware. Furthermore, the results for marbling can probably be improved by arecalibration of the software to meet Swedish conditions, as the ultrasound measurementsgenerally seems to underestimate the marbling score. There is potential to useultrasound to measure marbling and meat quality traits on Swedish cattle, butthere is a need of more data material and better knowledge and experience toshow more reliable results.

  • 18.
    Jansson, Mikael
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    von Schenck, Anna
    RISE, Innventia.
    Larsson, M
    The value chain for biomethane from the forest industry2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Joubin, Maxime
    Agrocampus Ouest, France.
    Rodhe, Lena (Contributor)
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Animal slurry acidification: effects of slurry characteristics, use of different acids, slurry pH buffering: Student work2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Acidification of slurry is one method to reduce ammonia emissions. Mainly implemented in Denmark, SAT use sulfuric acid to decrease the pH in in-house, in storage or in field system. Organic acids could be a good alternative to sulfuric acid to develop SATs for organic farming. Successive acidifications of slurry could be a solution to keep a stable pH and avoid ammonia emissions during all the period of storage.

    In Experiment 1, sulfuric acid, nitric acid and four organic acids were tested in order to compare efficiency and the economic aspects for cattle and pig slurry acidification. In experiment 2, the buffer system of 9 different slurries (4 from cattle, 3 from pig, and 2 filtrated slurry of each) were studied after several acidifications with sulfuric acid to pH 5.5 in order to quantify the acid consumption and to determine by modelling which slurry characteristics influenced the most this consumption of acid. For both experiments, the storage temperature was 20°C.

    For acid solutions with the same normality, organic acid and nitric acid were as efficient as sulfuric acid. However, results show, considering commercial concentrated acid proprieties, sulfuric acid was still the best option with a third to half of the consumption compared to other acids and acidification cost divided by 10 to compare with the use of organic acid. Acid consumption and acidification cost were highest for nitric acid. For organic acids, the acid consumption and acidification cost depends on slurry types and the target pH value. Furthermore, sulfuric acid and acetic acid had better ability to maintain the pH value below 6.4.

    In experiment 2, for all slurries, the pH cannot be stabilized by successive acidifications, possibly due to the degradation of organic matter by acid hydrolysis and probably aerobic degradation of volatile fatty acids. The total acid consumption depended on slurry characteristics and varied between 5.97 to 8.06 liters per m3 for cattle slurry and 6.7 to 10.7 for pig slurry.

    The best model variable to explain the quantity of acid needed for the first acidification depended on the target pH. The total amount of acid needed was explained by total nitrogen, total solids, total carbon: total nitrogen ratio and volatile solids. For the total amount of acid needed for all re-acidification, total nitrogen, ammonium concentration, total carbon and volatile solids were the best sub model variables. The latter was not correlated with the acid consumption for the first titration, even though models have common variables. That supposes slurry characteristics are modified by acidification.

    In conclusion, the use of organic acids was more expensive than the use of sulfuric acid. The pH can’t be stabilized by successive acid additions due to the organic matter degradation and modification of slurry characteristics which influence the acid consumption.

  • 20.
    Justin, Casimir
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Jamieson, Max
    HIR Skåne, Sweden.
    Elmquist, Helena
    Odling i Balans, Sweden.
    Persson, Ingvar
    LRF konsult, Sweden.
    Bergman, Niklas
    LRF, Sweden.
    Färdplan för effektivisering och egenförsörjning av energi i lantbruket2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The greenhouse gas emissions connected to energy use in the Swedish agriculture (excluding greenhouse cultures) represents 0,6 Mton CO2eq which is about 4% of the agriculture greenhouse gas emission in Sweden (Jordbruksverket, 2018). The “All Party Committee for environmental objectives” (miljömålsberedning) suggested that by 2045 Sweden should has a zero-net-emission of greenhouse gases. The parliament (Riksdag) adopted this political framework for climate issues which entered into force the 1st of January 2018. To reach this ambitious goal, all sectors including agriculture must undertake measures.

    The project developed a roadmap in the form of a list of measures leading the Swedish agriculture towards a sustainable status in line with the Swedish Environmental Goals. This roadmap was developed using a backcasting methodology. It means that first the goals were set and then the measures needed to move from the present status to the goals were developed. Based on political goals as well sustainability principles, a vision of the future for Swedish agriculture has been developed. The vision is:

    In the future, agriculture is energy effective, independent from fossil resources, deliver energy to the society and is profitable. Agricultural enterprises have access to knowledge, competences, and decision support. Collaboration within the agricultural sector as well as with other sectors is comprehensive for energy.

    To analyse the current situation, four studies were implemented within the project: (i) a survey of farmers view and interest, (ii) a survey of agrarian education, (iii) identification of bottlenecks with research and development (R&D), and (iv) an analysis of how relevant tools for energy are communicated. A selection of observation positive for the energy and climate questions are as follow: more agricultural enterprises have solar cells today than three years ago, 25% of the respondents have attend an eco-driving course, large farms have done most energy surveys and, investment in fossil free energy is seen as positive for both enterprise and the environment. Negative observations are that farmers miss a long-term regulation for energy production and feel a lack of knowledge about energy efficiency and production. Only 8% of the respondents uses high blends biofuels. In addition, respondents have expressed a lack of collaboration and inquire for a joint communication for R&D results concerning energy efficiency and production. In the agrarian education the interest in energy efficiency and production is low.

    A range of measures contributing to reach the vision were suggested. These measures vary between different communication strategies, improved advisory services and need for regulatory simplification to minimize the hassle with permissions and administration. Simple and accessible key figures as well as better statistics would make it easier to follow the different energy flows. It is up to decision-making authorities, advisory organisations, institutions of higher education, agricultural organisations and agriculture themselves to implement these measures.

    The greenhouse gas emissions connected to energy use in the Swedish agriculture (excluding greenhouse cultures) represents 0,6 Mton CO2eq which is about 4% of the agriculture greenhouse gas emission in Sweden (Jordbruksverket, 2018). The “All Party Committee for environmental objectives” (miljömålsberedning) suggested that by 2045 Sweden should has a zero-net-emission of greenhouse gases. The parliament (Riksdag) adopted this political framework for climate issues which entered into force the 1st of January 2018. To reach this ambitious goal, all sectors including agriculture must undertake measures.

    The project developed a roadmap in the form of a list of measures leading the Swedish agriculture towards a sustainable status in line with the Swedish Environmental Goals. This roadmap was developed using a backcasting methodology. It means that first the goals were set and then the measures needed to move from the present status to the goals were developed. Based on political goals as well sustainability principles, a vision of the future for Swedish agriculture has been developed. The vision is:

    In the future, agriculture is energy effective, independent from fossil resources, deliver energy to the society and is profitable. Agricultural enterprises have access to knowledge, competences, and decision support. Collaboration within the agricultural sector as well as with other sectors is comprehensive for energy.

    To analyse the current situation, four studies were implemented within the project: (i) a survey of farmers view and interest, (ii) a survey of agrarian education, (iii) identification of bottlenecks with research and development (R&D), and (iv) an analysis of how relevant tools for energy are communicated. A selection of observation positive for the energy and climate questions are as follow: more agricultural enterprises have solar cells today than three years ago, 25% of the respondents have attend an eco-driving course, large farms have done most energy surveys and, investment in fossil free energy is seen as positive for both enterprise and the environment. Negative observations are that farmers miss a long-term regulation for energy production and feel a lack of knowledge about energy efficiency and production. Only 8% of the respondents uses high blends biofuels. In addition, respondents have expressed a lack of collaboration and inquire for a joint communication for R&D results concerning energy efficiency and production. In the agrarian education the interest in energy efficiency and production is low.

    A range of measures contributing to reach the vision were suggested. These measures vary between different communication strategies, improved advisory services and need for regulatory simplification to minimize the hassle with permissions and administration. Simple and accessible key figures as well as better statistics would make it easier to follow the different energy flows. It is up to decision-making authorities, advisory organisations, institutions of higher education, agricultural organisations and agriculture themselves to implement these measures.

  • 21.
    Karpenja, Tatjana
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Jansson, Mikael
    RISE, Innventia.
    Bergnor, Elisabeth
    RISE, Innventia.
    Environmental results from EU project BioCoup and LignoFuel project: co-processing pyrolysis oil in a traditional oil refinery unit2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Lindahl, Cecilia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Arbetsmiljö och säkerhet vid arbete runt verkstolen2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Hoof trimming – work environment and safety around the trimming chuteA regular work task on dairy farms is hoof trimming, which is usually performed 2-3 times a year. Hoof trimming is time consuming, interrupts the daily work routine, and is often perceived as stressful by farmers. In Sweden, hoof trimming is commonly performed by a professional hoof trimmer who brings the trimming chute and other gear to the farm. Usually the farmer or an employee assists the hoof trimmer by moving cows to the trimming chute and also by fixating the cow’s legs in the chute.

    The aim of the study was to investigate Swedish hoof trimmers’ work environment and safety. Furthermore, the aim was to study work routines and the collaboration between the hoof trimmer and the person assisting on the farm. The results of the study will be used as a basis for improving the work environment and routines.

    The study included a literature review, a survey and a field study. The survey was sent to hoof trimmers and included questions on perceived work environment, injury risk, experienced work-related injuries, and working routines. The field study included four farm visits, where both the hoof trimmer and the person assisting on the farm were studied during hoof trimming. A questionnaire was used to estimate perceived strain, stress and energy levels throughout the day. Video recordings of the work around the trimming chute were used to assess working postures, routines and injury risks.

    The results showed that work injuries were common among the hoof trimmers. The most frequent sources of injury were the cows and the grinding machine. Injuries by the grinder were mainly cuts to fingers, hands and arms. Common injuries by cows were fractures from being kicked or crushed. For the assistant, the tasks related to a high injury risk was leading cows to the chute and attaching the rope around the cow’s legs when in the chute. Several hoof trimmers had also experienced musculoskeletal problems and the conclusion from the field study was that some working postures must be corrected to decrease work load and muscle strain. Sufficient knowledge in ergonomics is essential for the hoof trimmers to be able to improve their working postures during hoof trimming to prevent strain injuries.

    The study identified a need for improvements regarding the trimming chute, the grinder and the personal safety equipment. Furthermore, for hoof trimmers to find ways to lower the stress levels during their work may also be an important measure to decrease injury risks and improve the psychosocial work environment. Various advices regarding the safety and work environment during hoof trimming, aimed at both the hoof trimmer and the person assisting at the farm, is presented in the report.

  • 23.
    Lindahl, Cecilia
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Lind, Ann-Kristina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Arbetsolyckor vid mjölkning2017Report (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Lindahl, Cecilia
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Lind, Ann-Kristina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Wahlund, Lotten
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Drivning av köttdjur till klövverkning2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to contribute to more extensive knowledge and understanding of the specific risks related to beef cattle handling when moving cattle to hoof trimming. Results obtained can be used to identify measures to increase safety and decrease injuries when handling beef cattle in potentially stressful situations.

    The moving of cattle to hoof trimming were studied on eight Swedish farms with beef production. Behavioural observations of handlers and animals were conducted, and the data was used to identify the type of interactions used to move the animals, the behaviour of the animals, interruptions in animal flow and any potential injury risks to handlers or animals. The animal handling to hoof trimming were studied from three perspectives: the handler, the animals and the handling facilities. The design of the handling facilities was reviewed on e.g. adequacy and safety using a checklist. Interviews were conducted with the farmers and included questions about perceived risks when moving the animals to hoof trimming, factors that impact risks and safety, how the handling facility functioned and possible improvements to ease handling or decrease risks.

    The farms had similar handling system designs during hoof trimming, with the trimming chute placed in a feed alley in the free-stall and waiting pen and transfer alley built of gates. No system was optimally designed based on basic principles of cattle behaviour, e.g. that cattle want to follow each other and go with the herd, that they want to return the way they came and want to see the person who handles them. Shortcomings in the handling systems, observed on several farms, where that transfer alleys and gates were not properly secured, inadequate width of single-filed transfer alleys and that the width of the alleys was not fixed (thus eventually became too wide), and lack of well-functioning solutions to prevent animals from backing out of the single-filed alley. A common problem was also slippery floors, causing animals to frequently slip and even fall during handling.

    The results show that the moving of beef cattle to hoof trimming can involve significant risks of the handler being run over, crushed or kicked. The magnitude of the injury risk associated with the handling depends on the behaviour of the handler and animals as well as the design of the handling system. Calm handling, avoiding putting stress on the animals, is fundamental. By designing the handling facility based on basic principles of cattle behaviour, interruptions in animal flow can be reduced and ease of handling can thereby be promoted. Several of the hazards observed on the farms were possible to prevent with limited efforts, for example by properly securing gates and transfer alleys and reducing the risk of slipping by keeping the floors clean from manure and cover the concrete floors with bedding material (e.g. wood shavings or straw). Many hazardous situations occurred when the animals were moved from the waiting pen to the transfer alley, and solutions to improve the facility design are needed to increase safety. Furthermore, there is a need to increase the farmers’ knowledge on how to attain a safe handling during hoof trimming.

  • 25.
    Lindahl, Cecilia
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Lind, Ann-Kristina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Wistrand, Stefan
    Säker Arbetsmiljö Sverige, Sweden.
    Tjurar – en olycksfallsrisk i lösdriften2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There seem to be an increasing trend among Swedish dairy farmers to have bulls in the herd to facilitate estrous detection. However, a bull is involved with increased injury risk to the farmer and the employees, especially if the bull is housed with the dairy cows in the free stall. Of the fatalities in farms, where cattle were involved, an attack from a bull of dairy breed was the most common incident during a 7-year period.The aim of the study was to investigate how bulls are handled and housed on dairy farms, and also to get a deeper understanding of the frequency, character and underlying causes of bull-related incidents. Furthermore, the aim was to investigate the motives behind farmers’ decision to have bulls in the herd and their perception of the risks related to handling the bull.The results showed that farmers had strong arguments, both economical and job-saving, to why they chose to have a bull in the herd. Many used bulls only with the heifers, but it was also common to use the bull on cows where the artificial insemination (AI) was unsuccessful. The bull was seen as an opportunity to save costs for AI. Among the farmers in the study who chose not to have a bull, the injury risk was a major argument.Farmers considered the main injury risks related to handling of bulls to be ignorance by the handler and stressful situations. Other factors mentioned were deficiencies in management systems and routines and the fact that bulls are dangerous animals. It was 29% of farmers who had a bull in the herd, who stated that there had been a work related injury involving a bull on the farm. However, a majority of farmers assessed the injury risk related to bull handling as low.The results indicate that there were shortcomings in the routines for estrous detection in many of the farms. In the farms where the bull was housed in the free stall with the dairy cows, the majority lacked aids and written routine procedures for estrus detection. Some possible alternatives to improve fertility in the herd without the need of a bull are to implement routines for systematic estrus detection, to invest in estrous detection aids (e.g. activity monitors), training staff in estrous signals and to look over the barn environment, feed, etc. to make sure that these factors do not prevent the cows from showing heat. It would be interesting to evaluate these various options economically, to see which measures are the most cost effective.When deciding to have a bull in the dairy herd, it is important that interior fittings and handling systems are adapted to the size and strength of a bull, and that as much work as possible can be done with the handler having minimal contact with the bull. Furthermore, it is important that the working routines are clear and well thought-out for how to handle the bull safely during different working tasks. The results from the survey show that the majority of farmers had pronounced routines for handling of the bull, even though few had written routines. However, the results of the interviews indicate that the routines were insufficient, as they mainly involved not working alone with the bull and always to plan an escape route. For the routines to be applicable and efficient they need to be more specific and preferably describe step-by-step howdifferent work tasks should be carried out when the bull must be handled. This will ensure that all employees follow the same procedures so that the bull can learn and get used to the routines, which will increase safety.

  • 26.
    Lund, Johanna
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Gunnarsson, Carina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Fischer, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Sundberg, Martin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Tersmeden, Marianne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Outnyttjat ensilage till förnybar energi2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There are large amounts of unutilized silage from agriculture and from municipalities that harvest meadows and grasslands. This biomass is a disposal problem and a cost. At the same time, there are biogas plants which have an increased demand for substrates that do not compete with the production of feed and food. Unutilized silage can be an excellent biogas substrate provided it is effectively pretreated. This study is conducted as a case study of Jordberga Biogas plant in Skåne (in the south of Sweden), although the results of the project are applicable to other regions in Sweden where unutilized silage exists. The project aim was to study a 20 % replacement

    of today’s crop-based substrates in Jordberga biogas plant with unutilized silage from agriculture and municipalities. The project has been conducted by RISE Agrifood and Bioscience in collaboration with the German Biomass Research Center (Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum, DBFZ), Gasum, County Administrative Board of Skåne and Fogda Farm.

    The project was divided into three parts. In the first part the amounts of different types of unutilized silage was estimated, from arable land and forage areas at municipalities and County Administrative Boards, for the area around the Gasum Biogas plant in Jordberga, and for Sweden in total. In a second part the adequate technique for pretreatment was identified and tested in practical trials on different types of unutilized silage. In the third part cost calculations were done for the disintegration of the unutilized silage.

    The study showed that the largest potential for unutilized silage is from forage production. The area of meadows is much less with much lower yield. An assumption was made that 5% of the total amount of unutilized silage bales are available for biogas production. Project calculations showed that 35% of these must be used to substitute 20% of the crop based substrates at Jordberga. Depending on the quality and biogas yield, 12-23 ton DM is needed per day.

    Based on earlier studies and experiences from the project group, three machines were chosen for the practical tests to disintegrate silage bales; Rot Grind, RS CutMaster and I-GRIND. Roto Grind and I-GRIND used hammermill technique whereas RS CutMaster

    used knife rotors for disintegration. All three machines managed to disintegrate silage bales with DM-content varying from 40-70% DM. The particle length after disintegration was analyzed and a visual estimation of the effect on particle structure was made. Particle size after disintegration was the same for Roto Grind and RS CutMaster whereas it was considerable longer for I-GRIND. Disintegration worked better on silage with lower DM content regarding both particle size and structure for all tested machines.

    Based on the test results RS CutMaster had higher total disintegration costs compared with Roto Grind and I-GRIND. The differences in costs was mainly due to lower measured capacity of RS CutMaster, and higher depreciation and maintenance costs of both RS CutMaster and I-GRIND. To lower the costs to same level as Roto Grind and I-GRIND, RS CutMaster would need approximately 40% higher capacity than measured in the tests.

  • 27.
    Löfkvist, Klara
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Wändel, marie
    Wändels kvalitetsperenner, Sweden.
    Svenska perenner till svenska pollinerare2017Report (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Nordgren, D.
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Hedman, H.
    Padban, N.
    Boström, D.
    Öhman, M.
    Ash transformations in pulverised fuel co-combustion of straw and woody biomass2013In: Fuel processing technology, ISSN 0378-3820, E-ISSN 1873-7188, Vol. 105, p. 52-58Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Paulrud, Susanne
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Löfgren, Bengt-Erik
    Pelletsförbundet, Sweden.
    Iwarsson Wide, Maria
    Skogforsk, Sweden.
    Melin, Gustav
    SVEBIO, Sweden.
    Innovationskluster för internationalisering inom bioenergiområdet - förstudie2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Bioenergy contributes to a sustainable energy mix in most countries worldwide, is the largest renewable energy generation and has a global development potential. Bioenergy today accounts for 60 percent of all renewable energy in the EU: 11 percent of all used energy, compared with 7 percent for all other renewable energy sources. However, the market for Swedish bioenergy and bioenergy technology in Sweden has decreased. Partly because our domestic market for new district heating installations has already been expanded and partly because the competition from electricity heating through energy efficient heat pumps in the residential segment takes over the exchange market. In order for Swedish know-how and products to grow, increased exports and visibility are important. An innovation cluster for internationalization in the bioenergy field cre-ates a meeting place that facilitates involved bioenergy companies and organizations to create sustainable growth inside and outside their own industry.

  • 30.
    Pettersson, Karin
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Athanassiadis, Dimitris
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ehn, Christian
    RISE, Innventia.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Berglin, Niklas
    RISE, Innventia.
    Integration of next-generation biofuel production in the Swedish forest industry - A geographically explicit approach2015In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 154, p. 317-332Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The geographic locations of biofuel production facilities should be strategically chosen in order to minimise the total cost of using biofuels. Proximity to biomass resources, possibilities for integration, and distance to biofuel users are aspects that need to be considered. In this paper, the geographically explicit optimisation model BeWhere Sweden was used to investigate the future production of next-generation biofuels from forest biomass in Sweden. A focus was placed on the integration of biofuel production with the existing forest industry, as well as on how different parameters affect biofuel production costs, the choice of technologies and biofuels, and the localisation of new biofuel plants. Six examples of different biofuel routes were considered. A methodology was developed considering detailed, site-specific conditions for potential host industries. The results show that the cost of biomass and the biofuel plant capital cost generally dominate the biofuel cost, but the cost for biomass transportation and biofuel distribution can also have a significant impact. DME produced via black liquor gasification (naturally integrated with chemical pulp mills) and SNG produced via solid biomass gasification (mainly integrated with sawmills), dominate the solutions. The distribution of these technology cases varies depending on a number of parameters, including criteria for sizing biofuel plants, the electricity price, the biofuel distribution cost and the cost of biomass, and is sensitive to changes in these parameters. Generally, plants with low specific investment costs (i.e., high biofuel production) and/or plants with low specific biomass transportation costs occur most frequently in the solutions. Because these properties often vary significantly among biofuel production facilities at different host industry sites of the same type, the results show the advantage of including site-specific data in this type of model.

  • 31.
    Rodhe, Lena
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Alverbäck, Adam
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Ascue, Johnny
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Edström, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Nordberg, Åke
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Pizzul, Leticia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Tersmeden, Marianne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Åtgärder för att minimera växthusgasutsläpp från lager med rötad och orötad gödsel2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ensuring low emissions of greenhouse gases from both undigested and digested animal slurry in storage requires a knowledge of effective, functional and economic measures. This three-year project has studied various potential measures for use in slurry storage. The greenhouse gases methane and nitrous oxide have been measured under summer conditions. Measures such as extended digestion time and acidification of slurry with sulfuric acid have been evaluated in a RISE pilot-scale plant for slurry storage. Measures to reduce nitrous oxide emissions formed in floating crust in a full-scale storage have been studied at farm level. Complementary theoretical calculations have been carried out to assess the effect of covering slurry stores. The impact of temperature on methane emissions has been studied in the laboratory.

    The fundamental point demonstrated on the laboratory scale is that the temperature is highly significant. As the temperature rose, methane production increased exponentially for digested slurry. For undigested slurry, the increase was considerably less. Most of the heat gained by the slurry can be attributed to solar radiation. Theoretical thermal balance calculations for slurry in storage indicated that it should be possible to reduce this heating significantly in spring by shading the slurry surface or provide the storage with a white roof.

    The studies in years 1 and 3 showed that methane emissions were significantly greater from digested than from undigested slurry. The total loss of methane from digested slurry was 2.5 and four times higher, respectively, during summer storage (approx. four months). It is therefore particularly important to implement measures to limit methane emissions from digested slurry in storage, thereby reducing the impact on the climate.

    One way to achieve lower methane emissions from digested slurry is to extend the duration of digestion, i.e. the hydraulic retention time in the digester. The studies in year 1 showed that doubling the retention time from 24 to 48 days reduced methane emissions from storage by 30 percent. At farms with digestion plants, a gas-tight roof with biogas collection is also an effective way to make the plant more efficient and prevent emissions of greenhouse gases from storage.

    Acidification of slurry with sulfuric acid is practiced in Denmark, to reduce ammonia emissions from slurry in housing, in storage and during spreading. The results show that it is also a very effective method for minimizing methane emissions from storage, with a reduction of more than 90 percent for both undigested and digested slurry. Acidification may be of interest as a way of reducing emissions of both ammonia and methane, particularly for types of slurry that do not naturally form a floating crust.

    Measures such as acidification of the floating crust to reduce nitrous oxide emissions did not prove to have effect because nitrous oxide emissions were relatively low, despite the floating crust being nearly half a metre thick. The chopped straw used for litter formed a smooth and dense floating crust on the surface of the slurry, and probably inhibited nitrous oxide formation because air was unable to penetrate the layer. Chopped straw litter in itself could therefore be a potential measure. This might also reduce straw consumption.

    Methane production from a digester is often difficult to measure and is therefore often calculated indirectly from the electricity produced. An example of key indicator for the climatic efficiency of the plant is given. For storage in summer, 10.2% of the methane produced was emitted during one-stage digestion over 24 days, and 5.5% during two-stage digestion over 48 days. The annual percentages are considerably lower because of low emissions in winter.

  • 32.
    Rodhe, Lena
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Ascue, Johnny
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Tersmeden, Marianne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Pizzul, Leticia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Ammonia emissions from storage: non-digested and digested cattle slurry, with and without acid2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The study concerns acidification at the beginning of storage to reduce ammonia emissions during storage. The aim of the study was to evaluate the reduction of ammonia emissions by the acidification of cattle slurry, digested and non-digested, in storage under summer conditions.

    Cattle slurry (CS) and digested cattle slurry (DCS) were taken from a dairy farm with a digester plant. The sulphuric acid required for acidification to pH 5.5 was determined by titration before the pilot-scale experiment began. In the pilot-scale experiment, each slurry type was divided into two containers. One batch was acidified to pH<5.5 by adding sulphuric acid (96%) slowly with gentle mixing. The other batch was not acidified. During acidification, the pH was measured frequently and the total amounts of acid added were noted. Temperatures were measured during the four-month storage period with loggers at 0.1 m from the bottom and 0.1 m from the surface of each container. Data were continuously recorded hourly.

    Ammonia emissions were measured using a micrometeorological mass balance method with passive flux samplers. There were five measuring periods during the warm storage period from May to August. The length of the measuring periods ranged from 3 to 14 days, with the shortest period at the start of storage.

    On a pilot scale, the acid consumption for reaching pH< 5.5 was 1.1 L/m3 for CS and 6.2 L/m3 for DCS. The change in pH after acidification was rather limited and the pH stayed <6 throughout the four-month storage period for both CS and DCS.

    On a laboratory scale, more acid was needed to reach pH 5.5, and the pH increased more, with less buffering, than on a pilot scale. The reasons for this could be higher temperatures, frequent mixing, small volumes, and the use of diluted acid on a laboratory scale compared with on a pilot scale. On a laboratory scale, it was possible to show differences in acid demand between slurry types, but the amounts of acid needed seem to be different (higher) compared with pilot scale.

    The estimated cumulative NH3-N emissions corresponded to about 19% of total-N for CS and about 26% of total-N for DCS. The estimated cumulative NH3-N emissions were about the same as a percentage of TAN for CS and for DCS (57.8 and 53.9% respectively).

    Emissions from the acidified batches of slurry were overall negligibly low. The addition of acid decreased ammonia emissions very effectively, for both CS and DCS.

  • 33.
    Rodhe, Lena
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Kalinowski, Mariusz
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Pizzul, Leticia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Ascue, Johnny
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Tersmeden, Marianne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Slurry acidification: Micro-structural analyses of concrete after exposure in acidified and non-acidified slurry2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Samples of three different concrete qualities were prepared and hardened, before exposure in cattle slurry without sulphuric acid (A) and with sulphuric acid added until pH<5.5 (B). The samples were exposed for two years in containers with about 45 L slurry. The boxes with slurry and concrete samples were placed in a ventilated room at 20 °C. The slurry and air temperatures were recorded continuously with temperature loggers, data being recorded every third hour. The slurry level in the boxes and the slurry pH were checked regularly during the experiment. Slurry or acid was added, if necessary, to maintain the level and pH<5.5. Before pH measurements, the slurry was stirred gently in both boxes. To restrict evaporation, the containers had non-airtight plastic covers between measurements.

    Half-way through exposure, the old slurry was replaced with fresh slurry (acidified and non-acidified treatments) to mimic conditions in farm storage where fresh slurry is added continuously during storage. After two years’ storage, the experiment was finalised. The concrete samples were taken out of the slurry, washed gently with water and put into labelled plastic bags.

    The samples were delivered to RISE CBI’s concrete laboratory, where the structural analyses were performed. These used petrographic microscopy techniques to examine the effects of exposure to two potentially aggressive environments, non-acidified and acidified cattle slurry, on concrete with three different mixes. The studied surfaces in the concrete samples were oriented vertically in the plastic containers. Polished sections were evaluated with a stereo microscope, and thin sections were evaluated using a polarising microscope and sources for visible and UV light.

    The results of the study show that the acidified slurry is more chemically aggressive to the cement paste in all the concrete mixes analysed. This can be explained by the solution’s lower pH.

    The extent of the chemical attack correlates with the initial quality of the concrete mix (water-powder ratio and type of binder). The deepest chemical attacks were observed in samples A1 and B1 consisting of “regular” concrete mix with w/c 0.59. The “long lasting quality” (LLC) concrete with a binder specially developed for low-pH environments shows markedly better resistance to chemical attack.

    The effects of the chemical attack on concrete after two years’ exposure can be classified as weak, consisting mainly of an increase in the capillary porosity of the cement paste in the outer layer of the concrete. The increase in porosity is considered to be due to the partial leaching of calcium hydroxide.

  • 34.
    Røyne, Frida
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Berlin, Johanna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    The importance of including service life in the climate impact comparison of bioplastics and fossil-based plastics2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Bioplastics are gaining attention as a means of reducing fossil resource dependence. Most bioplastics differ from fossil-based plastics in molecular structure, and therefore in terms of properties and durability. Still, the life cycle environmental performance of bioplastics has attracted limited attention in research. The purpose of this study is therefore to examine the importance of applying a life cycle perspective and identify key considerations in the environmental evaluation of bioplastics and bioplastic products under development.

    The climate impact of the life cycle of an engine component storage box currently made of the fossil-based plastic acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) is compared to a hypothetical case study, based on laboratory observations, of the same box produced from a blend of polycarbonate and the bioplastic polylactic acid (PC/PLA) and a box made of biopolyamide (PA1010). The comparison is conducted with a cradle-to-grave attributional life cycle assessment. The functional unit of the study is five years of service life, which reflects the required function of the storage box.

    Whereas the climate impact of the production of the different plastic materials differ only slightly, the PC/PLA engine component storage box was found to have a significantly higher climate impact that the ABS and PA1010 boxes when the whole life cycle is taken into account. The dominant contributor to climate impact is premature material deterioration due to humidity and heat during service life, which prevents the product from fulfilling the required function. Two other influential aspects are the possibility of material reuse and the share of fossil or biogenic carbon in the product. Production of plastic materials and boxes, and transport distances, are of less importance.

    Results demonstrate the high significance of including service life and potential material deterioration when bioplastics and fossil-based plastics are compared. Our findings underline the importance of applying a life cycle perspective and taking into account the intended application and function of bioplastics as part of their development and environmental assessment.

  • 35. Svens, P.
    et al.
    Kjell, M.H.
    Tengstedt, C.
    Flodberg, Göran
    RISE, Innventia.
    Lindbergh, G.
    Li-ion pouch cells for vehicle applications-studies of water transmission and packing materials2013In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, no 1, p. 400-410Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Tidåker, Pernilla
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Wesström, Therese
    South Pole Group, Sweden.
    Kätterer, Thomas
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Energy use and greenhouse gas emissions from turf management of two Swedish golf courses2017In: Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, ISSN 1618-8667, E-ISSN 1610-8167, Vol. 21, p. 80-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Turf management on golf courses entails frequent maintenance activities, such as mowing, irrigation and fertilisation, and relies on purchased inputs for optimal performance and aesthetic quality. Using life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology, this study evaluated energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from management of two Swedish golf courses, divided into green, tee, fairway and rough, and identified options for improved management. Energy use and GHG emissions per unit area were highest for greens, followed by tees, fairways and roughs. However, when considering the entire golf course, both energy use and GHG emissions were mainly related to fairway and rough maintenance due to their larger area. Emissions of GHG for the two golf courses were 1.0 and 1.6 Mg CO2e ha−1 year−1 as an area-weighted average, while the energy use was 14 and 19 GJ ha−1 year−1. Mowing was the most energy-consuming activity, contributing 21 and 27% of the primary energy use for the two golf courses. In addition, irrigation and manufacturing of mineral fertiliser and machinery resulted in considerable energy use. Mowing and emissions associated with fertilisation (manufacturing of N fertiliser and soil emissions of N2O occurring after application) contributed most to GHG emissions. Including the estimated mean annual soil C sequestration rate for fairway and rough in the assessment considerably reduced the carbon footprint for fairway and turned the rough into a sink for GHG. Emissions of N2O from decomposition of grass clippings may be a potential hotspot for GHG emissions, but the high spatial and temporal variability of values reported in the literature makes it difficult to estimate these emissions for specific management regimes. Lowering the application rate of N mineral fertiliser, particularly on fairways, should be a high priority for golf courses trying to reduce their carbon footprint. However, measures must be adapted to the prevailing conditions at the specific golf course and the requirements set by golfers.

  • 37.
    Tomani, P.
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Axegard, P.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Norberg, L.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Akerlund, L.-E.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Lignin removal from different black liquors2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Tomani, P.
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Axegård, P.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Berglin, N.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Lovell, A.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Nordgren, D.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Integration of lignin removal into a kraft pulp mill and use of lignin as a biofuel2011In: Cellulose Chemistry and Technology, ISSN 2457-9459, no 7-8, p. 533-540Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Toven, K.
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Azócar, L.
    Reitan, A.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Mass loss kinetics in torrefaction for various biomass feedstocks2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Toven, K.
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Reitan, A.
    Karlsen, T.
    Properties of Torrefied Pellets made of softwood forestry residues2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 41.
    von Schenck, A.
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Berglin, N.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Uusitalo, J.
    Ethanol from Nordic wood raw material by simplified alkaline soda cooking pre-treatment2013In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, p. 229-240Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Vähä-Savo, Niklas
    et al.
    Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Demartini, Nikolai
    Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Ziesig, Rufus
    RISE, Innventia.
    Tomani, Per
    RISE, Innventia.
    Theliander, Hans
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Välimäki, Erkki
    Valmet Power Oy, Finland.
    Hupa, Mikko
    Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Combustion properties of reduced lignin black liquors2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The growing interest in production of green chemicals and biofuels from biomass provides an incentive for pulp mills to identify new possibilities in recovering more wood components from the pulping process. One possibility is to use lignin, separated from black liquor. We undertook this work to determine the combustion properties of reduced-lignin black liquors-two kraft liquorsand one soda liquor-in a laboratory-scale, single-particle furnace. The combustion times, maximum swollen volume, nitric oxide formation, cyanate formation, and sulfur release were measured for the original liquors, the filtrates, and intermediate levels of lignin reduction. Combustion experiments were conducted at 900°C in 10% oxygen. Cyanate formation experiments were carried out by pyrolyzing the droplets at 800°C in 100% nitrogen to form a char. The chars were then gasified at 800°C in a 13% carbon dioxide/87% nitrogen atmosphere to obtain the smelt. Sulfur release was studied by pyrolyzing the samples at temperatures ranging from 300°C to 900°C. Liquors with the lowest lignin content had a smaller maximum swollen volume than the original sample. The devolatilization time was not affected by the lignin removal to any great extent, but lignin removal did have a clear effect on the char burning time. The amount of formed nitric oxide (g N/kg black liquor solids) remained constant or decreased slightly with increasing lignin removal in the kraft liquor samples, while for the soda samples the amount of nitric oxide formed increased. The amount of cyanate decreased clearly when comparing the samples with lowest lignin content to the original liquor samples. The peak sulfur release occurred at 500°C for both kraft liquors. In almost all experiments, the share of sulfur released was highest for the original samples and lowest for the sample with lowest lignin content. These results provide new data on combustion properties for reduced-lignin black liquors and indicate that for lignin removal levels up to about 20%, no significant changes are expected in the combustion behavior. Application: This work will help mills identify the effect of lignin precipitation on combustion properties of black liquor.

  • 43.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Environment.
    Hornborg, Sara
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Environment.
    Valentinsson, Daniel
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Skontorp Hognes, Erik
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Søvik, Guldborg
    Institute of Marine Research, Norway.
    Ritzau Eigaard, Ole
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Same stock, different management: Quantifying the sustainability of three shrimp fisheries in the Skagerrak from a product perspective2016In: ICES Journal of Marine Science, ISSN 1054-3139, E-ISSN 1095-9289, Vol. 73, no 7, p. 1806-1814Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis L.) stock in the Skagerrak is shared by Sweden, Norway, and Denmark. Although the fishery is regulated by an annual agreement between the EU and Norway, there are also national regulations as well as differences in fleet composition and shrimp markets. In early 2014, the World Wildlife Fund gave all Skagerrak shrimp a red light in their seafood consumer guide, which led to an extensive debate, especially in Sweden, about the sustainability of this fishery. The aim of this study was to quantify a set of indicators that together give a broad picture of the sustainability of the three fisheries to provide an objective basis for a discussion on needed measures. The different indicators concerned environmental, economic or social aspects of sustainability and were quantified per tonne of shrimp landed by each country in 2012. The Danish fishery was most efficient in terms of environmental and economic indicators, while the Swedish fishery provided most employment per tonne of shrimp landed. Fuel use in all fisheries was high, also when compared with other shrimp fisheries. Interesting patterns emerged, with smaller vessels being more fuel efficient than larger ones in Sweden and Norway, with the opposite trend in Denmark. The study also demonstrated major data gaps and differences between the countries in how data are collected and made available. Various improvement options in the areas data collection and publication, allocation of quotas and enforcement of regulations resulted. Product-oriented studies could be useful to follow-up performance of fisheries over time and to identify how to best utilize the Skagerrak shrimp stock. This could involve evaluating novel solutions in terms of technology and management, based on current and future scenarios aiming to maximize societal benefits generated from this limited resource, at minimized environmental impacts.

  • 44.
    Ziesig, Rufus
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Tomani, Per
    RISE, Innventia.
    Björk, Maria
    Olowson, Per
    Combustion and production of a kraft lignin-based biofuel slurry2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Rodhe, Lena (Editor)
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Casimir, Justin (Editor)
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Sindhöj, Erik (Editor)
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Possibilities and bottlenecks for implementing slurry acidification techniques in the Baltic Sea Region2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report: 1) describes those slurry acidification techniques (SATs) that are commercially available today in Denmark including In-house, In-storage and In-field SATs, and 2) summarizes expert judgements on how these SATs could be implemented in each country in the Baltic Sea Region (BSR). Special focus on bottlenecks for implementing SATs with existing manure management systems was considered.

    Data from Eurostat and national statistics show that a large portion of manure in each country is handled as slurry and all the national experts considered implementing SATs as relevant for their respective countries.

    The In-field SATs were considered the most applicable SATs for implementation in the BSR. They are flexible and mobile and in general have the lowest acid consumption. If investments in In-field SATs are done by agricultural contractors or farmer cooperation’s, then acidification techniques will also be available to smaller farms.

    The In-storage SATs that acidify slurry just before spreading were ranked second of interest in most countries. Mobile equipment is ideal for contractors and co-operations and therefore each unit could potentially treat a lot of slurry. Another advantage is that once the slurry is acidified, any available spreading equipment can be used. The major drawback is that extra storage capacity is needed during acidification so the foaming will not overflow. Most farmers do not have this extra storage capacity, so if storages are full, some slurry would have to be spread untreated before the rest of the tank could be acidified.

    The stationary In-house SAT was thought to be of less interest in most countries, since it is perhaps the hardest SAT to implement into existing manure handling systems. They are best suited for new animal houses so the SAT can be integrated into the manure handling system from the start. Installing them in existing animal houses would, in many cases, probably require re-construction of slurry channels. Also, in some countries like Estonia and Sweden, flushing systems inside the barn are currently not allowed due to regulations. Another aspect is that In-house SATs are permanent installations which use more acid than In-field and In-storage SATs. However, In-house SATs have the best potential for reducing ammonia emissions so this might be of interest for farms in environmentally sensitive areas.

    Compared to In-house, there was greater interest in the In-storage SAT that acidifies all slurry sent to the storage, since this could likely more easy to implement into existing manure handling systems. It is still a stationary system for a specific farm, but installation would be simpler and emissions would be lower from both storage and spreading.

    In general, there is a good potential to implement currently available SATs into existing manure handling systems in BSR countries and most identified bottle-necks could be dealt with.

1 - 45 of 45
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