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  • 1. Celaya, J.
    et al.
    Bridgwater, A.V.
    Toven, K.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Fast pyrolysis bio-oil production from Scandinavian forest residues2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2. Celaya, J.
    et al.
    Bridgwater, A.V.
    Toven, K.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Fast pyrolysis bio-oil production from Scandinavian forest residues2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Chen, Zhiqiang
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences,Sweden.
    Gil, Maria Rosario García
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences,Sweden.
    Karlsson, Bo
    Skogforsk, Sweden.
    Lundqvist, Sven Olof
    RISE, Innventia.
    Olsson, Lars
    RISE, Innventia.
    Wu, Harry Xiaming
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden; CSIRO, Australia.
    Inheritance of growth and solid wood quality traits in a large Norway spruce population tested at two locations in southern Sweden2014In: Tree Genetics & Genomes, ISSN 1614-2942, E-ISSN 1614-2950, Vol. 10, no 5, p. 1291-1303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Unfavorable genetic correlations between growth and wood quality traits are one of the biggest challenges in advanced conifer breeding programs. To examine and deal with such correlation, increment cores were sampled at breast height from 5,618 trees in 524 open-pollinated families in two 21-year-old Norway spruce progeny trials in southern Sweden, and age trends of genetic variation, genetic correlation, and efficiency of selection were investigated. Wood quality traits were measured on 12-mm increment cores using SilviScan. Heritability was moderate (~0.4-0.5) for wood density and modulus of elasticity (MOE) but low (~0.2) for microfibril angle (MFA). Different age trends were observed for wood density, MFA, and MOE, and the lower heritability of MFA relative to wood density and MOE in Norway spruce contrasted with general trends of the three wood quality traits in pine. Genetic correlations among growth, wood density, MFA, and MOE increased to a considerably high value from pith to bark with unfavorable genetic correlations (−0.6 between growth and wood density, −0.74 between growth and MOE). Age-age genetic correlations reached 0.9 after ring 4 for diameter at breast height (DBH), wood density, MFA, and MOE traits. Early selections at ring 10 for diameter and at ring 6 or 7 for wood quality traits had similar effectiveness as selection conducted at reference ring 15. Selection based on diameter alone produced 19.0 % genetic gain in diameter but resulted in 4.8 % decrease in wood density, 9.4 % decrease in MOE, and 8.0 % increase in MFA. Index selection with a restriction of no change in wood density, MOE, and MFA, respectively, produced relatively lower genetic gains in diameter (16.4, 12.2, and 14.1 %, respectively), indicating such index selection could be implemented to maintain current wood density. Index selection using economic weights is, however, recommended for maximum economic efficiency

  • 4.
    Donnelly, Liam
    et al.
    University College Dublin, Ireland.
    Lundqvist, Sven-Olof
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioeconomy.
    O'Reilly, Connor
    University College Dublin, Ireland.
    Inter-and intra-annual wood property variation in juvenile wood between six Sitka spruce clones2017In: Silva Fennica, ISSN 0037-5330, E-ISSN 2242-4075, Vol. 51, no 4, article id 7728Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased growth rates have reduced rotation lengths, increasing the proportion of juvenile wood relative to mature wood, which may negatively affect mechanical performance of sawn timber. However, there is limited information available on the potential impact of breeding for vigour on juvenile wood in Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) CarriÚre). In this study, the relationship between vigour (based on total height) and wood properties was investigated in six-year-old Sitka spruce clones grown in two replicated field trials in Ireland. Six clones were evaluated, two clones from each of three vigour (high, intermediate and low) classes. Discs were cut from the base of one ramet per replication for each clone to assess wood quality attributes. Radial tracheid width was significantly and positively correlated with ring width and height, and was negatively correlated with density. The wood of the most vigorous clone had significantly larger ring width with thinner cell walls and wider tracheids than all clones in the two other vigour classes, resulting in lower mean wood density. Latewood properties for all wood attributes measured differed significantly between the two sites. Wood property differences resulted primarily from variation in the proportions of early- and latewood in each annual ring. Additionally, the width of early- and latewood bands in each ring was found to be a more important determinant of juvenile wood quality than the characteristics of the cells within each band. Wood properties differed greatly between clones, suggesting that there is potential to improve juvenile wood properties through selective breeding.

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  • 5.
    Fernandez-Anez, N.
    et al.
    Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Current Wildland Fire Patterns and Challenges in Europe: A Synthesis of National Perspectives2021In: Air, Soil and Water Research, E-ISSN 1178-6221, Vol. 14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes in climate, land use, and land management impact the occurrence and severity of wildland fires in many parts of the world. This is particularly evident in Europe, where ongoing changes in land use have strongly modified fire patterns over the last decades. Although satellite data by the European Forest Fire Information System provide large-scale wildland fire statistics across European countries, there is still a crucial need to collect and summarize in-depth local analysis and understanding of the wildland fire condition and associated challenges across Europe. This article aims to provide a general overview of the current wildland fire patterns and challenges as perceived by national representatives, supplemented by national fire statistics (2009–2018) across Europe. For each of the 31 countries included, we present a perspective authored by scientists or practitioners from each respective country, representing a wide range of disciplines and cultural backgrounds. The authors were selected from members of the COST Action “Fire and the Earth System: Science & Society” funded by the European Commission with the aim to share knowledge and improve communication about wildland fire. Where relevant, a brief overview of key studies, particular wildland fire challenges a country is facing, and an overview of notable recent fire events are also presented. Key perceived challenges included (1) the lack of consistent and detailed records for wildland fire events, within and across countries, (2) an increase in wildland fires that pose a risk to properties and human life due to high population densities and sprawl into forested regions, and (3) the view that, irrespective of changes in management, climate change is likely to increase the frequency and impact of wildland fires in the coming decades. Addressing challenge (1) will not only be valuable in advancing national and pan-European wildland fire management strategies, but also in evaluating perceptions (2) and (3) against more robust quantitative evidence. © The Author(s) 2021.

  • 6.
    Hayatgheibi, Haleh
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Forsberg, Nils Erik Gustaf
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Lundqvist, Sven-Olof
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy. IIC Industrinc Internationaliserings Center, Sweden.
    Mörling, Tommy
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Mellerowicz, Ewa J
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Bo
    Ekebo Skogsförvaltning, Sweden.
    Wu, Harry X
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Garci­a-Gil, M. Rosario
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Genetic control of transition from juvenile to mature wood with respect to microfibril angle in Norway spruce (Picea abies) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta)2018In: Canadian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0045-5067, E-ISSN 1208-6037, Vol. 48, no 11, p. 1358-1365Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Genetic control of microfibril angle (MFA) transition from juvenile wood to mature wood was evaluated in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Douglas ex Loudon). Increment cores were collected at breast height (1.3 m) from 5664 trees in two 21-year-old Norway spruce progeny trials in southern Sweden and from 823 trees in two lodgepole pine progeny trials, aged 34–35 years, in northern Sweden. Radial variations in MFA from pith to bark were measured for each core using SilviScan. To estimate MFA transition from juvenile wood to mature wood, a threshold level of MFA 20° was considered, and six different regression functions were fitted to the MFA profile of each tree after exclusion of outliers, following three steps. The narrow-sense heritability estimates (h2) obtained for MFA transition were highest based on the slope function, ranging from 0.21 to 0.23 for Norway spruce and from 0.34 to 0.53 for lodgepole pine, while h2 were mostly non-significant based on the logistic function, under all exclusion methods. Results of this study indicate that it is possible to select for an earlier MFA transition from juvenile wood to mature wood in Norway spruce and lodgepole pine selective breeding programs, as the genetic gains (∆G) obtained in direct selection of this trait were very high in both species.

  • 7.
    Hong, Zhou
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Fries, Anders
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Lundqvist, Sven-Olof
    RISE, Innventia.
    Andersson Gull, Bengt
    Skogforsk, Sweden.
    Wu, Harry X.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden; CSIRO Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Australia.
    Measuring stiffness using acoustic tool for Scots pine breeding selection2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 363-372Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stiffness (modulus of elasticity, MOE) of conifer trees is the most important trait for structural wood products. Finding a fast, reliable and non-destructive way to measure MOE is a priority for screening large progeny trials in tree breeding programmes. For Scots pine, time-of-flight (TOF) velocity measured on standing trees accounted for 47% of the variation to the benchmark SilviScan-based clearwood MOE (MOEs), under the assumption of constant wood density. If wood density was included, 59% of the variation was accounted for. The TOF stiffness measurements on standing trees were, however, more related to the clearwood MOEs in the outerwood, and the prediction was the most reliable at breast height compared to the stem base and the top section. Microfibril angle (MFA) had higher correlation with acoustic velocity (VEL) of standing trees than wood density, and among the early, transition and latewood density, the latewood density had the highest correlation with stiffness measurements on standing trees. VEL measured at breast height in combination with wood density was the most reliable predictor of MOE of standing trees for selection and breeding in Scots pine.

  • 8.
    Iotti, M.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Klimatre: Wood for a better climate and higher value-added products2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Jones, Grace
    et al.
    Ashtown Research Centre, Ireland.
    Ulan, Maria
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Liziniewicz, Mateusz
    Skogforsk The Forest Research Institute of Sweden, Sweden.
    Lindeberg, Johan
    Linnaeus university, Sweden.
    Adamopoulos, Stergios
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Relating estimates of wood properties of birch to stem form, age and species2024In: Journal of Forestry Research, ISSN 1007-662X, E-ISSN 1993-0607, Vol. 35, no 1, article id 14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Birch has long suffered from a lack of active forest management, leading many researchers to use material without a detailed management history. Data collected from three birch (Betula pendula Roth, B. pubescens Ehrh.) sites in southern Sweden were analyzed using regression analysis to detect any trends or differences in wood properties that could be explained by stand history, tree age and stem form. All sites were genetics trials established in the same way. Estimates of acoustic velocity (AV) from non-destructive testing (NDT) and predicted AV had a higher correlation if data was pooled across sites and other stem form factors were considered. A subsample of stems had radial profiles of X-ray wood density and ring width by year created, and wood density was related to ring number from the pith and ring width. It seemed likely that wood density was negatively related to ring width for both birch species. Linear models had slight improvements if site and species were included, but only the youngest site with trees at age 15 had both birch species. This paper indicated that NDT values need to be considered separately, and any predictive models will likely be improved if they are specific to the site and birch species measured. © 2023, The Author(s).

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  • 10.
    Lundqvist, Sven- Olof
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioeconomy, Papermaking and Packaging. IIC, Sweden.
    Seifert, Stefan
    Scientes Mondium UG, Germany.
    Grahn, Thomas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioeconomy, Papermaking and Packaging.
    Olsson, Lars
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioeconomy, Papermaking and Packaging.
    Garci­a-Gil, Maria Rosario
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Bo
    Skogforsk, Sweden.
    Seifert, Thomas
    Scientes Mondium UG, Germany; Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Age and weather effects on between and within ring variations of number, width and coarseness of tracheids and radial growth of young Norway spruce2018In: European Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 1612-4669, E-ISSN 1612-4677, Vol. 137, no 5, p. 719-743Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Annual growth, fibre and wood properties of Norway spruce are all under strong influence from genetics, age and weather. They change dynamically, particularly at young ages. Most genetic research and tree improvement programs are based on data from this most dynamic phase of the life of trees, affected by differences in weather among sites and years. In the work presented, influences of age and weather were investigated and modelled at the detail of annual rings and at the sub-tree ring level of earlywood, transitionwood and latewood. The data used were analysed from increment cores sampled at age 21 years from almost 6000 Norway spruce trees of known genetic origin, grown on two sites in southern Sweden. The traits under investigation were radial growth, cell widths, cell numbers, cell wall thickness and coarseness as a measure of biomass allocation at cell level. General additive mixed models (GAMMs) were fitted to model the influences of age, local temperature and precipitation. The best models were obtained for number of tracheids formed per year, ring width, average radial tracheid width in earlywood, and ring averages for tangential tracheid width and coarseness. Considering the many sources behind the huge variation, the explained part of the variability was high. For all traits, models were developed using both total tree age and cambial age (ring number) to express age. Comparisons indicate that the number of cell divisions and ring width are under stronger control of tree age, but the other traits under stronger control of cambial age. The models provide a basis to refine data prior to genetic evaluations by compensating for estimated differences between sites and years related to age and weather rather than genetics. Other expected applications are to predict performance of genotypes in relation to site or climate and simulation of climate change scenarios.

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  • 11.
    Pari, L.
    et al.
    Centro di ricerca Ingegneria e Trasformazioni agroalimentari Monterotondo, Italy.
    Suardi, A.
    Centro di ricerca Ingegneria e Trasformazioni agroalimentari Monterotondo, Italy.
    Bergonzoli, S.
    Unità di ricerca per l’ingegneria agrariaTreviglio, Italy.
    Stefanoni, W.
    Centro di ricerca Ingegneria e Trasformazioni agroalimentari Monterotondo, Italy.
    Lazar, S.
    Centro di ricerca Ingegneria e Trasformazioni agroalimentari Monterotondo, Italy.
    Sundberg, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Gunnarsson, Carina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Jonsson, Nils
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Performance and work quality of the chaff collection in Sweden: A case study2021In: European Biomass Conference and Exhibition Proceedings, ETA-Florence Renewable Energies , 2021, p. 207-210Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Grain chaff could provide 54.8 Mt of additional annual potential biomass in Europe. In the framework of the AGROinLOG H2020 Project, the chaff collection system developed by Thierart company was tested in Sweden to evaluate the amount of biomass collectible, the harvesting losses and performance, and the economic feasibility of the system. Such system allows to collect the chaff separately onto a trailer. The total residual biomass increased by 0.84 t ha−1 without negatively affecting the performance of the combine. 

  • 12.
    Phiri, Darius
    et al.
    Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Ackerman, Pierre
    Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Wessels, Brand
    Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    du Toit, Ben
    Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Johansson, Marie
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Säll, Harald
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Lundqvist, Sven-Olof
    RISE, Innventia.
    Seifert, Thomas
    Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Biomass equations for selected drought-tolerant eucalypts in South Africa2015In: Southern Forests, a journal of forest science, ISSN 2070-2620, E-ISSN 2070-2639, Vol. 77, no 4, p. 255-262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the water-scarce environment of South Africa, drought-tolerant eucalypt species have the potential to contribute to the timber and biomass resource. Biomass functions are a necessary prerequisite to predict yield and carbon sequestration. In this study preliminary biomass models for Eucalyptus cladocalyx, E. gomphocephala and E. grandis · E. camaldulensis from the dry West Coast of South Africa were developed. The study was based on 33 trees, which were destructively sampled for biomass components (branchwood, stems, bark and foliage). Simultaneous regression equations based on seemingly unrelated regression were fitted to estimate biomass while ensuring additivity. Models were of the classical allometric form, ln(Y) = a+x1ln(dbh)+x2ln(h), of which the best models explained between 70% and 98% of the variation of the predicted biomass quantities. A general model for the pooled data of all species showed a good fit as well as robust model behaviour. The average biomass proportions of the stemwood, bark, branches and foliage were 60%, 6%, 29% and 5%, respectively.

  • 13.
    Piispanen, Riikka
    et al.
    Finnish Forest Research Institute, Finland.
    Heinonen, Jaakko
    Finnish Forest Research Institute, Finland.
    Valkonen, Sauli
    Finnish Forest Research Institute, Finland.
    Makinen, Harri H.
    Finnish Forest Research Institute, Finland.
    Lundqvist, Sven Olof
    RISE, Innventia.
    Saranpää, Pekka T.
    Finnish Forest Research Institute, Finland.
    Wood density of Norway spruce in uneven-aged stands2014In: Canadian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0045-5067, E-ISSN 1208-6037, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 136-144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focused on wood density and annual ring width in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) grown in unevenaged stands (UAS). In total, 96 trees were harvested from five UAS that had been managed by single-tree selection for decades. A data set of 27 trees from even-aged stands (EAS) was used for comparison. In the UAS trees, high density and narrow annual rings were found in the juvenile wood near the pith. Thereafter, wood density rapidly decreased until the 20th annual ring, followed by an increase toward the bark. In the outermost rings, wood density again slightly decreased. The trends in wood density in the UAS trees correspond with those reported for naturally regenerated, even-aged Norway spruce stands, with the exception of the decrease in the outermost rings. A mixed linear model with ring width, cambial age, and canopy position as fixed parameters accounted for 53% of the variation in wood density of the UAS trees. In contrast to UAS trees, EAS trees showed increased wood density in the outer rings as a result of decreasing growth rate. The abrupt change in wood density of UAS trees may affect the properties of timber sawn close to the pith.

  • 14.
    Schulte, Maximilian
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Ragnar
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Eggers, Jeannette
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Hammar, Torun
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Stendahl, Johan
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Hansson, Per-Anders
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Demand-driven climate change mitigation and trade-offs from wood product substitution: The case of Swedish multi-family housing construction2023In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 421, article id 138487Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multi-family housing construction (MFHC) with wood instead of concrete as frame material results in lower greenhouse gas emissions. Hence, substituting wood for concrete in MFHC in Sweden until 2030, and onwards to 2070, could be a promising climate change mitigation option. But to what extent, and how would it impact Sweden’s forests? Here we assess climate and biodiversity implications - in terms of the area of old forest - of a completely wood-based future MFHC in Sweden. The wood required is assumed to be exclusively sourced as additional fellings in Swedish forests, thus carbon leakage from wood imports as well as displacement of other wood uses can be disregarded. Different types of timber frame systems and the role of varying future dwelling sizes are considered. We find that the wood needed for a complete substitution of concrete would result in very minor increases in harvests. We further register slight net additional climate change mitigation, irrespective of the wood construction system. There is a small tradeoff between climate change mitigation and biodiversity, as the area of old forest reduces slightly. The largest climate benefit, and lowest impact on Swedish forests, is provided when using timber-light frame combined with reduced dwelling size. © 2023 The Authors

  • 15.
    Sjöström, Johan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Granström, Anders
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Human activity and demographics drive the fire regime in a highly developed European boreal region2023In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 136, p. 103743-103743, article id 103743Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organization of successful wildfire prevention and suppression require detailed information on ignition causes, size distributions and relations to weather. From a large and highly detailed dataset of Swedish wildfire incidents (n = 124 000) we assess temporal, geographical and human-related patterns over a 25-year-period (1996–2020). We find strong positive correlations between population density and wildfire occurrence, primarily caused by a wide spectrum of human activities. However, fires >10 ha mostly occurred in sparsely populated regions and were more often ignited by lightning or heavy machinery. Further, large fires had a history of long response times and insufficient mop-up, in turn intimately linked to low population density. We detect no trend over the 25-year-period in either fire weather, number of ignitions or burned area, but a dramatic decline in wildfire caused by children's play as well as by springtime burning of dead grass, a traditional fire use in rural areas. Our results indicate that irrespective of climate change, societal changes such as rural depopulation and cultural shifts are imminently important for the future fire regime in this intensely managed part of the boreal, and may warrant more attention worldwide.

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  • 16.
    Song, Kunlin
    et al.
    Chinese Academy of Forestry, China.
    Yin, Yafang
    Chinese Academy of Forestry, China.
    Salmen, Lennart
    RISE, Innventia.
    Xiao, Fuming
    Jiangxi Academy of Forestry, China.
    Jiang, Xiaomei
    Chinese Academy of Forestry, China.
    Changes in the properties of wood cell walls during the transformation from sapwood to heartwood2014In: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803, Vol. 49, no 4, p. 1734-1742Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes in the chemical, viscoelastic and hygroscopic properties of wood cell walls in Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) during the transition from sapwood to heartwood were studied to provide insights into the formation of heartwood. In situ imaging FTIR measurements indicated that the composition of the main components of cell walls remained almost unaltered, but more extractives were deposited in the wood cell walls during the sapwood-heartwood transition. Compared to the sapwood and transition wood, the heartwood had a higher softening temperature and greater activation energy, suggesting that the mobility restrictions of cell wall biopolymers were due to extractives obstructing the accessing of the plasticizer (ethylene glycol). The moisture sorption was the same from the sapwood to heartwood at a low relative humidity (RH), while the heartwood adsorbed less water at a high RH, probably caused by the extractives deposited in the matrix and mesopores of heartwood cell walls.

  • 17.
    Tiret, M
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden; SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden; Université de Rennes, France.
    Olsson, Lars
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Grahn, Thomas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Pulp, Paper and Packaging.
    Karlsson, Bo
    Skogforsk, Sweden.
    Milesi, P
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Lascoux, M
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Lundqvist, S-O
    IIC, Sweden.
    García-Gil, MR
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Divergent selection predating the Last Glacial Maximum mainly acted on macro-phenotypes in Norway spruce2023In: Evolutionary Applications, E-ISSN 1752-4571, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 163-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current distribution and population structure of many species were, to a large extent, shaped by cycles of isolation in glacial refugia and subsequent population expansions. Isolation in and postglacial expansion through heterogeneous environments led to either neutral or adaptive divergence. Norway spruce is no exception, and its current distribution is the consequence of a constant interplay between evolutionary and demographic processes. We investigated population differentiation and adaptation of Norway spruce for juvenile growth, diameter of the stem, wood density, and tracheid traits at breast height. Data from 4461 phenotyped and genotyped Norway spruce from 396 half-sib families in two progeny tests were used to test for divergent selection in the framework of QST vs. FST. We show that the macroscopic resultant trait (stem diameter), unlike its microscopic components (tracheid dimensions) and juvenile growth, was under divergent selection that predated the Last Glacial Maximum. Altogether, the current variation in these phenotypic traits in Norway spruce is better explained by local adaptation to ancestral environments than to current ones, where populations were partly preadapted, mainly through growth-related traits. © 2022 The Authors. 

  • 18.
    Toven, K.
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Celaya, J.
    Lenes, M.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Bridgwater, A.V.
    Ash free pyrolysis liquid from softwood forestry residues2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Toven, K.
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Reitan, A.
    Karlsen, T.
    Properties of Torrefied Pellets made of softwood forestry residues2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Wessels, C. B.
    et al.
    Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Crafford, P. L.
    Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    du Toit, B.
    Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Grahn, Thomas
    RISE, Innventia.
    Johansson, M.
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Lundqvist, Sven-Olof
    RISE, Innventia.
    Säll, H.
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Seifert, T.
    Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Variation in physical and mechanical properties from three drought tolerant Eucalyptus species grown on the dry west coast of Southern Africa2016In: European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, ISSN 0018-3768, E-ISSN 1436-736X, Vol. 74, no 4, p. 563-575Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Southern Africa, and specifically its western parts is dominated by low rainfall areas, and it is expected that the rainfall in most of these parts will in future decrease further due to climate change. Woodlots of fast-growing, non-invasive tree species can provide the opportunity to produce wood and release the pressure on natural woodlands, while creating much needed income to inhabitants. Over the last two decades several trials of Eucalyptus species that could potentially withstand arid conditions were established on the South African west coast. The three most promising genotypes according to their volume growth were selected among 46 pure and hybrid species from two 20-year-old trials for further evaluation. These included 10 Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus camaldulensis hybrid trees, 9 Eucalyptus gomphocephala trees, and 9 Eucalyptus cladocalyx trees for a total of 28 trees. The objective of the study reported here was to investigate the within-tree and between species variability of selected physical and processing properties determining the suitability of these three species for lumber production. The density, microfibril angle, spiral grain angle, MOE, MOR, radial and tangential shrinkage, twist, bow, splitting, and collapse were measured in a radial and longitudinal gradient. Valuable insights were gained which could provide decision support for planting, processing and further research on these species when grown in arid conditions. The E. grandis × camaldulensis hybrid was inferior in terms of most relevant properties to the other two species evaluated. The main shortcoming of both E. gomphocephala and E. cladocalyx was the high levels of twist in lumber.

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