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  • 1. Agnihotri, S.
    et al.
    Johnsen, I.A
    Böe, M.S.
    Öyaas, Karin
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Moe, S.
    Ethanol organosolv pretreatment of softwood (Picea abies) and sugarcane bagasse for biofuel and biorefinery applications2015In: Wood Science and Technology, ISSN 0043-7719, E-ISSN 1432-5225, Vol. 49, no 5, 881-896 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethanol derived from biomass has the potential to be a renewable transportation fuel that can replace gasoline. This work was carried out to establish an optimized ethanol organosolv pretreatment of Norway spruce (Picea abies) for bioethanol production (63 wt% EtOH, pH 3.5 in aqueous phase, 170–240 °C, 90 min) utilizing hydrolytic enzymes in the saccharification step. To test the generality of the method, a series of ethanol organosolv pretreatments were also performed on sugarcane bagasse (50 wt% EtOH, pH 3.5 in aqueous phase, 155–210 °C, 90–120 min). The degree of delignification increased with increasing temperature during pretreatment, and the fastest increase was observed with sugarcane bagasse. The pretreatments were carried out in a batch mode. The maximum degree of delignification of 65 % was reached at 235 °C for Norway spruce, while sugarcane bagasse reached 80 % at 210 °C. Cellulose was subjected to degradation (5–10 % points) at these temperatures. Subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis (30 FPU/g cellulose, 32 pNPGU/g cellulose, 50 °C, 48 h) of ethanol organosolv-pretreated biomass achieved complete conversion for both raw materials at the highest degrees of delignification.

  • 2. Alriksson, Björn
    et al.
    Eskilsson, Martin
    Johansson, Emma
    Lapidot, Shaul
    Norström,, Markus
    Schultz-Eklund, Ola
    Shkedi, Yoram
    Svedberg, Anna
    Svensson, Stefan
    Swerin, Agne
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Europe’s first pilot facility for cellulose nanocrystals (CNC)2016In: Annual Surface and Materials Chemistry Symposium and Materials for tomorrow, ASMCS 2016, November 8-10, 2016, Gothenburg, Sweden, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Bjurhager, I.
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Halonen, H.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Lindfors, E.-L.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Iversen, T.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Almkvist, G.
    Gamstedt, E.K.
    Berglund, L.A.
    State of degradation in archeological oak from the 17th century vasa ship: Substantial strength loss correlates with reduction in (holo)cellulose molecular weight2012In: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, no 8, 2521-2527 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4. Chacha, N.
    et al.
    Toven, K
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Mtui, G
    Katima, J
    Mrema, G
    Steam Pretreatment of Pine (Pinus patula) wood residue for the production of reducing sugars2011In: Cellulose Chemistry and Technology, ISSN 0576-9787, Vol. 45, 495-501 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5. Chang, Shan-Shan
    et al.
    Salmén, Lennart
    RISE, Innventia.
    Olsson, Anne-Mari
    RISE, Innventia.
    Clair, Bruno
    Deposition and organisation of cell wall polymers during maturation of poplar tension wood by FTIR microspectroscopy2014In: Planta, ISSN 0032-0935, E-ISSN 1432-2048, Vol. 239, no 1, 243-254 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6. Chang, S.-S.
    et al.
    Salmen, L.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Olsson, A.-M.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Clair, B.
    Deposition and organisation of cell wall polymers during maturation of poplar tension wood by FTIR microspectroscopy2014In: Planta, ISSN 0032-0935, E-ISSN 1432-2048, Vol. 239, no 1, 243-254 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7. Chen, Z. -Q
    et al.
    Abramowicz, K.
    Raczkowski, R.
    Ganea, S.
    Wu, H. X.
    Lundqvist, Sven-Olof
    RISE, Innventia.
    Mörling, T.
    De Luna, S. S.
    Garci­a Gil, M. R.
    Mellerowicz, E. J.
    Method for accurate fiber length determination from increment cores for large-scale population analyses in Norway spruce2016In: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, Vol. 70, no 9, 829-838 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fiber (tracheid) length is an important trait targeted for genetic and silvicultural improvement. Such studies require large-scale non-destructive sampling, and accurate length determination. The standard procedure for non-destructive sampling is to collect increment cores, singularize their cells by maceration, measure them with optical analyzer and apply various corrections to suppress influence of non-fiber particles and cut fibers, as fibers are cut by the corer. The recently developed expectation-maximization method (EM) not only addresses the problem of non-fibers and cut fibers, but also corrects for the sampling bias. Here, the performance of the EM method has been evaluated by comparing it with length-weighing and squared length-weighing, both implemented in fiber analyzers, and with microscopy data for intact fibers, corrected for sampling bias, as the reference. This was done for 12-mm increment cores from 16 Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) trees on fibers from rings 8-11 (counted from pith), representing juvenile wood of interest in breeding programs. The EM-estimates provided mean-fiber-lengths with bias of only +2.7% and low scatter. Length-weighing and length2-weighing gave biases of-7.3% and +9.3%, respectively, and larger scatter. The suggested EM approach constitutes a more accurate non-destructive method for fiber length (FL) determination, expected to be applicable also to other conifers.

  • 8. Chen, Z. -Q
    et al.
    Karlsson, B.
    Lundqvist, Sven-Olof
    RISE, Innventia.
    Garci­a Gil, M. R.
    Olsson, Lars
    RISE, Innventia.
    Wu, H. X.
    Estimating solid wood properties using Pilodyn and acoustic velocity on standing trees of Norway spruce2015In: Annals of Forest Science, Vol. 72, no 4, 499-508 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9. Chen, Z.-Q.
    et al.
    Gil, M.R.G.
    Karlsson, B.
    Lundqvist, S.-O.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Olsson, L.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Wu, H.X.
    Inheritance of growth and solid wood quality traits in a large Norway spruce population tested at two locations in southern Sweden: Relation to barrier and mechanical properties2014In: Tree Genetics & Genomes, ISSN 1614-2942, E-ISSN 1614-2950, no 5, 1291-1303 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10. Chen, Z.-Q.
    et al.
    Karlsson, B.
    Mörling, T
    Olsson, Lars
    RISE, Innventia.
    Mellerowicz, E.J
    Wu, H.X.
    Lundqvist, Sven-Olof
    RISE, Innventia.
    Gil, M.R.G.
    Genetic analysis of fiber dimensions and their correlation with stem diameter and solid-wood properties in Norway spruce2016In: Tree Genetics & Genomes, ISSN 1614-2942, E-ISSN 1614-2950, Vol. 12, no 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adverse genetic correlations between growth traits and solid-wood, as well as fiber traits are a concern in conifer breeding programs. To evaluate the impact of selection for growth and solid-wood properties on fiber dimensions, we investigated the inheritance and efficiency of early selection for different wood-fiber traits and their correlations with stem diameter, wood density, modulus of elasticity (MOE), and microfibril angle (MFA) in Norway spruce (Picea abies L). The study was based on two large open-pollinated progeny trials established in southern Sweden in 1990 with material from 524 families comprising 5618 trees. Two increment cores were sampled from each tree. Radial variations from pith to bark were determined for rings 3–15 with SilviScan for fiber widths in the radial (RFW) and tangential (TFW) direction, fiber wall thickness (FWT), and fiber coarseness (FC). Fiber length (FL) was determined for rings 8–11. Heritabilities based on rings 8–11 using joint-site data were moderate to high (0.24–0.51) for all fiber-dimension traits. Heritabilities based on stem cross-sectional averages varied from 0.34 to 0.48 and reached a plateau at rings 6–9. The “age-age” genetic correlations for RFW, TFW, FWT, and FC cross-sectional averages at a particular age with cross-sectional averages at ring 15 reached 0.9 at rings 4–7. Our results indicated a moderate to high positive genetic correlation for density and MOE with FC and FWT, moderate and negative with RFW, and low with TFW and FL. Comparison of several selection scenarios indicated that the highest profitability is reached when diameter and MOE are considered jointly, in which case, the effect on any fiber dimension is negligible. Early selection was highly efficient from ring 5 for RFW and from rings 8–10 for TFW, FWT, and FC.

  • 11. Dammström, S.
    et al.
    Salmén, Lennart
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Gatenholm, P.
    On the interactions between cellulose and xylan, a biomimetic simulation of the hardwood cell wall2009In: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 4, no 1, 3-14 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The plant cell wall exhibits a hierarchical structure, in which the organization of the constituents on different levels strongly affects the mechanical properties and the performance of the material. In this work, the interactions between cellulose and xylan in a model system consisting of a bacterial cellulose/glucuronoxylan (extracted from aspen, Populus tremula) have been studied and compared to that of a delignified aspen fiber material. The properties of the materials were analyzed using Dynamical Mechanical Analysis (DMA) with moisture scans together with dynamic Infra Red -spectroscopy at dry and humid conditions. The results showed that strong interactions existed between the cellulose and the xylan in the aspen holocellulose. The same kinds of interactions were seen in a water-extracted bacterial cellulose/xylan composite, while unextracted material showed the presence of xylan not interacting with the cellulose. Based on these findings for the model system, it was suggested that there is in hardwood one fraction of xylan that is strongly associated with the cellulose, taking a similar role as glucomannan in softwood.

  • 12.
    De Magistris, Federica
    et al.
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Salmén, Lennart
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Finite element modelling of wood cell deformation transverse to the fibre axis2008In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 23, no 2, 240-246 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modelling of wet wood under compression and combined shear and compression load was performed to simulate the mechanical pulping of wood chips in refiners. Experiments have shown that the wet fibre network exhibit two different deformation modes; an S-shape mode associated with compression and a brick-shape mode associated with combined shear and compression. To study the factors governing the mechanical behaviour of the fibre network a material model with the characteristics originating from the properties of the wood polymers was developed and was used in a three-dimensional finite element analysis. The effects of material properties were investigated by comparing models with anisotropic one-layer cell walls and orthotropic multi-layer cell walls. The deformation achieved both under compression and under combined shear and compression was found to be similar independent of the material constants used or the number of layers of the cells walls. This implies that the most important factor governing the deformation pattern of the fibre network is the cell structure itself.

  • 13.
    Dedic, D.
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Iversen, T.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Ek, M.
    Cellulose degradation in the Vasa: The role of acids and rust2013In: Studies in Conservation, ISSN 0039-3630, E-ISSN 2047-0584, no 4, 308-313 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Dedic, D.
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Iversen, T.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Sandberg, T.
    Ek, M.
    Chemical analysis of wood extractives and lignin in the oak wood of the 380 year old Swedish warship vasa2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Dedic, Dina
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Iversen, Tommy
    RISE, Innventia.
    Ek, M.
    Cellulose degradation in the Vasa: The role of acids and rust2013In: Studies in Conservation, ISSN 0039-3630, E-ISSN 2047-0584, Vol. 58, no 4, 308-313 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The oak timbers of the Swedish warship Vasa are deteriorating. High amounts of oxalic acid have been found along with a low pH and low molecular weight cellulose deep in the wood timbers. The iron-rich surface wood differs from the interior wood in that it displays higher pH and cellulose with higher molecular weight. The objective of this study was to determine why there is a difference in cellulose degradation, pH, and oxalic acid amount between the surface region and the interior of the Vasa timbers. Analysis of cellulose weight average molecular weight by size exclusion chromatography was performed, as well as quantification of oxalic acid and iron by high-performance anion exchange chromatography and atomic emission spectroscopy, respectively. It was found that a decrease in iron content coincides with an increase in oxalic acid concentration and a drop in pH at a certain depth from the wood surface. When iron-rich surface wood samples from the Vasa were mixed with an aqueous solution of oxalic acid, a fast increase of pH over time was observed. Neither interior wood poor in iron nor the fresh oak reference showed the same neutralizing effect during the time of measurement. This indicates that the presence of iron (rust) causes a neutralization of the wood, through the formation of iron(III) oxalato complexes, thus protecting the wood from oxalic acid hydrolysis. This effect was not observed to the same extent for other acids observed in Vasa wood (sulfuric, formic, glycolic, and acetic acids).

  • 16.
    Dedic, Dina
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Iversen, Tommy
    RISE, Innventia.
    Ek, Monica
    Cellulose degradation in the Vasa - the role of acids and rust2013In: Studies in Conservation, ISSN 0039-3630, E-ISSN 2047-0584, Vol. 58, no 4, 308-313 p., 40105Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17. Eder, M.
    et al.
    Arnould, O.
    Dunlop, J.W.C.
    Hornatowska, J.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Salmen, L.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Experimental micromechanical characterisation of wood cell walls2013In: Wood Science and Technology, ISSN 0043-7719, E-ISSN 1432-5225, no 1, 163-182 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18. Engelund, E.T.
    et al.
    Salmen, L.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Tensile creep and recovery of Norway spruce influenced by temperature and moisture2012In: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, no 8, 959-965 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19. Fackler, K.
    et al.
    Stevanic, Jasna S.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Ters, T.
    Hinterstoisser, B.
    Schwanninger, M.
    Salmén, Lennart
    RISE, Innventia.
    Localisation and characterisation of incipient brown-rot decay within spruce wood cell walls using FT-IR imaging microscopy2010In: Enzyme and microbial technology, ISSN 0141-0229, E-ISSN 1879-0909, Vol. 47, no 6, 257-267 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spruce wood that had been degraded by brown-rot fungi (Gloeophyllum trabeum or Poria placenta) exhibiting mass losses up to 16% was investigated by transmission Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) imaging microscopy. Here the first work on the application of FT-IR imaging microscopy and multivariate image analysis of fungal degraded wood is presented and the first report on the spatial distribution of polysaccharide degradation during incipient brown-rot of wood. Brown-rot starts to become significant in the outer cell wall regions (middle lamellae, primary cell walls, and the outer layer of the secondary cell wall S1). This pattern was detected even in a sample with non-detectable mass loss. Most significant during incipient decay was the cleavage of glycosidic bonds, i.e. depolymerisation of wood polysaccharides and the degradation of pectic substances. Accordingly, intramolecular hydrogen bonding within cellulose was reduced, while the presence of phenolic groups increased.

  • 20. Fackler, K.
    et al.
    Stevanic, J.S.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Ters, T.
    Hinterstoisser, B.
    Schwanninger, M.
    Salmen, L.
    RISE, Innventia.
    FT-IR imaging microscopy to localise and characterise simultaneous and selective white-rot decay within spruce wood cells2011In: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, no 3, 411-420 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21. Franceschini, T.
    et al.
    Lundqvist, S.-O.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Bontemps, J.-D.
    Grahn, T.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Olsson, L.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Evans, R.
    Leban, J.-M.
    Empirical models for radial and tangential fibre width in tree rings of Norway spruce in north-western Europe2012In: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, no 2, 219-230 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22. Gräns, D.
    et al.
    Hannrup, B.
    Isik, F.
    Lundqvist, Sven-Olof
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    McKeand, S.
    Genetic variation and relationships to growth traits for microfibril angle, wood density and modulus of elasticity in a Picea abies clonal trial in southern Sweden2009In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 24, no 6, 494-503 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Genetic variation in wood density, microfibril angle (MFA), wood stiffness (MOE), height, diameter and volume was investigated in a 26-year-old Norway spruce [(Picea abies (L.) Karst.] clonal trial in southern Sweden. Wood quality measurements were performed on 10 mm increment cores using SilviScan. For MFA, mean values of annual rings showed the highest value (30°) at ring 2 counting from the pith, followed by a steep decrease and a gradual stabilization around ring 12 at approximately 14°. MOE showed a monotonic increase from 5 GPa to 14 GPa when moving from pith to bark. High broad-sense heritability values were found for wood density (0.48), MFA (0.41) and MOE (0.50). All growth traits displayed heritability values of similar magnitudes as reported in earlier studies. The generally high age-age correlations between different sections of the wood cores suggested that early selection for wood quality traits would be successful. Owing to unfavorable genetic correlations between volume and MOE, the correlated response indicated that selection for volume only at age 10 would result in a 0.27% decrease in weighted MOE at age 26 for every 1% increase in volume.

  • 23. Guo, J.
    et al.
    Song, K.
    Salmén, Lennart
    RISE, Innventia.
    Yin, Y.
    Changes of wood cell walls in response to hygro-mechanical steam treatment2015In: Carbohydrate Polymers, ISSN 0144-8617, E-ISSN 1879-1344, Vol. 115, 207-214 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of compression combined with steam treatment (CS-treatment), i.e. a hygro-mechanical steam treatment on Spruce wood were studied on a cell-structure level to understand the chemical and physical changes of the secondary cell wall occurring under such conditions. Specially, imaging FT-IR microscopy, nanoindentation and dynamic vapour absorption were used to track changes in the chemical structure, in micromechanical and hygroscopic properties. It was shown that CS-treatment resulted in different changes in morphological, chemical and physical properties of the cell wall, in comparison with those under pure steam treatment. After CS-treatment, the cellular structure displayed significant deformations, and the biopolymer components, e.g. hemicellulose and lignin, were degraded, resulting in decreased hygroscopicity and increased mechanical properties of the wood compared to both untreated and steam treated wood. Moreover, CS-treatment resulted in a higher degree of degradation especially in earlywood compared to a more uniform behaviour of wood treated only by steam.

  • 24. Janga, K.K.
    et al.
    Öyaas, K.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Hertzberg, T.
    Moe, S.T.
    Application of a pseudo-kinetic generalized severity model to the concentrated sulfuric acid hydrolysis of pinewood and aspenwood2012In: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 7, 2728-2741 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Jansson, M.B.
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Aldaeus, F.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Reimann, A.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Ljungquist, P.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Schweinebarth, H.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Boklund, M.
    Extraction of bioactive chemicals in spruce wood residues2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26. Johnson, O.
    et al.
    Lindberg, Siv
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Roos, A.
    Hugosson, M.
    Lindström, Mikael
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Consumer perceptions and preferences on solid wood, wood-based panels, and composites: A repertory grid study2008In: Wood and Fiber Science, ISSN 0735-6161, Vol. 40, no 4, 663-678 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge about consumer perception and preferences on solid wood, wood-based panels, and wood-based composites is important for product development and marketing. The aim of this study was to identify attributes and associations that people use to describe different types of wood materials and to explore how they relate to preferences. The study involved nine samples that were evaluated with the Kelly’s repertory grid technique and content analysis. Based on respondents’ answers, 19 core categories reflecting sample attributes were extracted. General preferences for each sample were also recorded. Principal component analysis generated two factors describing 1) naturalness, wood-likeness, softness, unprocessed origin, living, pleasant, and high value; and 2) solid and homogeneous impression. A third, preliminary factor included categories describing irregular pattern, sleekness, and smoothness. The wood samples were most liked, whereas composites and panels were not appreciated. Preferred core categories were naturalness, wood-likeness, smoothness, living impression, and value. The least liked core categories were processed, hard, and high weight. The implications of the results for product development and marketing are discussed. © 2008 by the Society of Wood Science and Technology.

  • 27. Kostiainen, K.
    et al.
    Kaakinen, S.
    Saranpää, P.
    Sigurdsson, B. D.
    Lundqvist, Sven-Olof
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Linder, S.
    Vapaavuori, E.
    Stem wood properties of mature Norway spruce after 3 years of continuous exposure to elevated [CO2] and temperature2009In: Global Change Biology, ISSN 1354-1013, E-ISSN 1365-2486, Vol. 15, no 2, 368-379 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the study was to investigate the interactive effects of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, [CO2], and temperature on the wood properties of mature field-grown Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) trees. Material for the study was obtained from an experiment in Flakaliden, northern Sweden, where trees were grown for 3 years in whole-tree chambers at ambient (365 ÎŒmol mol-1) or elevated [CO2] (700 ÎŒmol mol-1) and ambient or elevated air temperature (ambient +5.6°C in winter and ambient +2.8°C in summer). Elevated temperature affected both wood chemical composition and structure, but had no effect on stem radial growth. Elevated temperature decreased the concentrations of acetone-soluble extractives and soluble sugars, while mean and earlywood (EW) cell wall thickness and wood density were increased. Elevated [CO2] had no effect on stem wood chemistry or radial growth. In wood structure, elevated [CO2] decreased EW cell wall thickness and increased tracheid radial diameter in latewood (LW). Some significant interactions between elevated [CO2] and temperature were found in the anatomical and physical properties of stem wood (e.g. microfibril angle, and LW cell wall thickness and density). Our results show that the wood material properties of mature Norway spruce were altered under exposure to elevated [CO2] and temperature, although stem radial growth was not affected by the treatments. © 2008 The Authors Journal compilation © 2008 Blackwell Publishing.

  • 28. Kostiainen, K.
    et al.
    Saranpää, P.
    Lundqvist, S..-O.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Kubiske, M.E.
    Vapaavuori, E.
    Wood properties of Populus and Betula in long-term exposure to elevated CO2 and O32014In: Plant, Cell and Environment, ISSN 0140-7791, E-ISSN 1365-3040, Vol. 37, no 6, 1452-1463 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Kymäläinen, Maija
    et al.
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Hautamäki, Saara
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Lillqvist, Kristiina
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Segerholm, Kristoffer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Rautkari, Lauri
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Surface modification of solid wood by charring2017In: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803, Vol. 52, no 10, 6111-6119 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most wooden structures for outdoor applications require repetitive maintenance operations to protect the surfaces from adverse effects of weathering. One-sided surface modification of boards with a relatively fast charring process has the potential to increase the durability and service life of wooden claddings. To assess some weathering-related effects on surface charred wood, spruce and pine sapwood were subjected to a series of long charring processes (30–120 min) at a moderate temperature of 250 °C and to a short one (30 s) at a high temperature of 400 °C. The wettability and contact angles of treated samples were investigated, and the heat transfer was measured along with the micromorphological changes taking place in the material. The result revealed an increased moisture resistance of charred spruce sapwood and an increased water uptake of pine sapwood. The contact angles of both wood species improved compared to references. Heat conduction measurement revealed that only a thin section of the wood was thermally modified. Some micromorphological changes were recorded, especially on the inside walls of the lumina. The results show that spruce sapwood has an improved resistance towards moisture-induced weathering, but more studies are needed to unlock the potential of surface charred wood.

  • 30.
    Larsson, P.T.
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Svensson, A.
    Wågberg, L.
    A new, robust method for measuring average fibre wall pore sizes in cellulose I rich plant fibre walls2013In: Cellulose (London), ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, no 2, 623-631 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 31. Lindblad, M. S.
    et al.
    Dahlman, Olof
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Sjöberg, J.
    Albertsson, A. -C
    Modified galactoglucomannans from forestry waste-water for films and hydrogels2009In: American Chemical Society Symposium Series (ACS), ISSN 0097-6156, E-ISSN 1947-5918, Vol. 1017, 185-198 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hemicelluloses are among the most abundant natural polymers in the world and are consequently a potential source for sustainable materials, that has so far been underexploited. Galactoglucomannans are the principal hemicelluloses in softwoods and can be found in, for example, industrial wood processing waste-water. Currently, we are investigating the fractionation and purification of O-acetylgalactoglucomannans from newsprint and fiberboard mill waste-waters, as well as the preparation of new barrier films with low oxygen permeation and hydrogel materials from the fractions obtained. Self-supporting films have been formed by solution-casting. Interesting oxygen barrier and mechanical strength properties were achieved for films obtained from a physical blend of O-acetyl-galactoglucomannan and either alginate or carboxymethylcellulose. To create oxygen barrier films with high resistance towards moisture, benzylated derivatives of O-acetyl-galactoglucomannan were made. A hydrogel is a polymeric material that swells in water but does not dissolve, valuable for applications including drug delivery. In order to obtain the right properties, we performed tailored cross-linking to create a flexible network structure. The chemical modification procedure involves a methacrylation reaction carried out under mild conditions. Herein we review past work and present some new data on fractionation and purification of galactoglucomannans. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  • 32.
    Lundqvist, Sven-Olof
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Grahn, Thomas
    RISE, Innventia.
    Framework for multi-species comparison and relationships between wood: fibre and product properties (slides)2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Lundqvist, Sven-Olof
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Grahn, Thomas
    RISE, Innventia.
    Wallbäcks, Lars
    RISE, Innventia.
    Imaging NIR spectroscopy for investigations on wood materials (slides)2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Lundqvist, Sven-Olof
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Grahn, Thomas
    RISE, Innventia.
    Wallbäcks, Lars
    RISE, Innventia.
    Wood morphology and properties from molecular perspectives2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Moghaddam, Maziar S.
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Wålinder, M. E. P.
    Claesson, Per M.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, School of Chemical Science and Engineering, Department of Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Swerin, Agne
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Wettability and swelling of acetylated and furfurylated wood analyzed by multicycle Wilhelmy plate method2016In: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, Vol. 70, no 1, 69-77 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The wetting, dimensional stability and sorption properties of a range of modified wood samples obtained either by acetylation or furfurylation were compared with those of unmodified samples of the same wood species via a multicycle Wilhelmy plate method. Wettability measurements were performed with water and octane as the swelling and non-swelling liquids, respectively. It was found that acetylation reduces water uptake mainly by reducing the swelling. In comparison, furfurylation reduces both swelling and the void volume in the sample. To quantify the effect of the modification process of the wood properties, the parameters "liquid up-take reduction" and the "perimeter change reduction" were introduced, which were determined from multicycle Wilhelmy plate measurements. Compared with the acetylated wood, the furfurylated wood with a higher level of weight percent gain exhibited larger property changes on the surface and in terms of swelling and sorption properties.

  • 36.
    Moghaddam, Maziar Sedighi
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Van den Bulcke, J
    Wålinder, M E P
    Claesson, Per M.
    Department of Chemistry Surface and Corrosion Science, KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Swerin, Agne
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    X-ray computed tomography on chemically modified wood2016In: Proceedings of the 12th meeting of the Northern European Network for Wood Science and Engineering (WSE): Wood science and engineering -a key factor on the transition to Bioeconomy / [ed] Bruno Andersons and Arnis Kokorevics, Riga: Latvian State Institute of Wood Chemistry , 2016, 184-190 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mapping and visualization of structural changes due to the modification of wood would increase the understanding of chemical modification processes and facilitate optimization of the process parameters. The 2D and 3D microstructure of acetylated and furfurylated softwood and hardwood were visualized using X-ray computed tomography and some anatomical features were investigated such as total porosity, cell wall thickness and maximum opening of tracheid lumens. The wetting properties of chemically modified samples were related to the microstructural properties. Significant changes in the wood structure were observed for furfurylated sapwood samples mainly indicated by a change in tracheid shape and filling of tracheids by furan polymer, whereas no microstructural changes were noted for acetylated samples. Furfurylation significantly decreased the porosity of the sample in both earlywood and latewood regions; whereas for acetylated samples the total porosity of modified and unmodified samples was rather similar. This is in line with results of wetting showing that furfurylation reduced both swelling and capillary uptake in contrast to acetylation which reduced mostly swelling.

  • 37.
    Moghaddam, Maziar Sedighi
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Van den Bulcke, J
    Wålinder, M E P
    Claesson, Per M.
    Department of Chemistry Surface and Corrosion Science, KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Swerin, Agne
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    X-ray computed tomography on chemically modified wood2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mapping and visualization of structural changes due to the modification of wood would increase the understanding of chemical modification processes and facilitate optimization of the process parameters. The 2D and 3D microstructure of acetylated and furfurylated softwood and hardwood were visualized using X-ray computed tomography and some anatomical features were investigated such as total porosity, cell wall thickness and maximum opening of tracheid lumens. The wetting properties of chemically modified samples were related to the microstructural properties. Significant changes in the wood structure were observed for furfurylated sapwood samples mainly indicated by a change in tracheid shape and filling of tracheids by furan polymer, whereas no microstructural changes were noted for acetylated samples. Furfurylation significantly decreased the porosity of the sample in both earlywood and latewood regions; whereas for acetylated samples the total porosity of modified and unmodified samples was rather similar. This is in line with results of wetting showing that furfurylation reduced both swelling and capillary uptake in contrast to acetylation which reduced mostly swelling.

  • 38.
    Moghaddam, Maziar Sedighi
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry, Materials and Surfaces. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Van den Bulcke, Jan
    Ghent University, Belgium.
    Wålinder, Magnus E. P.
    KTH Royal Instituteof Technology, Sweden.
    Claesson, Per M.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry, Materials and Surfaces. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Van Acker, Joris
    Ghent University, Sweden.
    Swerin, Agne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry, Materials and Surfaces. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Microstructure of chemically modified wood using X-ray computed tomography in relation to wetting properties2017In: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, Vol. 71, no 2, 119-128 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    X-ray computed tomography (XCT) was utilized to visualize and quantify the 2D and 3D microstructure of acetylated southern yellow pine (pine) and maple, as well as furfurylated pine samples. The total porosity and the porosity of different cell types, as well as cell wall thickness and maximum opening of tracheid lumens were evaluated. The wetting properties (swelling and capillary uptake) were related to these microstructural characteristics. The data show significant changes in the wood structure for furfurylated pine sapwood samples, including a change in tracheid shape and filling of tracheids by furan polymer. In contrast, no such changes were noted for the acetylated pine samples at the high resolution of 0.8

  • 39.
    Olsson, A.-M.
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Bjurhager, I.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Gerber, L.
    Sundberg, B.
    Salmen, L.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Ultra-structural organisation of cell wall polymers in normal and tension wood of aspen revealed by polarisation FTIR microspectroscopy2011In: Planta, ISSN 0032-0935, E-ISSN 1432-2048, no 6, 1277-1286 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 40. Phiri, D.
    et al.
    Ackerman, P.
    Wessels, B.
    du Toit, B.
    Johansson, M.
    Säll, H.
    Lundqvist, Sven-Olof
    RISE, Innventia.
    Seifert, T.
    Biomass equations for selected drought-tolerant eucalypts in South Africa2015In: Southern Forests, Vol. 77, no 4, 255-262 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the water-scarce environment of South Africa, drought-tolerant eucalypt species have the potential to contribute to the timber and biomass resource. Biomass functions are a necessary prerequisite to predict yield and carbon sequestration. In this study preliminary biomass models for Eucalyptus cladocalyx, E. gomphocephala and E. grandis · E. camaldulensis from the dry West Coast of South Africa were developed. The study was based on 33 trees, which were destructively sampled for biomass components (branchwood, stems, bark and foliage). Simultaneous regression equations based on seemingly unrelated regression were fitted to estimate biomass while ensuring additivity. Models were of the classical allometric form, ln(Y) = a+x1ln(dbh)+x2ln(h), of which the best models explained between 70% and 98% of the variation of the predicted biomass quantities. A general model for the pooled data of all species showed a good fit as well as robust model behaviour. The average biomass proportions of the stemwood, bark, branches and foliage were 60%, 6%, 29% and 5%, respectively

  • 41. Piispanen, R.
    et al.
    Heinonen, J.
    Valkonen, S.
    Makinen, H.
    Lundqvist, S.-O.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Saranpää, P.
    Wood density of Norway spruce in uneven-aged stands2014In: Canadian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0045-5067, E-ISSN 1208-6037, Vol. 44, no 2, 136-144 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 42. Popescu, C.-M.
    et al.
    Larsson, P.T.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Vasile, C.
    Carbon-13 CP/MAS solid state NMR and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy studies on lime wood decayed by Chaetomium globosum2011In: Carbohydrate Polymers, ISSN 0144-8617, E-ISSN 1879-1344, no 2, 808-812 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 43. Roos, A.
    et al.
    Lindberg, S.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Kihlstedt, A.
    RISE, Innventia.
    A product semantic study of the influence of vision on wood evaluation2013In: Wood and Fiber Science, ISSN 0735-6161, no 4, 353-362 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Salmen, L.
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Olsson, A.-M.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Stevanic, J.S.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Simonovic, J.
    Radotic, K.
    Structural organisation of the wood polymers in the wood fibre structure2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Salmen, L.
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Olsson, A.-M.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Stevanic, J.S.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Simonovic, J.
    Radotic, K.
    Structural organisation of the wood polymers in the wood fibre structure2012In: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, no 1, 521-532 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Salmén, Lennart
    RISE, Innventia.
    Wood morphology and properties from molecular perspectives2015In: Annals of Forest Science, Vol. 72, no 6, 679-684 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Salmén, Lennart
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Bergström, E.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Cellulose structural arrangement in relation to spectral changes in tensile loading FTIR2009In: Cellulose (London), ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 16, no 6, 975-982 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to utilise wood and wood fibres in advanced materials, a better understanding of the mechanical material characteristics and the interactions among the components is necessary. For this purpose, FTIR was explored together with mechanical loading as a means of studying the molecular responses to the loading of spruce wood and cellulose paper material. A linear shift of absorption bands was detected as the loading was applied. In relation to the applied stress these shifts were higher under moist conditions than under dry ones but they were similar with regard to the strains applied. There were no shifts detected in bands related to lignin or the hemicelluloses. The results are interpreted as reflecting a parallel arrangement of the load bearing component, the cellulose ordered structure, and the moisture accessible regions in the cellulose microfibril structure. This therefore represents an equal strain loaded system.

  • 48.
    Salmén, Lennart
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Burgert, I.
    Cell wall features with regard to mechanical performance. A review.: COST Action E35 2004-2008 : Wood machining - Micromechanics and fracture2009In: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, Vol. 63, no 2, 121-129 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mechanical performance of wood and wood products is highly dependent on the structural arrangement and properties of the polymers within the fibre cell wall. To improve utilisation and manufacture of wood materials, there is an increasing need for a more detailed knowledge regarding structure/property relations at the micro- or nanostructural level. In this article, recent developments regarding our understanding of the wood cell wall structure and its mechanical performance are summarised. The new results are interpreted in relation to property performances of wood fibres and wood tissues. Suggestions are made for future requirements for research in this field. © 2009 by Walter de Gruyter.

  • 49.
    Salmén, Lennart
    et al.
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Possler, H.
    Stevanic, Jasna S.
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Stanzl-Tschegg, S. E.
    Analysis of thermally treated wood samples using dynamic FT-IR-spectroscopy2008In: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, Vol. 62, no 6, 676-678 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 50. Simonovic, J.
    et al.
    Stevanic, J.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Djikanovic, D.
    Salmen, L.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Radotic, K.
    Anisotropy of cell wall polymers in branches of hardwood and softwood: A polarized FTIR study2011In: Cellulose (London), ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, no 6, 1433-1440 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
12 1 - 50 of 61
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