Endre søk
Begrens søket
12 1 - 50 of 76
RefereraExporteraLink til resultatlisten
Permanent link
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annet format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annet språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Treff pr side
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sortering
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Forfatter A-Ø
  • Forfatter Ø-A
  • Tittel A-Ø
  • Tittel Ø-A
  • Type publikasjon A-Ø
  • Type publikasjon Ø-A
  • Eldste først
  • Nyeste først
  • Skapad (Eldste først)
  • Skapad (Nyeste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Eldste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyeste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidligste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (siste først)
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Forfatter A-Ø
  • Forfatter Ø-A
  • Tittel A-Ø
  • Tittel Ø-A
  • Type publikasjon A-Ø
  • Type publikasjon Ø-A
  • Eldste først
  • Nyeste først
  • Skapad (Eldste først)
  • Skapad (Nyeste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Eldste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyeste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidligste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (siste først)
Merk
Maxantalet träffar du kan exportera från sökgränssnittet är 250. Vid större uttag använd dig av utsökningar.
  • 1.
    Almstrand, Ann-Charlotte
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Bredberg, Anna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Metodik för produktframtagning.
    Runström Eden, Gunilla
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Helen
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Assenhöj, Maria
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Koca, Hatice
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Olin, Anna-Carin
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Tinnerberg, Håkan
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden.
    An explorative study on respiratory health among operators working in polymer additive manufacturing2023Inngår i: Frontiers In Public Health, ISSN 2296-2565, Vol. 11, artikkel-id 1148974Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Additive manufacturing (AM), or 3D printing, is a growing industry involving a wide range of different techniques and materials. The potential toxicological effects of emissions produced in the process, involving both ultrafine particles and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), are unclear, and there are concerns regarding possible health implications among AM operators. The objective of this study was to screen the presence of respiratory health effects among people working with liquid, powdered, or filament plastic materials in AM. Methods: In total, 18 subjects working with different additive manufacturing techniques and production of filament with polymer feedstock and 20 controls participated in the study. Study subjects filled out a questionnaire and underwent blood and urine sampling, spirometry, impulse oscillometry (IOS), exhaled NO test (FeNO), and collection of particles in exhaled air (PEx), and the exposure was assessed. Analysis of exhaled particles included lung surfactant components such as surfactant protein A (SP-A) and phosphatidylcholines. SP-A and albumin were determined using ELISA. Using reversed-phase liquid chromatography and targeted mass spectrometry, the relative abundance of 15 species of phosphatidylcholine (PC) was determined in exhaled particles. The results were evaluated by univariate and multivariate statistical analyses (principal component analysis). Results: Exposure and emission measurements in AM settings revealed a large variation in particle and VOC concentrations as well as the composition of VOCs, depending on the AM technique and feedstock. Levels of FeNO, IOS, and spirometry parameters were within clinical reference values for all AM operators. There was a difference in the relative abundance of saturated, notably dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (PC16:0_16:0), and unsaturated lung surfactant lipids in exhaled particles between controls and AM operators. Conclusion: There were no statistically significant differences between AM operators and controls for the different health examinations, which may be due to the low number of participants. However, the observed difference in the PC lipid profile in exhaled particles indicates a possible impact of the exposure and could be used as possible early biomarkers of adverse effects in the airways. 

  • 2.
    Al-Rekabi, Zeinab
    et al.
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Dondi, Camilla
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Faruqui, Nilofar
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Siddiqui, Nazia S.
    University College London, UK; Kingston Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, UK.
    Elowsson, Linda
    Lund university, Sweden.
    Rissler, Jenny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign. Lund university, Sweden.
    Kåredal, Monica
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Mudway, Ian
    Imperial College, UK; National institute of health protection, UK; Asthma UK, UK.
    Larsson-Callerfelt, Anna-Karin
    Lund university, Sweden.
    Shaw, Michael
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK; University College London, UK.
    Uncovering the cytotoxic effects of air pollution with multi-modal imaging of in vitro respiratory models2023Inngår i: Royal Society Open Science, E-ISSN 2054-5703, Vol. 10, nr 4, artikkel-id 221426Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Annually, an estimated seven million deaths are linked to exposure to airborne pollutants. Despite extensive epidemiological evidence supporting clear associations between poor air quality and a range of short- and long-term health effects, there are considerable gaps in our understanding of the specific mechanisms by which pollutant exposure induces adverse biological responses at the cellular and tissue levels. The development of more complex, predictive, in vitro respiratory models, including two- and three-dimensional cell cultures, spheroids, organoids and tissue cultures, along with more realistic aerosol exposure systems, offers new opportunities to investigate the cytotoxic effects of airborne particulates under controlled laboratory conditions. Parallel advances in high-resolution microscopy have resulted in a range of in vitro imaging tools capable of visualizing and analysing biological systems across unprecedented scales of length, time and complexity. This article considers state-of-the-art in vitro respiratory models and aerosol exposure systems and how they can be interrogated using high-resolution microscopy techniques to investigate cell-pollutant interactions, from the uptake and trafficking of particles to structural and functional modification of subcellular organelles and cells. These data can provide a mechanistic basis from which to advance our understanding of the health effects of airborne particulate pollution and develop improved mitigation measures. 

  • 3.
    Andersson, Johanna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Kwang Tan, Chun
    University of Tsukuba, Japan.
    Dushyantha, Jayatilake
    PLIMES Inc, Japan.
    Suzuki, Kenji
    University of Tsukuba, Japan.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sound analysis of swallowing a shear-thinning fluid2021Inngår i: Annual Transactions of the Nordic Rheology Society, Vol. 29, s. 47-50Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 4.
    Andersson, Patrik
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Niclas
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Lindberg, Andreas
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Swanpalmer, John
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Chakarova, Roumiana
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Sahlgrenska University Hospital,Sweden.
    Effects of lung tissue characterization in radiotherapy of breast cancer under deep inspiration breath hold when using Monte Carlo dosimetry2021Inngår i: Physica medica (Testo stampato), ISSN 1120-1797, E-ISSN 1724-191X, Vol. 90, s. 83-90Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To investigate the sensitivity of Monte Carlo (MC) calculated lung dose distributions to lung tissue characterization in external beam radiotherapy of breast cancer under Deep Inspiration Breath Hold (DIBH). Methods: EGSnrc based MC software was employed. Mean lung densities for one hundred patients were analysed. CT number frequency and clinical dose distributions were calculated for 15 patients with mean lung density below 0.14 g/cm3. Lung volume with a pre-defined CT numbers was also considered. Lung tissue was characterized by applying different CT calibrations in the low-density region and air-lung tissue thresholds. Dose impact was estimated by Dose Volume Histogram (DVH) parameters. Results: Mean lung densities below 0.14 g/cm3 were found in 10% of the patients. CT numbers below −960 HU dominated the CT frequency distributions with a high rate of CT numbers at −990 HU. Mass density conversion approach influenced the DVH shape. V4Gy and V8Gy varied by 7% and 5% for the selected patients and by 9% and 3.5% for the pre-defined lung volume. V16Gy and V20Gy, were within 2.5%. Regions above 20 Gy were affected. Variations in air- lung tissue differentiation resulted in DVH parameters within 1%. Threshold at −990 HU was confirmed by the CT number frequency distributions. Conclusions: Lung dose distributions were more sensitive to variations in the CT calibration curve below lung (inhale) density than to air-lung tissue differentiation. Low dose regions were mostly affected. The dosimetry effects were found to be potentially important to 10% of the patients treated under DIBH.

  • 5.
    Andersson, Peter
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Metodik för produktframtagning. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Swanpalmer, J.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Palm, I.
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Båth, M.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Chakarova, R.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Cylindrical ionization chamber response in static and dynamic 6 and 15 MV photon beams2023Inngår i: Biomedical Engineering & Physics Express, E-ISSN 2057-1976, Vol. 9, nr 2, artikkel-id 025004Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose. To investigate the response of the CC13 ionization chamber under non-reference photon beam conditions, focusing on penumbra and build-up regions of static fields and on dynamic intensity-modulated beams. Methods. Measurements were performed in 6 MV 100 × 100, 20 × 100, and 20 × 20 mm2 static fields. Monte Carlo calculations were performed for the static fields and for 6 and 15 MV dynamic beam sequences using a Varian multi-leaf collimator. The chamber was modelled using EGSnrc egs_chamber software. Conversion factors were calculated by relating the absorbed dose to air in the chamber air cavity to the absorbed dose to water. Correction and point-dose correction factors were calculated to quantify the conversion factor variations. Results. The correction factors for positions on the beam central axis and at the penumbra centre were 0.98-1.02 for all static fields and depths investigated. The largest corrections were obtained for chamber positions beyond penumbra centre in the off-axis direction. Point-dose correction factors were 0.54-0.71 at 100 mm depth and their magnitude increased with decreasing field size and measurement depth. Factors of 0.99-1.03 were obtained inside and near the integrated penumbra of the dynamic field at 100 mm depth, and of 0.92-0.94 beyond the integrated penumbra centre. The variations in the ionization chamber response across the integrated dynamic penumbra qualitatively followed the behaviour across penumbra of static fields. Conclusions. Without corrections, the CC13 chamber was of limited usefulness for profile measurements in 20-mm-wide fields. However, measurements in dynamic small irregular beam openings resembling the conditions of pre-treatment patient quality assurance were feasible. Uncorrected ionization chamber response could be applied for dose verification at 100 mm depth inside and close to large gradients of dynamically accumulating high- and low-dose regions assuming 3% tolerance between measured and calculated doses. © 2023 The Author(s).

  • 6.
    Andersson, S. A.
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Danielsson, A.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ohlsson, F
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. Umeå University, Sweden.
    Wipenmyr, Jan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara.
    Alt Murphy, M.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Arm impairment and walking speed explain real-life activity of the affected Arm and leg after stroke2021Inngår i: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 1650-1977, E-ISSN 1651-2081, Vol. 53, nr 6, artikkel-id jrm00210Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To determine to what extent accelerometer-based arm, leg and trunk activity is associated with sensorimotor impairments, walking capacity and other factors in subacute stroke. Design: Cross-sectional study. Patients: Twenty-six individuals with stroke (mean age 55.4 years, severe to mild motor impairment). Methods: Data on daytime activity were collected over a period of 4 days from accelerometers placed on the wrists, ankles and trunk. A forward stepwise linear regression was used to determine associations between free-living activity, clinical and demographic variables. Results: Arm motor impairment (Fugl-Meyer Assessment) and walking speed explained more than 60% of the variance in daytime activity of the more-affected arm, while walking speed alone explained 60% of the more-affected leg activity. Activity of the less-affected arm and leg was associated with arm motor impairment (R2=0.40) and independence in walking (R2=0.59). Arm activity ratio was associated with arm impairment (R2=0.63) and leg activity ratio with leg impairment (R2=0.38) and walking speed (R2=0.27). Walking-related variables explained approximately 30% of the variance in trunk activity. Conclusion: Accelerometer-based free-living activity is dependent on motor impairment and walking capacity. The most relevant activity data were obtained from more-affected limbs. Motor impairment and walking speed can provide some information about real-life daytime activity levels.

  • 7.
    Becker, K.
    et al.
    University of Zurich, Switzerland.
    Cao, S.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Nilsson, A.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Erlandsson, Maria
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Infrastruktur och betongbyggande.
    Hotop, SK
    Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Germany.
    Kuka, J.
    Latvian Institute of Organic Synthesis, Latvia.
    Hansen, J.
    Statens Serum Institute, Denmark.
    Haldimann, K.
    University of Zurich, Switzerland.
    Grinberga, S.
    Latvian Institute of Organic Synthesis, Latvia.
    Berruga-Fernández, T.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Huseby, D. L.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Shariatgorji, R.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Lindmark, Evelina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Kemiska processer och läkemedel.
    Platzack, Björn
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Kemiska processer och läkemedel.
    Böttger, E. C.
    University of Zurich, Switzerland.
    Crich, D.
    University of Georgia, USA.
    Friberg, L. E.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Vingsbo Lundberg, C.
    Statens Serum Institute, Denmark.
    Hughes, D.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Brönstrup, M.
    Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Germany.
    Andrén, P. E.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Liepinsh, E.
    Latvian Institute of Organic Synthesis, Latvia.
    Hobbie, S. N.
    University of Zurich, Switzerland.
    Antibacterial activity of apramycin at acidic pH warrants wide therapeutic window in the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections and acute pyelonephritis2021Inngår i: EBioMedicine, E-ISSN 2352-3964, Vol. 73, artikkel-id 103652Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The clinical-stage drug candidate EBL-1003 (apramycin) represents a distinct new subclass of aminoglycoside antibiotics for the treatment of drug-resistant infections. It has demonstrated best-in-class coverage of resistant isolates, and preclinical efficacy in lung infection models. However, preclinical evidence for its utility in other disease indications has yet to be provided. Here we studied the therapeutic potential of EBL-1003 in the treatment of complicated urinary tract infection and acute pyelonephritis (cUTI/AP). Methods: A combination of data-base mining, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, time-kill experiments, and four murine infection models was used in a comprehensive assessment of the microbiological coverage and efficacy of EBL-1003 against Gram-negative uropathogens. The pharmacokinetics and renal toxicology of EBL-1003 in rats was studied to assess the therapeutic window of EBL-1003 in the treatment of cUTI/AP. Findings: EBL-1003 demonstrated broad-spectrum activity and rapid multi-log CFU reduction against a phenotypic variety of bacterial uropathogens including aminoglycoside-resistant clinical isolates. The basicity of amines in the apramycin molecule suggested a higher increase in positive charge at urinary pH when compared to gentamicin or amikacin, resulting in sustained drug uptake and bactericidal activity, and consequently in potent efficacy in mouse infection models. Renal pharmacokinetics, biomarkers for toxicity, and kidney histopathology in adult rats all indicated a significantly lower nephrotoxicity of EBL-1003 than of gentamicin. Interpretation: This study provides preclinical proof-of-concept for the efficacy of EBL-1003 in cUTI/AP. Similar efficacy but lower nephrotoxicity of EBL-1003 in comparison to gentamicin may thus translate into a higher safety margin and a wider therapeutic window in the treatment of cUTI/API. Funding: A full list of funding bodies that contributed to this study can be found in the Acknowledgements section. © 2021 The Author(s)

  • 8.
    Bissig, Hugo
    et al.
    METAS Federal Institute of Metrology, Switzerland.
    Büker, Oliver
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Stolt, Krister
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Batista, Elsa
    IPQ Metrology Department, Portugal.
    Afonso, Joana
    NOVA School of Science and Technology, Portugal.
    Zagnoni, Michele
    University of Strathclyde, UK.
    Vroman, Rozan
    University of Strathclyde, UK.
    Kjeldsen, Henrik
    DTI Danish Technological Institute, Denmark.
    Niemann, Anders
    DTI Danish Technological Institute, Denmark.
    Schroeter, Joerk
    Technische Hochschule Lübeck, germany.
    Calibration of insulin pumps based on discrete doses at given cycle times2023Inngår i: Biomedizinische Technik (Berlin. Zeitschrift), ISSN 1862-278X, E-ISSN 0013-5585, Vol. 68, nr 1, s. 67-77Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    One application in the medical treatment at very small flow rates is the usage of an Insulin pump that delivers doses of insulin at constant cycle times for a specific basal rate as quasi-continuous insulin delivery, which is an important cornerstone in diabetes management. The calibration of these basal rates are performed by either gravimetric or optical methods, which have been developed within the European Metrology Program for Innovation and Research (EMPIR) Joint Research Project (JRP) 18HLT08 Metrology for drug delivery II (MeDDII). These measurement techniques are described in this paper, and an improved approach of the analytical procedure given in the standard IEC 60601-2-24:2012 for determining the discrete doses and the corresponding basal rates is discussed in detail. These improvements allow detailed follow up of dose cycle time and delivered doses as a function of time to identify some artefacts of the measurement method or malfunctioning of the insulin pump. Moreover, the calibration results of different basal rates and bolus deliveries for the gravimetric and the optical methods are also presented. Some analysis issues that should be addressed to prevent misinterpreting of the calibration results are discussed. One of the main issues is the average over a period of time which is an integer multiple of the cycle time to determine the basal rate with the analytical methods described in this paper. 

  • 9.
    Björn, Camilla
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Medicinteknik. University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Sahlgrenska Academy, Sweden.
    Antimicrobial peptides in the treatment of infectious and inflammatory conditions: Preclinical studies of mechanism of action, efficacy, and safety2016Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid emergence of antibiotic-resistant microbes worldwide and the urgent need of new antimicrobial agents have stimulated interest in antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) as new therapeutics for treatment of infectious diseases. AMPs are present in all living species and constitute an important part of the innate immune system in multicellular organisms, including humans. AMPs display a remarkably broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity covering both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including many antibiotic-resistant strains, as well as fungi, viruses, and protozoa. Further, in contrast to many conventional antibiotics, AMPs rapidly kill bacteria instead of just inhibiting bacterial growth. In addition, AMPs act as modulators of the innate immune system and, importantly, bacteria seem less efficient in developing resistance towards AMPs than towards conventional antibiotics. Together these properties make AMPs highly attractive as a new class of antimicrobials, with clinical potential also extending to diseases where inflammation is part of the pathology. The aim of this thesis was to study novel AMPs with respect to their mechanism of action (MOA), antimicrobial spectrum, propensity to select for resistance, and in vivo efficacy and safety. To achieve this, we used a number of in vitro and in vivo assays, together generating a comprehensive preclinical evaluation of the peptides. The hypothesis was that the AMPs in this thesis have potential to be developed as therapeutic agents for several infectious and inflammatory conditions, including treatment of skin and soft tissue infections and prevention of postsurgical adhesion formation. The results showed that all AMPs tested (i.e. PXL03, PXL150, HLR1r, and five variants of CEN1 HC-Br) had broad antimicrobial spectra in vitro with varying sensitivity to salt and serum. Furthermore, PXL150 caused a rapid permeabilization of bacterial membrane in vitro, indicating that this is at least one part of the MOA of this peptide. Under selection pressure in vitro, bacteria did not develop resistance to the peptides tested, i.e. PXL150 and CEN1 HC. Interestingly, all peptides showed anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting the secretion of proinflammatory mediators from stimulated human cell lines. In addition, PXL01, PXL150, and HLR1r demonstrated fibrinolytic ability in vitro by suppressing the release of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). In ex vivo and in vivo skin/wound infection models, the peptides reduced the number of viable bacteria and yeast cells. Further, PXL01 decreased postsurgical adhesion formation in vivo. Notably, nonclinical safety studies showed that PXL150 was safe and well tolerated. In conclusion, several of the peptides evaluated in this thesis demonstrated a promising preclinical efficacy and safety profile motivating further development as drug candidates for local treatment of infectious and inflammatory conditions.

  • 10.
    Björner Brauer, Hanna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och resurser.
    Ryberg, Karl
    Monocrom, Sweden.
    Wallin, Kjell
    Fagerhult Stockholm, Sweden.
    Linde, Mattias
    Sahlgrenska Hospital, Sweden.
    Laike, Thorbjörn
    Environmental Psychology, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Bodil
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och resurser.
    Pain Relieving Light - (How) Is it Possible?2024Inngår i: IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, Institute of Physics , 2024, Vol. 1320, nr 1Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    About 15% of the population suffer from migraines and it is estimated that about 40% of all people with migraines would benefit from preventive treatment, but only 3-13% use it. Migraine is a huge burden for society and individuals. Migraines can be intensified by light, and some patients need to stay in a dark room until the attack is over. People with this type of photosensitivity show a clear preference for light color, specifically green, which has been shown to be more comfortable and even pain relieving in some cases. We will present a feasibility study with the aim of preparing a series of experiments to investigate if regular short-term green-light-exposure can prevent migraines. We will present findings from the literature, developed light equipment, and plans for future testing of migraine friendly light solutions.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 11.
    Burkhardt, Felix
    et al.
    University of Freiburg, Germany.
    Harlass, Markus
    University of Freiburg, Germany.
    Adolfsson, Erik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Metodik för produktframtagning.
    Vach, Kirstin
    University of Freiburg, Germany.
    Spies, Benedikt
    University of Freiburg, Germany.
    Kohal, Ralf-Joachim
    University of Freiburg, Germany.
    A novel zirconia-based composite presents an aging resistant material for narrow-diameter ceramic implants2021Inngår i: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 14, nr 9, artikkel-id 2151Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel ceria-stabilized zirconia-alumina-aluminate composite (Ce-TZP-comp) that is not prone to aging presents a potential alternative to yttrium-stabilized zirconia for ceramic oral implants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term stability of a one-piece narrow-diameter implant made of Ce-TZP-comp. Implant prototypes with a narrow (3.4 mm) and regular (4.0 mm) diameter were embedded according to ISO 14801, and subgroups (n = 8) were subsequently exposed to dynamic loading (107 cycles, 98N) and/or hydrothermal treatment (aging, 85◦C). Loading/aging was only applied as a combined protocol for the 4.0 mm diameter implants. One subgroup of each diameter remained untreated. One sample was cross-sectioned from each subgroup and evaluated with a scanning electron microscope for phase-transformation of the lattice. Finally, the remaining samples were loaded to fracture. A multivariate linear regression model was applied for statistical analyses (significance at p < 0.05). All samples withstood the different loading/aging protocols and no transformation propagation was observed. The narrow diameter implants showed the lowest fracture load after combined loading/aging (628 ± 56 N; p < 0.01), whereas all other subgroups exhibited no significantly reduced fracture resistance (between 762 ± 62 and 806 ± 73 N; p < 0.05). Therefore, fracture load values of Ce-TZP-comp implants suggest a reliable intraoral clinical application in the anterior jaw regions. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

  • 12.
    Burkhardt, Felix
    et al.
    University of Freiburg, Germany; Lennart Riemer Zahnarztpraxis Franzem, Germany.
    Spies, Benedikt
    University of Freiburg, Germany; Lennart Riemer Zahnarztpraxis Franzem, Germany.
    Riemer, Lennart
    University of Freiburg, Germany; Lennart Riemer Zahnarztpraxis Franzem, Germany.
    Adolfsson, Erik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Metodik för produktframtagning.
    Doerken, Sam
    University of Freiburg, Germany.
    Kohal, Ralf J.
    University of Freiburg, Germany; Lennart Riemer Zahnarztpraxis Franzem, Germany.
    Fracture resistance and crystal phase transformation of a one- and a two-piece zirconia implant with and without simultaneous loading and aging—An in vitro study2021Inngår i: Clinical Oral Implants Research, ISSN 0905-7161, E-ISSN 1600-0501, Vol. 32, nr 11, s. 1288-1298Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To evaluate the influence of artificial aging on the transformation propagation and fracture resistance of zirconia implants. Methods: One-piece (with integrated implant abutment, 1P; regular diameter [4.1mm]; n = 16) and two-piece (with separate implant abutment, 2P; wide diameter [5 mm]; n = 16) zirconia implants were embedded according to ISO 14801. A two-piece titanium–zirconium implant (Ti-Zr; 4.1 mm diameter) served as a control (n = 16). One subgroup (n = 8) of each system was simultaneously dynamically loaded (107 cycles; 98N) and hydrothermally aged (85°C, 58 days), while the other subgroup (n = 8) remained untreated. Finally, specimens were statically loaded to fracture. Potential crystal phase transformation was examined at cross sections using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A multivariate linear regression model was applied for statistical analyses. Results: The fracture resistance of 1P (1,117 [SD = 38] N; loaded/aged: 1,009 [60] N), 2P (850 [36] N; loaded/aged: 799 [84] N), and Ti-Zr implants (1,338 [205] N; loaded/aged: 1,319 [247] N) was not affected significantly by loading/aging (p =.171). However, when comparing the systems, they revealed significant differences independent of loading/aging (p ≤.001). Regarding the crystal structure, a transformation zone was observed in SEM images of 1P only after aging, while 2P showed a transformation zone even before aging. After hydrothermal treatment, an increase of this monoclinic layer was observed in both systems. Conclusions: The Ti-Zr control implant showed higher fracture resistance compared to both zirconia implants. Loading/aging had no significant impact on the fracture resistance of both zirconia implants. The wide-body 2P zirconia implant was weaker than the regular body 1P implant. © 2021 The Authors. 

  • 13.
    Cai, G. -H
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Hashim, J. H.
    United Nations University, Malaysia.
    Hashim, Z.
    University Putra Malaysia, Malaysia.
    Ali, F.
    Johor Bahru, Malaysia.
    Bloom, Erica
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden; Lund University, Sweden.
    Larsson, L.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Lampa, E.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    NorbÀck, D.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Fungal DNA, allergens, mycotoxins and associations with asthmatic symptoms among pupils in schools from Johor Bahru, Malaysia2011Inngår i: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, ISSN 0905-6157, E-ISSN 1399-3038, Vol. 22, nr 3, s. 290-297Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    While there is a large variation of prevalence of asthma symptoms worldwide, what we do know is that it is on the rise in developing countries. However, there are few studies on allergens, moulds and mycotoxin exposure in schools in tropical countries. The aims were to measure selected fungal DNA, furry pet allergens and mycotoxins in dust samples from schools in Malaysia and to study associations with pupils’ respiratory health effects. Eight secondary schools and 32 classrooms in Johor Bahru, Malaysia were randomly selected. A questionnaire with standardized questions was used for health assessment in 15 randomly selected pupils from each class. The school buildings were inspected and both indoor and outdoor climate were measured. Dust samples were collected by cotton swabs and Petri dishes for fungal DNA, mycotoxins and allergens analysis. The participation rate was 96% (462/480 invited pupils), with a mean age of 14yr (range 14-16). The pupils mostly reported daytime breathlessness (41%), parental asthma or allergy (22%), pollen or pet allergy (21%) and doctor-diagnosed asthma (13%) but rarely reported night-time breathlessness (7%), asthma in the last 12months (3%), medication for asthma (4%) or smoking (5%). The inspection showed that no school had any mechanical ventilation system, but all classrooms had openable windows that were kept open during lectures. The mean building age was 16yr (range 3-40) and the mean indoor and outdoor CO2 levels were 492ppm and 408ppm, respectively. The mean values of indoor and outdoor temperature and relative humidity were the same, 29°C and 70% respectively. In cotton swab dust samples, the Geometric Mean (GM) value for total fungal DNA and Aspergillus/Penicillium (Asp/Pen) DNA in swab samples (Cell Equivalents (CE)/m2) was 5.7*108 and 0.5*108, respectively. The arithmetic mean (CE/m2) for Aspergillus versicolor DNA was 8780, Stachybotrys chartarum DNA was 26 and Streptomyces DNA was 893. The arithmetic means (pg/m2) for the mycotoxins sterigmatocystin and verrucarol were 2547 and 17, respectively. In Petri dish dust samples, the GM value for total fungal DNA and Asp/Pen DNA (CE/m2 per day) was 9.2*106 and 1.6*106, respectively. The arithmetic mean (CE/m2 per day) for A. versicolor DNA was 1478, S. chartarum DNA was 105 and Streptomyces DNA was 1271, respectively. The GM value for cat(Fel d1) allergen was 5.9ng/m2 per day. There were positive associations between A. versicolor DNA, wheeze and daytime breathlessness and between Streptomyces DNA and doctor-diagnosed asthma. However, the associations were inverse between S. chartarum DNA and daytime breathlessness and between verrucarol and daytime breathlessness. In conclusion, fungal DNA and cat allergen contamination were common in schools from Malaysia and there was a high prevalence of respiratory symptoms among pupils. Moreover, there were associations between levels of some fungal DNA and reported respiratory health in the pupils. 

  • 14.
    Choi, Hyunok
    et al.
    University at Albany, USA.
    Schmidbauer, Norbert
    Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Norway.
    Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik. Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Volatile organic compounds of possible microbial origin and their risks on childhood asthma and allergies within damp homes2017Inngår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 98, s. 143-151Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Risk of indoor exposure to volatile organic compounds of purported microbial origin on childhood symptoms of wheezing, rhinitis, and/or eczema, and doctor-diagnosed asthma, rhinitis, and eczema, respectively, remain unclear. Objective To test hypotheses that total sum of 28 microbial volatile organic compounds (Σ26 MVOCs): 1) poses independent risk on doctor-diagnosed asthma, rhinitis, and eczema, respectively, as well as multiple symptom presentation with a minimum of the two of the above conditions (i.e. case); 2) is associated with significant interaction with absolute humidity (AH) on additive scale. Methods In a case-control investigation, 198 cases and 202 controls were examined during November 2001 – March 2002 period through home indoor air sampling, air quality inspection, and health outcome ascertainment. Results Not only the Σ28 MVOCs but also the global MVOC index were significantly higher within the homes of the cases with a high AH, compared to the controls with a low AH (all Ps < 0.001). Only the cases, but not the controls, were associated with a dose-dependent increase in the exposure variables of interest (Σ28 MVOCs) per quartile increase in AH (P < 0.0001 for the cases; P = 0.780 for the controls). Only among the children who live in a high AH homes, a natural log (ln)-unit of Σ 28 MVOCs was associated with 2.5-times greater odds of the case status (95% CI, 1.0–6.2; P = 0.046), compared to 0.7-times the odds (95% CI, 0.4–1.0; P = 0.074) of the same outcome among the low AH homes. Specifically, joint exposure to a high MVOCs and high AH was associated with 2.6-times greater odds of the doctor-diagnosed asthma status (95% CI, 0.7–8.91; P = 0.137). Conclusion Joint occurrence of high Σ28 MVOCs and AH was associated with a significant increase in the case status and asthma risks in an additive scale.

  • 15.
    Christensen, Gustav
    et al.
    University of Tübingen, Germany.
    Urimi, Dileep
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Kemiska processer och läkemedel. University of Iceland, Iceland.
    Lorenzo‐Soler, Laura
    University of Iceland, Iceland.
    Schipper, Nicolaas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Kemiska processer och läkemedel.
    Paquet-Durand, François
    University of Tübingen, Germany.
    Ocular permeability, intraocular biodistribution of lipid nanocapsule formulation intended for retinal drug delivery2023Inngår i: European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics, ISSN 0939-6411, E-ISSN 1873-3441, Vol. 187, s. 175-183Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, cGMP analogues have been investigated for the treatment of inherited retinal degenerations (IRD) using intravitreal injections. However, higher vitreous elimination rates limit the possibility to treat the retina with small molecule drugs. Here, we investigated the potential of lipid nanocapsules (LNCs) as vehicles to reduce clearance and prolong the delivery of cGMP analogue, CN03 to the retinal photoreceptors. Initially LNCs were investigated for both topical/periocular and intravitreal administration routes. While LNC-mediated drug permeation through the cornea proved to be too low for clinical applications, intravitreal application showed significant promise. Intravitreally administered LNCs containing fluorescent tracer in ex vivo porcine eyes showed complete intravitreal dispersal within 24 h. Ocular bio-distribution on histological sections showed that around 10 % of the LNCs had reached the retina, and 40 % accumulated in the ciliary body. For comparison, we used fluorescently labeled liposomes and these showed a different intraocular distribution with 48 % accumulated in the retina, and almost none were in the ciliary body. LNCs were then tested in retinal explants prepared from wild-type (WT) and rd1 mouse. In WT retina LNCs showed no significant toxic effects up to a concentration of 5 mg/mL. In rd1 retina, the LNC/CN03 formulation protected rd1 photoreceptors with similar efficacy to that of free CN03, demonstrating the usefulness of LNC/CN03 formulation in the treatment of IRD. Overall, our results indicate the suitability of LNCs for intraocular administration and drug delivery to both the retina and the ciliary body. © 2023 The Author(s)

  • 16.
    Colaço, Marcos
    et al.
    Rio de Janeiro State University, Brazil.
    Camara, Alexandre
    Rio de Janeiro State University, Brazil.
    Nogueira, Liebert
    University of Oslo, Norway.
    Carvalho, Isabel
    Pontifícia Universidade Católica Do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Margulis, Walter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara. KTH Royal Institute of Technologt, Sweden.
    Barroso, Regina
    Rio de Janeiro State University, Brazil.
    Characterization of the microstructures of specialty optical fibers for electric-field sensing by propagation-based x-ray phase-contrast microtomography2021Inngår i: Measurement science and technology, ISSN 0957-0233, E-ISSN 1361-6501, Vol. 32, nr 6, artikkel-id 065401Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, we present a quantitative (statistical) 3D morphological characterization of optical fibers used in electric-field sensing. The characterization technique employs propagation-based x-ray phase-contrast microcomputed tomography (micro-CT). In particular, we investigate specialty optical fibers that contain microstructured holes that are electro-optically modified by thermal poling to induce second-order nonlinear effects (SONE). The efficiency of the SONE is reflected in the characterization parameter, Vπ, which is highly dependent on the dimensions of the fiber. The fiber microstructures must be uniform to support the fabrication of reproducible devices. The results obtained using the micro-CT technique show that uncertainty of ±1.7% arises in the determination of the expected value of the voltage that causes a change in the phase of the electromagnetic wave equal to π rad (Vπ ), demonstrating a great advantage, compared with other techniques e.g. SEM, which would need at least 1000 images of the cross-section of an optical fiber, taken at different points, making the process more expensive and time-consuming.

  • 17.
    Ding, Yiyu
    et al.
    NTNU, Norway.
    Timoudas, Thomas Ohlson
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Datavetenskap.
    Wang, Qian
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Uponor AB,Sweden.
    Chen, Shuqin
    Zhejiang University, China.
    Brattebø, Helge
    NTNU, Norway.
    Nord, Natasa
    NTNU, Norway.
    A study on data-driven hybrid heating load prediction methods in low-temperature district heating: An example for nursing homes in Nordic countries2022Inngår i: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 269, artikkel-id 116163Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the face of green energy initiatives and progressively increasing shares of more energy-efficient buildings, there is a pressing need to transform district heating towards low-temperature district heating. The substantially lowered supply temperature of low-temperature district heating broadens the opportunities and challenges to integrate distributed renewable energy, which requires enhancement on intelligent heating load prediction. Meanwhile, to fulfill the temperature requirements for domestic hot water and space heating, separate energy conversion units on user-side, such as building-sized boosting heat pumps shall be implemented to upgrade the temperature level of the low-temperature district heating network. This study conducted hybrid heating load prediction methods with long-term and short-term prediction, and the main work consisted of four steps: (1) acquisition and processing of district heating data of 20 district heating supplied nursing homes in the Nordic climate (2016–2019); (2) long-term district heating load prediction through linear regression, energy signature curve in hourly resolution, providing an overall view and boundary conditions for the unit sizing; (3) short-term district heating load prediction through two Artificial Neural Network models, f72 and g120, with different prediction input parameters; (4) evaluation of the predicted load profiles based on the measured data. Although the three prediction models met the quality criteria, it was found that including the historical hourly heating loads as the input to the forecasting model enhanced the prediction quality, especially for the peak load and low-mild heating season. Furthermore, a possible application of the heating load profiles was proposed by integrating two building-sized heat pumps in low-temperature district heating, which may be a promising heat supply method in low-temperature district heating. © 2022 The Authors

  • 18.
    Dwibedi, C.
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg,.
    Mellergård, E.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Gyllensten, Amaru Cubac
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Datavetenskap.
    Nilsson, K.
    Swedish Institute for Health Economics, Sweden.
    Axelsson, A. S.
    University of Gothenburg,.
    Bäckman, M.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Sahlgren, Magnus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Friend, S. H.
    University of Oxford, UK.
    Persson, S.
    Swedish Institute for Health Economics, Sweden.
    Franzén, S.
    RegisterCentrum Västra Götaland, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Abrahamsson, B.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Carlsson, K. S.
    Swedish Institute for Health Economics, Sweden.
    Rosengren, A. H.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Lund University, Sweden.
    Effect of self-managed lifestyle treatment on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes2022Inngår i: npj Digital Medicine, ISSN 2398-6352, Vol. 5, nr 1, artikkel-id 60Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The lack of effective, scalable solutions for lifestyle treatment is a global clinical problem, causing severe morbidity and mortality. We developed a method for lifestyle treatment that promotes self-reflection and iterative behavioral change, provided as a digital tool, and evaluated its effect in 370 patients with type 2 diabetes (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT04691973). Users of the tool had reduced blood glucose, both compared with randomized and matched controls (involving 158 and 204 users, respectively), as well as improved systolic blood pressure, body weight and insulin resistance. The improvement was sustained during the entire follow-up (average 730 days). A pathophysiological subgroup of obese insulin-resistant individuals had a pronounced glycemic response, enabling identification of those who would benefit in particular from lifestyle treatment. Natural language processing showed that the metabolic improvement was coupled with the self-reflective element of the tool. The treatment is cost-saving because of improved risk factor control for cardiovascular complications. The findings open an avenue for self-managed lifestyle treatment with long-term metabolic efficacy that is cost-saving and can reach large numbers of people. © 2022, The Author(s).

  • 19.
    Eriksson, Jesper
    et al.
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Nelson, David
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Holst, Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Datavetenskap. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Hellgren, Elisabeth
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Friman, Ola
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Oldner, Anders
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Temporal patterns of organ dysfunction after severe trauma2021Inngår i: Critical Care, ISSN 1364-8535, E-ISSN 1466-609X, Vol. 25, nr 1, artikkel-id 165Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Understanding temporal patterns of organ dysfunction (OD) may aid early recognition of complications after trauma and assist timing and modality of treatment strategies. Our aim was to analyse and characterise temporal patterns of OD in intensive care unit-admitted trauma patients. Methods: We used group-based trajectory modelling to identify temporal trajectories of OD after trauma. Modelling was based on the joint development of all six subdomains comprising the sequential organ failure assessment score measured daily during the first two weeks post trauma. Further, the time for trajectories to stabilise and transition to final group assignments were evaluated. Results: Six-hundred and sixty patients were included in the final model. Median age was 40 years, and median ISS was 26 (IQR 17–38). We identified five distinct trajectories of OD. Group 1, mild OD (n = 300), median ISS of 20 (IQR 14–27), had an early resolution of OD and a low mortality. Group 2, moderate OD (n = 135), and group 3, severe OD (n = 87), were fairly similar in admission characteristics and initial OD but differed in subsequent OD trajectories, the latter experiencing an extended course and higher mortality. In group 3, 56% of the patients developed sepsis as compared with 19% in group 2. Group 4, extreme OD (n = 40), received most blood transfusions, had the highest proportion of shock at admission and a median ISS of 41 (IQR 29–50). They experienced significant and sustained OD affecting all organ systems and a 28-day mortality of 30%. Group 5, traumatic brain injury with OD (n = 98), had the highest mortality of 35% and the shortest time to death for non-survivors, median 3.5 (IQR 2.4–4.8) days. Groups 1 and 5 reached their final group assignment early, > 80% of the patients within 48 h. In contrast, groups 2 and 3 had a prolonged time to final group assignment. Conclusions: We identified five distinct trajectories of OD after severe trauma during the first two weeks post-trauma. Our findings underline the heterogeneous course after trauma and describe some potentially important clinical insights that are suggested by the groupings and temporal trajectories. © 2021, The Author(s).

  • 20.
    Franke, Ulrik
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Andreasson, A.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Artman, H.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; FOI Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden.
    Brynielsson, J.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; FOI Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden.
    Varga, S.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Swedish Armed Forces, Sweden.
    Vilhelm, N.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Norwegian National Security Authority, Norway.
    Cyber situational awareness issues and challenges2022Inngår i: Cybersecurity and Cognitive Science, Elsevier , 2022, s. 235-265Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, most enterprises are increasingly reliant on information technology to carry out their operations. This also entails an increasing need for cyber situational awareness—roughly, to know what is going on in the cyber domain, and thus be able to adequately respond to events such as attacks or accidents. This chapter argues that cyber situational awareness is best understood by combining three complementary points of view: the technological, the socio-cognitive, and the organizational perspectives. In addition, the chapter investigates the prospects for reasoning about adversarial actions. This part also reports on a small empirical investigation where participants in the Locked Shields cyber defense exercise were interviewed about their information needs with respect to threat actors. The chapter is concluded with a discussion regarding important challenges to be addressed along with suggestions for further research. 

  • 21.
    Garre, Elena
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Anna
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Leiva, Maria
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Håkansson, Joakim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Metodik för produktframtagning. University of Gothenburg, Sweden; .
    Ståhlberg, Anders
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Kovács, Aniko
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Landberg, Göran
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Breast Cancer Patient-Derived Scaffolds Can Expose Unique Individual Cancer Progressing Properties of the Cancer Microenvironment Associated with Clinical Characteristics2022Inngår i: Cancers, ISSN 2072-6694, Vol. 14, nr 9, artikkel-id 2172Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease in terms of cellular and structural composition, and besides acquired aggressive properties in the cancer cell population, the surrounding tumor microenvironment can affect disease progression and clinical behaviours. To specifically decode the clinical relevance of the cancer promoting effects of individual tumor microenvironments, we performed a comprehensive test of 110 breast cancer samples using a recently established in vivo-like 3D cell culture platform based on patient-derived scaffolds (PDSs). Cell-free PDSs were recellularized with three breast cancer cell lines and adaptation to the different patient-based microenvironments was monitored by quantitative PCR. Substantial variability in gene expression between individual PDS cultures from different patients was observed, as well as between different cell lines. Interestingly, specific gene expression changes in the PDS cultures were significantly linked to prognostic features and clinical information from the original cancer. This link was even more pronounced when ERα-status of cell lines and PDSs matched. The results support that PDSs cultures, including a cancer cell line of relevant origin, can monitor the activity of the tumor microenvironment and reveal unique information about the malignancy-inducing properties of the individual cancer niche and serve as a future complementary diagnostic tool for breast cancer. © 2022 by the authors.

  • 22.
    Geuens, Sam
    et al.
    University Hospitals Leuven, Belgium.
    Lemiere, Jurgen
    University Hospitals Leuven, Belgium.
    Nijs, Jessica
    University Hospitals Leuven, Belgium.
    Treunen, Marlies
    University Hospitals Leuven, Belgium.
    Aertsen, Michael
    University Hospitals Leuven, Belgium.
    Toelen, Jaan
    University Hospitals Leuven, Belgium.
    Pauwels, Greet
    AZ Sint-Jan, Belgium.
    Sauer, Kate
    AZ Sint-Jan, Belgium.
    Potoms, Marlies
    Jessa Ziekenhuis, Belgium.
    Van Cauter, Sofie
    Ziekenhuis Oost-Limburg, Belgium.
    Wouters, Leen
    Ziekenhuis Oost-Limburg,.
    Hohlbaum, Kathrin
    RWTH Aachen University, Germany.
    Sjölinder, Marie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Prototypande samhälle.
    Ståhl, Olov
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Prototypande samhälle.
    Buyse, Gunnar
    University Hospitals Leuven, Belgium.
    Demaerel, Philippe
    University Hospitals Leuven, Belgium.
    Weyn, Barbara
    KU Leuven, Belgium.
    Testing a Home Solution for Preparing Young Children for an Awake MRI: A Promising Smartphone Application2023Inngår i: Children, E-ISSN 2227-9067, Vol. 10, nr 12, artikkel-id 1866Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Thanks to its non-invasive nature and high-resolution imaging capabilities, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a valuable diagnostic tool for pediatric patients. However, the fear and anxiety experienced by young children during MRI scans often result in suboptimal image quality and the need for sedation/anesthesia. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a smartphone application called COSMO@home to prepare children for MRI scans to reduce the need for sedation or general anesthesia. The COSMO@home app was developed incorporating mini-games and an engaging storyline to prepare children for learning goals related to the MRI procedure. A multicenter study was conducted involving four hospitals in Belgium. Eligible children aged 4–10 years were prepared with the COSMO@home app at home. Baseline, pre-scan, and post-scan questionnaires measured anxiety evolution in two age groups (4–6 years and 7–10 years). Eighty-two children participated in the study, with 95% obtaining high-quality MRI images. The app was well-received by children and parents, with minimal technical difficulties reported. In the 4–6-year-old group (N = 33), there was a significant difference between baseline and pre-scan parent-reported anxiety scores, indicating an increase in anxiety levels prior to the scan. In the 7–10-year-old group (N = 49), no significant differences were observed between baseline and pre-scan parent-reported anxiety scores. Overall, the COSMO@home app proved to be useful in preparing children for MRI scans, with high satisfaction rates and successful image outcomes across different hospitals. The app, combined with minimal face-to-face guidance on the day of the scan, showed the potential to replace or assist traditional face-to-face training methods. This innovative approach has the potential to reduce the need for sedation or general anesthesia during pediatric MRI scans and its associated risks and improve patient experience.

  • 23.
    Green, A. C.
    et al.
    University of Sheffield, UK.
    Vallin, Karl
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Kemiska processer och läkemedel. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Meiser, J.
    Luxembourg Institute of Health, Luxembourg.
    Formate overflow drives toxic folate trapping in MTHFD1 inhibited cancer cells2023Inngår i: Nature Metabolism, E-ISSN 2522-5812, Vol. 5, nr 4, s. 642-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cancer cells fuel their increased need for nucleotide supply by upregulating one-carbon (1C) metabolism, including the enzymes methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase–cyclohydrolase 1 and 2 (MTHFD1 and MTHFD2). TH9619 is a potent inhibitor of dehydrogenase and cyclohydrolase activities in both MTHFD1 and MTHFD2, and selectively kills cancer cells. Here, we reveal that, in cells, TH9619 targets nuclear MTHFD2 but does not inhibit mitochondrial MTHFD2. Hence, overflow of formate from mitochondria continues in the presence of TH9619. TH9619 inhibits the activity of MTHFD1 occurring downstream of mitochondrial formate release, leading to the accumulation of 10-formyl-tetrahydrofolate, which we term a ‘folate trap’. This results in thymidylate depletion and death of MTHFD2-expressing cancer cells. This previously uncharacterized folate trapping mechanism is exacerbated by physiological hypoxanthine levels that block the de novo purine synthesis pathway, and additionally prevent 10-formyl-tetrahydrofolate consumption for purine synthesis. The folate trapping mechanism described here for TH9619 differs from other MTHFD1/2 inhibitors and antifolates. Thus, our findings uncover an approach to attack cancer and reveal a regulatory mechanism in 1C metabolism. © 2023, The Author(s).

  • 24.
    Hernández-Jiménez, Macaarena
    et al.
    AptaTargets SL,Spain.
    Abad-Santos, Francisco
    Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Spain; Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Spain.
    Cotgreave, Ian
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Kemiska processer och läkemedel.
    Gallego, Jaime
    Neurological Center of Navarra, Spain.
    Jilma, Bernd
    Medical University of Vienna, Austria.
    Flores, Alan
    Hospital Joan XXIII, Spain.
    Jovin, Tudor
    Cooper Neurological Institute, USA.
    Vivancos, Jose
    Hospital La Princesa, Spain.
    Molina, Carlos
    Hospital Vall d'Hebron, Spain.
    Montaner, Joan
    Hospital Macarena, Spain.
    Casariego, Joaquin
    Aldebaran Health Intelligence SL, Spain.
    Dalsgaard, Mads
    Cureteq AG, Switzerland.
    Hernández-Pérez, Maria
    Hospital Germans Trias I Pujol, Spain.
    Liebeskind, David
    UCLA, USA.
    Cobo, Erik
    UPC Barcelona-Tech, Spain.
    Ribo, Marc
    AptaTargets SL,Spain; Hospital Vall d'Hebron, Spain.
    APRIL: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, Phase Ib/IIa clinical study of ApTOLL for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke2023Inngår i: Frontiers in Neurology, E-ISSN 1664-2295, Vol. 14, artikkel-id 1127585Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the reperfusion era, a new paradigm of treating patients with endovascular treatment (EVT) and neuroprotective drugs is emerging as a promising therapeutic option for patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS). In this context, ApTOLL, a Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) antagonist with proven neuroprotective effect in preclinical models of stroke and a very good pharmacokinetic and safety profile in healthy volunteers, is a promising first-in-class aptamer with the potential to address this huge unmet need. This protocol establishes the clinical trial procedures to conduct a Phase Ib/IIa clinical study (APRIL) to assess ApTOLL tolerability, safety, pharmacokinetics, and biological effect in patients with AIS who are eligible for EVT. This will be a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, Phase Ib/IIa clinical study to evaluate the administration of ApTOLL together with EVT in patients with AIS. The study population will be composed of men and non-pregnant women with confirmed AIS with a <6h window from symptoms onset to ApTOLL/placebo administration. The trial is currently being conducted and is divided into two parts: Phase Ib and Phase IIa. In Phase Ib, 32 patients will be allocated to four dose ascending levels to select, based on safety criteria, the best two doses to be administered in the following Phase IIa in which 119 patients will be randomized to three arms of treatment (dose A, dose B, and placebo).

  • 25.
    Hernández-Jiménez, Macarena
    et al.
    aptaTargets, Spain.
    Cotgreave, Ian
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Kemiska processer och läkemedel.
    Ribo, Marc
    aptaTargets, Spain; Hospital Vall d’Hebron, Spain.
    Safety and Efficacy of ApTOLL in Patients With Ischemic Stroke Undergoing Endovascular Treatment2023Inngår i: JAMA Neurology, ISSN 2168-6149, E-ISSN 2168-6157, Vol. 80, nr 8, s. 779-788Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Importance ApTOLL is a TLR4 antagonist with proven preclinical neuroprotective effect and a safe profile in healthy volunteers. Objective To assess the safety and efficacy of ApTOLL in combination with endovascular treatment (EVT) for patients with ischemic stroke. Design, Setting, and Participants This phase 1b/2a, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was conducted at 15 sites in Spain and France from 2020 to 2022. Participants included patients aged 18 to 90 years who had ischemic stroke due to large vessel occlusion and were seen within 6 hours after stroke onset; other criteria were an Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score of 6 to 10, estimated infarct core volume on baseline computed tomography perfusion of 5 to 70 mL, and the intention to undergo EVT. During the study period, 4174 patients underwent EVT. Interventions In phase 1b, 0.025, 0.05, 0.1, or 0.2 mg/kg of ApTOLL or placebo; in phase 2a, 0.05 or 0.2 mg/kg of ApTOLL or placebo; and in both phases, treatment with EVT and intravenous thrombolysis if indicated. Main Outcomes and Measures The primary end point was the safety of ApTOLL based on death, symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH), malignant stroke, and recurrent stroke. Secondary efficacy end points included final infarct volume (via MRI at 72 hours), NIHSS score at 72 hours, and disability at 90 days (modified Rankin Scale [mRS] score). Results In phase Ib, 32 patients were allocated evenly to the 4 dose groups. After phase 1b was completed with no safety concerns, 2 doses were selected for phase 2a; these 119 patients were randomized to receive ApTOLL, 0.05 mg/kg (n = 36); ApTOLL, 0.2 mg/kg (n = 36), or placebo (n = 47) in a 1:1:√2 ratio. The pooled population of 139 patients had a mean (SD) age of 70 (12) years, 81 patients (58%) were male, and 58 (42%) were female. The primary end point occurred in 16 of 55 patients (29%) receiving placebo (10 deaths [18.2%], 4 sICH [7.3%], 4 malignant strokes [7.3%], and 2 recurrent strokes [3.6%]); in 15 of 42 patients (36%) receiving ApTOLL, 0.05 mg/kg (11 deaths [26.2%], 3 sICH [7.2%], 2 malignant strokes [4.8%], and 2 recurrent strokes [4.8%]); and in 6 of 42 patients (14%) receiving ApTOLL, 0.2 mg/kg (2 deaths [4.8%], 2 sICH [4.8%], and 3 recurrent strokes [7.1%]). ApTOLL, 0.2 mg/kg, was associated with lower NIHSS score at 72 hours (mean difference log-transformed vs placebo, −45%; 95% CI, −67% to −10%), smaller final infarct volume (mean difference log-transformed vs placebo, −42%; 95% CI, −66% to 1%), and lower degrees of disability at 90 days (common odds ratio for a better outcome vs placebo, 2.44; 95% CI, 1.76 to 5.00). Conclusions and Relevance In acute ischemic stroke, 0.2 mg/kg of ApTOLL administered within 6 hours of onset in combination with EVT was safe and associated with a potential meaningful clinical effect, reducing mortality and disability at 90 days compared with placebo. These preliminary findings await confirmation from larger pivotal trials.

  • 26.
    Hidaka, R.
    et al.
    Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Japan.
    Masuda, Y.
    Matsumoto Dental University, Japan.
    Ogawa, K.
    Food Care Co Ltd, Japan.
    Tanaka, T.
    University of Tokyo, Japan.
    Kanazawa, M.
    Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Japan.
    Suzuki, K.
    University of Tsukuba, Japan.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel. Chalmers university of Technology, Sweden.
    Iijima, K.
    University of Tokyo, Japan.
    Matsuo, K.
    Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Japan.
    Impact of the Comprehensive Awareness Modification of Mouth, Chewing and Meal (CAMCAM) Program on the Attitude and Behavior Towards Oral Health and Eating Habits as Well as the Condition of Oral Frailty: A Pilot Study2023Inngår i: The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, ISSN 1279-7707, E-ISSN 1760-4788, Vol. 27, nr 5, s. 340-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Preserving sufficient oral function and maintaining adequate nutrition are essential for preventing physical frailty and the following long-term care. We recently developed the 6-month Comprehensive Awareness Modification of Mouth, Chewing And Meal (CAMCAM) program, in which participants gather monthly to learn about oral health and nutrition while eating a textured lunch together. This study examined whether the CAMCAM program could improve attitude and behavior towards oral health, mastication, and diet as well as ameliorate oral frailty in community-dwelling older adults. Design: Single-arm pre-post comparison study. Setting and Participants: A total of 271 community-dwelling adults (72.3 ± 5.7 years of age; 159 women [58.7%]) in 4 Japanese municipalities were recruited, of which 249 participants (92%) were assessed at the final evaluation. Intervention: Participants gathered once a month at community centers to learn about oral health and nutrition while eating a “munchy” textured lunch containing proper nutrition. Measurements: Oral frailty, frailty, and eating behavior were evaluated with the Oral Frailty Index-8 (OFI-8), Kihon checklist (KCL), and CAMCAM checklist, respectively. Participants were divided into Oral frailty (OF) and Robust groups according to OFI-8 scores. The differences in KCL and CAMCAM checklist results between the OF and Robust groups were statistically tested along with changes in scores after the program. Results: KCL and CAMCAM checklist scores were significantly lower in the OF group at the initial assessment. OFI-8 and KCL findings were significantly improved in the OF group after completing the program (all P <0.05). Regarding the CAMCAM checklist, awareness of chewing improved significantly in the Robust group (P=0.009), with a similar tendency in the OF group (P=0.080). Conclusion: The findings of this pilot study suggest that the CAMCAM program may improve both oral and systemic frailty in addition to attitudes towards chewing, oral health, and meals, especially in individuals with oral frailty. The CAMCAM program merits expansion as a community-based frailty prevention program. 

  • 27.
    Hutchinson, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Granskog, Viktor
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    von Kieseritzky, Johanna
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Alfort, Henrik
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Stenlund, Patrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Zhang, Yuning
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Arner, Marianne
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Håkansson, Joakim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Malkoch, Michael
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Highly Customizable Bone Fracture Fixation through the Marriage of Composites and Screws2021Inngår i: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 31, nr 41, artikkel-id 2105187Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Open reduction internal fixation (ORIF) metal plates provide exceptional support for unstable bone fractures; however, they often result in debilitating soft-tissue adhesions and their rigid shape cannot be easily customized by surgeons. In this work, a surgically feasible ORIF methodology, called AdhFix, is developed by combining screws with polymer/hydroxyapatite composites, which are applied and shaped in situ before being rapidly cured on demand via high-energy visible-light-induced thiol–ene coupling chemistry. The method is developed on porcine metacarpals with transverse and multifragmented fractures, resulting in strong and stable fixations with a bending rigidity of 0.28 (0.03) N m2 and a maximum load before break of 220 (15) N. Evaluations on human cadaver hands with proximal phalanx fractures show that AdhFix withstands the forces from finger flexing exercises, while short- and long-term in vivo rat femur fracture models show that AdhFix successfully supports bone healing without degradation, adverse effects, or soft-tissue adhesions. This procedure represents a radical new approach to fracture fixation, which grants surgeons unparalleled customizability and does not result in soft-tissue adhesions. © 2021 The Authors.

  • 28.
    Hutinel, Marion
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Huijbers, Patricia Maria Catharina
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Åhrén, Christina
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Region Västra Götaland, Sweden.
    Larsson, Dan Göran Joakim
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Flach, Carl-Fredrik
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Population-level surveillance of antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli through sewage analysis.2019Inngår i: Eurosurveillance, ISSN 1025-496X, E-ISSN 1560-7917, Vol. 24, nr 37, artikkel-id 1800497Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    IntroductionThe occurrence of antibiotic resistance in faecal bacteria in sewage is likely to reflect the current local clinical resistance situation.AimThis observational study investigated the relationship between Escherichia coli resistance rates in sewage and clinical samples representing the same human populations.MethodsE. coli were isolated from eight hospital (n = 721 isolates) and six municipal (n = 531 isolates) sewage samples, over 1 year in Gothenburg, Sweden. An inexpensive broth screening method was validated against disk diffusion and applied to determine resistance against 11 antibiotics in sewage isolates. Resistance data on E. coli isolated from clinical samples from corresponding local hospital and primary care patients were collected during the same year and compared with those of the sewage isolates by linear regression.ResultsE. coli resistance rates derived from hospital sewage and hospital patients strongly correlated (r2 = 0.95 for urine and 0.89 for blood samples), as did resistance rates in E. coli from municipal sewage and primary care urine samples (r2 = 0.82). Resistance rates in hospital sewage isolates were close to those in hospital clinical isolates while resistance rates in municipal sewage isolates were about half of those measured in primary care isolates. Resistance rates in municipal sewage isolates were more stable between sampling occasions than those from hospital sewage.ConclusionOur findings provide support for development of a low-cost, sewage-based surveillance system for antibiotic resistance in E. coli, which could complement current monitoring systems and provide clinically relevant antibiotic resistance data for countries and regions where surveillance is lacking.

  • 29.
    Håkansson, Joakim
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Metodik för produktframtagning. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Jenndahl, Lachmi
    Verigraft Ab, Sweden.
    Simonsson, Stina
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Johansson, Martin E
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Larsson, Karin
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Strehl, Raimund
    Verigraft AB, Sweden.
    Olsen Ekerhult, Teresa
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden.
    De- and recellularized urethral reconstruction with autologous buccal mucosal cells implanted in an ovine animal model2023Inngår i: Biomedizinische Technik (Berlin. Zeitschrift), ISSN 1862-278X, E-ISSN 0013-5585, Vol. 68, nr 5, s. 493-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Patients with urethral stricture due to any type of trauma, hypospadias or gender dysphoria suffer immensely from impaired capacity to urinate and are in need of a new functional urethra. Tissue engineering with decellularization of a donated organ recellularized with cells from the recipient patient has emerged as a promising alternative of advanced therapy medicinal products. The aim of this pilot study was to develop an ovine model of urethral transplantation and to produce an individualized urethra graft to show proof of function in vivo. Donated urethras from ram abattoir waste were decellularized and further recellularized with autologous buccal mucosa epithelial cells excised from the recipient ram and expanded in vitro. The individualized urethral grafts were implanted by reconstructive surgery in rams replacing 2.5 ± 0.5 cm of the native penile urethra. After surgery optimization, three ram had the tissue engineered urethra implanted for one month and two out of three showed a partially regenerated epithelium. Further adjustments of the model are needed to achieve a satisfactory proof-of-concept; however, we interpret these findings as a proof of principle and a possible path to develop a functional tissue engineered urethral graft with de- and recellularization and regeneration in vivo after transplantation. 

  • 30.
    Håkansson, Joakim
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Metodik för produktframtagning. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Juhlin, Oskar
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hovannisyan, Armen
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rosendahl, Jennifer
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Metodik för produktframtagning.
    Bogestål, Yalda
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Metodik för produktframtagning.
    Olmarker, Kjell
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Changes in ion-channels in the dorsal root ganglion after exposure to autologous nucleus pulposus and TNF. A rat experimental study2024Inngår i: Journal of Orthopaedics, ISSN 0972-978X, E-ISSN 2589-9082, Vol. 47, s. 23-27Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: It is known that contact of nucleus pulposus with the dorsal root ganglion may induce changes in nerve conduction and pain behavior. It has also been suggested that the behavioristic changes are caused by changes in voltage-gated ion channels, which in turn have been upregulated by TNF. Such upregulations have previously been shown for NaV 1.8 and NaV 1.9. In this investigation, we expanded the number of studied ion channels after the application of nucleus pulposus or TNF. Methods: Following removal of the left L4-5 fact joint, a disc puncture was performed and the dorsal root ganglion was exposed to nucleus pulposus (n = 5) and TNF (n = 5). Operated rats without disc puncture served as sham (n = 5) and 5 non-operated (naïve) rats were included. After 24 h, the DRGs were harvested and analyzed by quantitative PCR on validated pre-spotted primer plates displaying genes for 90 voltage-gated ion channels. Results: It was evident that the changes in operated animals were separate from the naïve rats. It was also apparent that gene expression changes in rats with nucleus pulposus or TNF application showed similar trends and were also separated from sham-operated animals. Conclusion: The application of nucleus pulposus and TNF onto the DRG in rats induces comparable changes in gene expression of several ion channels. Since the changes induced by TNF and NP are similar, one might also suspect that TNF mediates the NP-induced changes. However, such a mechanism needs further investigation. © 2023 The Authors

  • 31.
    Håkansson, Joakim
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Simsa, Robin
    VERIGRAFT AB, Sweden.
    Bogestål, Yalda
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Jenndahl, Lachmi
    VERIGRAFT AB, Sweden.
    Gustafsson-Hedberg, Tobias
    VERIGRAFT AB, Sweden.
    Petronis, Sarunas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Strehl, Raimund
    VERIGRAFT AB, Sweden.
    Österberg, Klas
    Sahlgrenska Academy, Sweden.
    Individualized tissue-engineered veins as vascular grafts: a proof of concept study in pig.2021Inngår i: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, ISSN 1932-6254, E-ISSN 1932-7005, Vol. 15, nr 10, s. 818-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Personalized tissue engineered vascular grafts are a promising advanced therapy medicinal product (ATMP) alternative to autologous or synthetic vascular grafts utilized in blood vessel bypass or replacement surgery. We hypothesized that an individualized tissue engineered vein (P-TEV) would make the body recognize the transplanted blood vessel as autologous, decrease the risk of rejection and thereby avoid lifelong treatment with immune suppressant medication as is standard with allogenic organ transplantation. To individualize blood vessels, we decellularized vena cava from six deceased donor pigs and tested them for cellular removal and histological integrity. A solution with peripheral blood from the recipient pigs was used for individualized reconditioning in a perfusion bioreactor for seven days prior to transplantation. To evaluate safety and functionality of the individualized vascular graft in vivo, we transplanted reconditioned porcine vena cava into six pigs and analyzed histology and patency of the graft at different time points, with three pigs at the final endpoint 4-5 weeks after surgery. Our results showed that the P-TEV was fully patent in all animals, did not induce any occlusion or stenosis formation and we did not find any signs of rejection. The P-TEV showed rapid recellularization in vivo with the luminal surface covered with endothelial cells. In summary, the results indicate that P-TEV is functional and have potential for use as clinical transplant grafts. 

  • 32.
    Jacobson, Petra Kristina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Lind, Leili
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Prototypande samhälle. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Persson, Hans L.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Applying the Rome Proposal on Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Does Comorbid Chronic Heart Failure Matter?2023Inngår i: The International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, ISSN 1176-9106, E-ISSN 1178-2005, Vol. 18, s. 2055-2064Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Chronic heart failure (CHF) is a common comorbidity among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Both exacerbations of COPD (ECOPDs) and exacerbations of CHF (ECHFs) display worsening of breathlessness at rest (BaR) and breathlessness at physical activity (BaPA). Comorbid CHF may have an impact on the vital signs assessed, when the Rome proposal (adopted by GOLD 2023) is applied on ECOPDs. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of comorbid CHF on ECOPDs severity, particularly focusing on the influence of comorbid CHF on BaR and BaPA. Methods: We analysed data on COPD symptoms collected from the telehealth study The eHealth Diary. Patients with COPD (n = 43) and patients with CHF (n = 41) were asked to daily monitor BaR and BaPA, employing a digital pen and scales for BaR and BaPA (from 0 to 10). Twenty-eight patients of the COPD patients presented with comorbid CHF. Totally, 125 exacerbations were analysed. Results: Exacerbations in the group with COPD patients and comorbid CHF were compared to the group with COPD patients without comorbid CHF and the group with CHF patients. Compared with GOLD 2022, the GOLD 2023 (the Rome proposal) significantly downgraded the ECOPD severity. Comorbid CHF did not interfere significantly on the observed difference. Comorbid CHF did not worsen BaR scores, assessed at inclusion and at the symptom peak of the exacerbations. Conclusion: In the present study, we find no evidence that comorbid CHF would interfere significantly with the parameters included in the Rome proposal (GOLD 2023). We conclude that the Rome proposal can be safely applied even on COPD patients with very advanced comorbid CHF.

  • 33.
    Jacobson, Petra
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Lind, Leili
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Prototypande samhälle. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Persson, Hans L
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    The Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Which Symptom is Most Important to Monitor?2023Inngår i: The International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, ISSN 1176-9106, E-ISSN 1178-2005, Vol. 18, s. 1533-1541Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: GOLD 2023 defines an exacerbation of COPD (ECOPD) by a deterioration of breathlessness at rest (BaR), mucus and cough. The severity of an ECOPD is determined by the degree of BaR, ranging from 0 to 10. However, it is not known which symptom is the most important one to detect early of an ECOPD, and which symptom that predicts future ECOPDs best. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to find out which symptom is the most important one to monitor. Methods: We analysed data on COPD symptoms from the telehealth study The eHealth Diary. Frequent exacerbators (n = 27) were asked to daily monitor BaR and breathlessness at physical activity (BaPA), mucus and cough, employing a digital pen and symptom scales (0–10). Twenty-seven patients with 105 ECOPDs were analysed. The association between symptom development and the occurrence of exacerbations was evaluated using the Andersen–Gill formulation of the Cox proportional hazards model for the analysis of recurrent time-to-event data with time-varying predictors. Results: According to the criteria proposed by GOLD 2023, 42% ECOPDs were mild, 48% were moderate and 5% were severe, while 6% were undefinable. Mucus and cough improved over study time, while BaR and BaPA deteriorated. Mucus appeared earliest, which was the most prominent feature of the average exacerbation, and worsening of mucus increased the risk for a future ECOPD. There was a 58% increase in the risk of exacerbation per unit increase in mucus score. Conclusion: This study suggests that mucus worsening is the most important COPD symptom to monitor to detect ECOPDs early and to predict future risk för ECOPDs. In the present study, we also noticed a pronounced difference between GOLD 2022 and 2023. Hence, GOLD 2023 defined the ECOPD severity much lower than GOLD 2022 did. © 2023 Jacobson et al.

  • 34.
    Jacobson, Petra
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Lind, Leili
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Prototypande samhälle. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Persson, Hans Lennart
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Unleashing the Power of Very Small Data to Predict Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease2023Inngår i: The International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, ISSN 1176-9106, E-ISSN 1178-2005, Vol. 18, s. 1457-1473Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: In this article, we explore to what extent it is possible to leverage on very small data to build machine learning (ML) models that predict acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). Methods: We build ML models using the small data collected during the eHealth Diary telemonitoring study between 2013 and 2017 in Sweden. This data refers to a group of multimorbid patients, namely 18 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as the major reason behind previous hospitalisations. The telemonitoring was supervised by a specialised hospital-based home care (HBHC) unit, which also was responsible for the medical actions needed. Results: We implement two different ML approaches, one based on time-dependent covariates and the other one based on time-independent covariates. We compare the first approach with standard COX Proportional Hazards (CPH). For the second one, we use different proportions of synthetic data to build models and then evaluate the best model against authentic data. Discussion: To the best of our knowledge, the present ML study shows for the first time that the most important variable for an increased risk of future AECOPDs is “maintenance medication changes by HBHC”. This finding is clinically relevant since a sub-optimal maintenance treatment, requiring medication changes, puts the patient in risk for future AECOPDs. Conclusion: The experiments return useful insights about the use of small data for ML. © 2023 Jacobson et al.

  • 35.
    Jakobsson, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Cotgreave, Ian
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Kemiska processer och läkemedel.
    Furberg, Maria
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Arnberg, Niklas
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Svensson, Michael
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Potential physiological and cellular mechanisms of exercise that decrease the risk of severe complications and mortality following sars-cov-2 infection2021Inngår i: Sports, E-ISSN 2075-4663, Vol. 9, nr 9, artikkel-id 121Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has unmasked mankind’s vulnerability to biological threats. Although higher age is a major risk factor for disease severity in COVID-19, several predisposing risk factors for mortality are related to low cardiorespiratory and metabolic fitness, including obesity, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and hypertension. Reaching physical activity (PA) guideline goals contribute to protect against numerous immune and inflammatory disorders, in addition to multi-morbidities and mortality. Elevated levels of cardiorespiratory fitness, being non-obese, and regular PA improves immunological function, mitigating sustained low-grade systemic inflammation and age-related deterioration of the immune system, or immunosenescence. Regular PA and being non-obese also improve the antibody response to vaccination. In this review, we highlight potential physiological, cellular, and molecular mechanisms that are affected by regular PA, increase the host antiviral defense, and may determine the course and outcome of COVID-19. Not only are the immune system and regular PA in relation to COVID-19 discussed, but also the cardiovascular, respiratory, renal, and hormonal systems, as well as skeletal muscle, epigenetics, and mitochondrial function. © 2021 by the authors. 

  • 36.
    Jenndahl, L.
    et al.
    VERIGRAFT AB, Sweden.
    Österberg, K.
    Sahlgrenska Academy, Sweden.
    Bogestål, Yalda
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Metodik för produktframtagning.
    Simsa, R.
    VERIGRAFT AB, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Gustafsson-Hedberg, T.
    VERIGRAFT AB, Sweden.
    Stenlund, Patrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Metodik för produktframtagning.
    Petronis, Sarunas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Metodik för produktframtagning.
    Krona, Annika
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Fogelstrand, P.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Strehl, R.
    VERIGRAFT AB, Sweden.
    Håkansson, Joakim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Metodik för produktframtagning. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Personalized tissue-engineered arteries as vascular graft transplants: A safety study in sheep2022Inngår i: Regenerative Therapy, ISSN 2352-3204, Vol. 21, s. 331-341Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Patients with cardiovascular disease often need replacement or bypass of a diseased blood vessel. With disadvantages of both autologous blood vessels and synthetic grafts, tissue engineering is emerging as a promising alternative of advanced therapy medicinal products for individualized blood vessels. By reconditioning of a decellularized blood vessel with the recipient's own peripheral blood, we have been able to prevent rejection without using immunosuppressants and prime grafts for efficient recellularization in vivo. Recently, decellularized veins reconditioned with autologous peripheral blood were shown to be safe and functional in a porcine in vivo study as a potential alternative for vein grafting. In this study, personalized tissue engineered arteries (P-TEA) were developed using the same methodology and evaluated for safety in a sheep in vivo model of carotid artery transplantation. Five personalized arteries were transplanted to carotid arteries and analyzed for safety and patency as well as with histology after four months in vivo. All grafts were fully patent without any occlusion or stenosis. The tissue was well cellularized with a continuous endothelial cell layer covering the luminal surface, revascularized adventitia with capillaries and no sign of rejection or infection. In summary, the results indicate that P-TEA is safe to use and has potential as clinical grafts. 

  • 37.
    Jenvert, Rose-Marie
    et al.
    SenzaGen AB, Sweden.
    Larne, Olivia
    SenzaGen AB, Sweden.
    Johansson, Angelica
    SenzaGen AB, Sweden.
    Berglin, Mattias
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Metodik för produktframtagning.
    Pedersen, Emma
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Johansson, Henrik
    SenzaGen AB, Sweden.
    Evaluation of the applicability of GARDskin to predict skin sensitizers in extracts from medical device materials2024Inngår i: Frontiers in Toxicology, E-ISSN 2673-3080, Vol. 6, artikkel-id 1320367Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Biocompatibility testing of medical devices is governed by the ISO 10993 series of standards and includes evaluation of skin sensitization potential of the final product. A majority of all medical devices are tested using in vivo methods, largely due to the lack of in vitro methods validated within the applicability domain of solid materials. The GARDskin method for assessment of chemical skin sensitizers is a validated method included in the OECD Test Guideline 442E, based on evaluation of transcriptional patterns of an endpoint-specific genomic biomarker signature in a dendritic cell-like cell, following test chemical exposure. The current study aimed to evaluate the applicability of GARDskin for the purpose of testing solid materials by incorporation of extraction procedures described in ISO 10993-12:2021, as well as to demonstrate the functionality of the proposed protocols, by testing of custom-made materials spiked with sensitizing agents. It was shown that GARDskin is compatible with both polar and non-polar extraction vehicles frequently used for the purpose of medical device biological testing. Further, exploring three different material types spiked with up to four different sensitizing agents, as well as three unspiked control materials and commercial reference products, it was shown that the method correctly classified all evaluated test materials. Taken together, the data presented suggest that GARDskin may constitute a valid alternative to in vivo experimentation for the purpose of skin sensitization assessment of medical devices. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 38.
    Jerdhaf, Oskar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Santini, Marina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Prototypande samhälle.
    Lundberg, Peter
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Anette
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Arne
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Focused Terminology Extraction for CPSs The Case of "Implant Terms" in Electronic Medical Records2021Inngår i: 2021 IEEE International Conference on Communications Workshops (ICC Workshops), 2021Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Language Technology is an essential component of many Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs) because specialized linguistic knowledge is indispensable to prevent fatal errors. We present the case of automatic identification of implant terms. The need of an automatic identification of implant terms spurs from safety reasons because patients who have an implant may or may be not submitted to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Normally, MRI scans are safe. However, in some cases an MRI scan may not be recommended. It is important to know if a patient has an implant, because MRI scanning is incompatible with some implants. At present, the process of ascertain whether a patient could be at risk is lengthy, manual, and based on the specialized knowledge of medical staff. We argue that this process can be sped up, streamlined and become safer by sieving through patients’ medical records. In this paper, we explore how to discover implant terms in electronic medical records (EMRs) written in Swedish with an unsupervised approach. To this aim we use BERT, a state-of-the-art deep learning algorithm based on pre-trained word embeddings. We observe that BERT discovers a solid proportion of terms that are indicative of implants.

  • 39.
    Karazisis, Dimitrios
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ballo, Ahmed M.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; University of British Columbia, Canada.
    Petronis, Sarunas
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Medicinteknik. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Agheli, Hossein
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Emanuelsson, Lena
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Thomsen, Peter
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Omar, Omar
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    The role of well-defined nanotopography of titanium implants on osseointegration: Cellular and molecular events in vivo2016Inngår i: International Journal of Nanomedicine, ISSN 1176-9114, E-ISSN 1178-2013, Vol. 11, s. 1367-1382Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Mechanisms governing the cellular interactions with well-defined nanotopography are not well described in vivo. This is partly due to the difficulty in isolating a particular effect of nanotopography from other surface properties. This study employed colloidal lithography for nanofabrication on titanium implants in combination with an in vivo sampling procedure and different analytical techniques. The aim was to elucidate the effect of well-defined nanotopography on the molecular, cellular, and structural events of osseointegration. Materials and methods: Titanium implants were nanopatterned (Nano) with semispherical protrusions using colloidal lithography. Implants, with and without nanotopography, were implanted in rat tibia and retrieved after 3, 6, and 28 days. Retrieved implants were evaluated using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, histology, immunohistochemistry, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Results: Surface characterization showed that the nanotopography was well defined in terms of shape (semispherical), size (79±6 nm), and distribution (31±2 particles/μm2). EDS showed similar levels of titanium, oxygen, and carbon for test and control implants, confirming similar chemistry. The molecular analysis of the retrieved implants revealed that the expression levels of the inflammatory cytokine, TNF-α, and the osteoclastic marker, CatK, were reduced in cells adherent to the Nano implants. This was consistent with the observation of less CD163-positive macrophages in the tissue surrounding the Nano implant. Furthermore, periostin immunostaining was frequently detected around the Nano implant, indicating higher osteogenic activity. This was supported by the EDS analysis of the retrieved implants showing higher content of calcium and phosphate on the Nano implants. Conclusion: The results show that Nano implants elicit less periimplant macrophage infiltration and downregulate the early expression of inflammatory (TNF-α) and osteoclastic (CatK) genes. Immunostaining and elemental analyses show higher osteogenic activity at the Nano implant. It is concluded that an implant with the present range of well-defined nanocues attenuates the inflammatory response while enhancing mineralization during osseointegration.

  • 40.
    Kiasat, Ali
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Prast-Nielsen, Stefanie
    Science for Life Laboratory, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Rautiainen, Susanne
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Engstrand, Lars
    Science for Life Laboratory, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Andersson, Fredrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Kemisk och farmaceutisk toxikologi.
    Lindberg, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Kemisk och farmaceutisk toxikologi.
    Schuppe-Koistinen, Ina
    Science for Life Laboratory, Sweden: Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Löf Granström, Anna
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Ulf O.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Plasma bile acids in association with Crohn’s disease2024Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, ISSN 0036-5521, E-ISSN 1502-7708Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In addition to facilitating lipid digestions, bile acids (BA) are signalling molecules acting on receptors on immune cells and along the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The aim of this study was to assess if altered bile acid profiles in plasma are associated with Crohn’s disease (CD). Method: This cross-sectional study included individuals (aged ≥18 years) referred for colonoscopy at a tertiary centre in Stockholm between 2016 and 2019. All participants received bowel preparation, completed a lifestyle questionnaire and provided blood samples for analysis. During colonoscopy, severity of disease was graded, and biopsies were taken from colonic mucosa. In the current substudy, 88 individuals with CD and 88 age-matched controls were selected for analysis of BA in plasma with ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC). Linear regression models were then used to compare mean bile acid concentrations and concentration ratios between CD and controls. Results: Individuals with CD had lower plasma concentrations of the majority of secondary BA compared to controls, in total CD/CC ratio 0.60 (SE 0.12), p = 0.001. The most prominent observations were lower levels of deoxycolic acid derivates and lithocolic acid derivates among participants with CD. Moreover, plasma concentration for secondary BA among participants with active CD was significantly lower compared to those with CD in remission, CD active/CD remission ratio 0.65 (SE 0.11), p < 0.002. Conclusion: Crohn’s disease may be associated with altered plasma bile acid composition. The significance of colonic bacterial diversity in this context needs to be investigated in further studies. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 41.
    Kohal, R-J
    et al.
    University of Freiburg, Germany.
    von Schierholz, C
    University of Freiburg, Germany.
    Nold, J
    University of Freiburg, Germany.
    Spies, BC
    University of Freiburg, Germany.
    Adolfsson, Erik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Tillverkningsprocesser.
    Vach, K
    University of Freiburg, Germany.
    Burkhardt, F
    University of Freiburg, Germany.
    Influence of loading and aging on the fracture strength of an injection-molded two-piece zirconia implant restored with a zirconia abutment2023Inngår i: Clinical Oral Implants Research, ISSN 0905-7161, E-ISSN 1600-0501, Vol. 34, nr 2, s. 105-115Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To investigate the fracture strength and potential phase transformation of an injection-molded two-piece zirconia implant restored with a zirconia abutment after loading and/or aging. Methods: Thirty-two two-piece zirconia implants (4.0 mm diameter) restored with zirconia abutments were embedded according to ISO 14801 and divided into four groups (n = 8/group): Three groups were either exclusively hydrothermally treated (group HT; 85°C), dynamically loaded (group DL; 107 cycles; 98 N), or subjected to both treatments simultaneously (group DL/HT). One group remained untreated (group 0). A sample from each group was cross-sectioned and examined by scanning electron microscopy for possible crystal phase transformation. The remaining samples were then loaded to fracture in a static loading test. A one-way ANOVA was used for statistical analyses. Results: During dynamic loading, three implants of group DL and six implants of group DL/HT fractured at a load of 98 N. The fracture strength of group DL/HT (108 ± 141 Ncm) was significantly reduced compared to the other groups (group 0: 342 ± 36 Ncm; HT: 363 ± 49 Ncm; DL: 264 ± 198 Ncm) (p &lt;.05). Fractures from group 0 and HT occurred at both implant and abutment level, whereas implants from group DL and DL/HT fractured only at implant level. A shallow monoclinic transformation zone of approximately 2 μm was observed following hydrothermal treatment. Conclusions: Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that dynamic loading and the combination of loading and aging reduced the fracture strength of the implant abutment combination. Hydrothermal treatment caused a shallow transformation zone which had no influence on the fracture strength. © 2022 The Authors. 

  • 42.
    Larsson, Helene
    et al.
    NU Hospital Group, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Albinsson Högberg, Sofie
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lind, Markus
    NU Hospital Group, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Rabe, Hardis
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Metodik för produktframtagning. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lingblom, Christine
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Investigating immune profile by CyTOF in individuals with long-standing type 1 diabetes2023Inngår i: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 13, nr 1, artikkel-id 8171Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease caused by T-cell mediated destruction of pancreatic beta cells. Eosinophils are found in pancreatic tissue from individuals with T1D. Eosinophilic suppression of T cells is dependent of the protein galectin-10. Little is known when it comes to the role of eosinophil granulocytes in type 1 diabetes. Here we show that individuals with long-standing T1D had lower levels of galectin-10hi eosinophils and a subgroup of galectin-10hi eosinophils were entirely absent in all T1D patients. In addition, 7% immature eosinophils were present in the circulation of T1D patients whereas 0.8% in healthy individuals. Furthermore, higher levels of CD4+CD8+ T cells and Th17 cells were observed in patients with T1D. Blood samples from 12 adult individuals with long-standing T1D and 12 healthy individuals were compared using cytometry by time-of-flight. Lower levels of galectin-10hi eosinophils, which are potent T cell suppressors, in individuals with T1D could indicate that activated T cells are enabled to unrestrictedly kill the insulin producing beta cells. This is the first study showing absence of galectin-10hi eosinophilic subgroup in individuals with T1D compared with healthy controls. This study is a first important step toward unraveling the role of the eosinophils in patients with T1D. 

  • 43.
    Mahlapuu, Margit
    et al.
    Promore Pharma AB, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Håkansson, Joakim
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Medicinteknik.
    Ringstad, Lovisa
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Life Science.
    Björn, Camilla
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Medicinteknik. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Antimicrobial peptides: An emerging category of therapeutic agents2016Inngår i: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, E-ISSN 2235-2988, Vol. 6, nr DEC, artikkel-id 194Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), also known as host defense peptides, are short and generally positively charged peptides found in a wide variety of life forms from microorganisms to humans. Most AMPs have the ability to kill microbial pathogens directly, whereas others act indirectly by modulating the host defense systems. Against a background of rapidly increasing resistance development to conventional antibiotics all over the world, efforts to bring AMPs into clinical use are accelerating. Several AMPs are currently being evaluated in clinical trials as novel anti-infectives, but also as new pharmacological agents to modulate the immune response, promote wound healing, and prevent post-surgical adhesions. In this review, we provide an overview of the biological role, classification, and mode of action of AMPs, discuss the opportunities and challenges to develop these peptides for clinical applications, and review the innovative formulation strategies for application of AMPs.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 44.
    Mateva, Gergana
    et al.
    National Diagnostic Research Veterinary Institute, Bulgaria.
    Pedersen, Karl
    National Veterinary Institute, Sweden; DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Sørensen, Gitte
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark; Statens Serum Institut Section for Foodborne, Denmark.
    Torpdahl, Mia
    Statens Serum Institut Section for Foodborne, Denmark.
    Daskalov, Hristo
    National Diagnostic Research Veterinary Institute, Bulgaria.
    Löfström, Charlotta
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel. DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Alexandar, Irina
    Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Bulgaria.
    Genetic polymorphism and antimicrobial resistance of salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis isolates from food chain sources2021Inngår i: Comptes Rendus de l'Academie Bulgare des Sciences / Proceedings of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, ISSN 1310-1331, E-ISSN 2367-5535, Vol. 74, nr 7, s. 977-986Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Salmonellosis is one of the most frequent food-borne infections. It is caused by infected food mainly of animal origin, although human to human transmission and numerous environmental contaminations may also be inflicted. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) is a common pathogen worldwide. In this study 49 S. Enteritidis isolates from veterinary and food sources in Bulgaria obtained during the years 2004 to 2012 were analysed. The multiple-locus variable-number of tandem repeats analysis (MLVA) genotyping and the antimicrobial resistance (AMR) to compare the isolates were used. Results showed that isolates were divided into twenty-four MLVA and nine AMR profiles. The calculated Simpson's diversity index was 0.956 for MLVA and 0.693 to be changed for AMR, respectively. The most frequent MLVA profiles presented according to the order of the loci sequenced SENTR7 - SENTR5 - SENTR6 - SENTR4 - SE-3 were: 3-11-5-3-3 (n = 6); 2-8-9-5-3 (n = 5); 2-11-13-5-3 (n = 5); 2-11-12-6-3 (n = 4); 2-11-10-5-3 (n = 3); 3- 9-5-4-3 (n = 3). The AMR revealed that 53.1% of the isolates were resistant to one and 4.1% to ≥ 4 antimicrobials. The MLVA profiles obtained in this study were compared to the published data and they have not been isolated on a frequent basis. A partial match was found for isolates in Belgium, Thailand, China, and USA only.

  • 45.
    Melin, Jeanette
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Cano, S. J.
    Modus Outcomes, UK.
    Flöel, A.
    University Medicine Greifswald, Germany; German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases, Germany.
    Göschel, L.
    Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany.
    Pendrill, Leslie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Construct specification equations: ‘Recipes’ for certified reference materials in cognitive measurement2021Inngår i: Measurement: Sensors, ISSN 2665-9174, Vol. 18, artikkel-id 100290Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Construct specification equations (CSEs), providing a comprehensive understanding of the construct purported to be measured and how a collection of items works together causally, are candidate ‘recipes for certified reference materials’ (CRM). Analogous to the role of CRMs in areas such as chemistry and material properties, CSEs appear to provide metrological traceability in the human sciences. In this work we illustrate how memory test items, Rasch Measurement Theory (RMT) and CSEs can be brought together to help ‘tell a clearer story’ about memory decline that links language- and cultural-free items (blocks, digits) to more complex word recall. Combining different test items to form novel cognitive metrics, done carefully so not jeopardize validity and to enhance coherence in item design and purpose, is guided by entropy-based equivalence criteria identified in the CSEs. The novel NeuroMET Memory Metric may enable better-informed high stakes decision-making and more efficient and valid cognitive assessment.

  • 46.
    Melin, Jeanette
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Cano, Stefan
    Modus Outcomes, UK.
    Flöel, Agnes
    University Medicine Greifswald, UK; German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases, UK.
    Göschel, Laura
    Universitätsmedizin Berlin as a Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin and Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Germany; NeuroCure Clinical Research Center, Charité—Universitätsmedizin Berlin as a Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin and Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Germany.
    Pendrill, Leslie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    The Role of Entropy in Construct Specification Equations (CSE) to Improve the Validity of Memory Tests: Extension to Word Lists2022Inngår i: Entropy, E-ISSN 1099-4300, Vol. 24, nr 7, artikkel-id 934Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Metrological methods for word learning list tests can be developed with an information theoretical approach extending earlier simple syntax studies. A classic Brillouin entropy expression is applied to the analysis of the Rey’s Auditory Verbal Learning Test RAVLT (immediate recall), where more ordered tasks—with less entropy—are easier to perform. The findings from three case studies are described, including 225 assessments of the NeuroMET2 cohort of persons spanning a cognitive spectrum from healthy older adults to patients with dementia. In the first study, ordinality in the raw scores is compensated for, and item and person attributes are separated with the Rasch model. In the second, the RAVLT IR task difficulty, including serial position effects (SPE), particularly Primacy and Recency, is adequately explained (Pearson’s correlation = 0.80) with construct specification equations (CSE). The third study suggests multidimensionality is introduced by SPE, as revealed through goodness-of-fit statistics of the Rasch analyses. Loading factors common to two kinds of principal component analyses (PCA) for CSE formulation and goodness-of-fit logistic regressions are identified. More consistent ways of defining and analysing memory task difficulties, including SPE, can maintain the unique metrological properties of the Rasch model and improve the estimates and understanding of a person’s memory abilities on the path towards better-targeted and more fit-for-purpose diagnostics. © 2022 by the authors. 

  • 47.
    Melin, Jeanette
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik. Swedish Defence University, Sweden.
    Göschel, Laura
    Freie Universität Berlin and Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Germany.
    Hagell, Peter
    Kristianstad University, Sweden.
    Westergren, Albert
    Kristianstad University, Sweden.
    Flöel, Agnes
    University Medicine Greifswald, Germany; DZNE German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases, Germany.
    Pendrill, Leslie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Forward and Backward Recalling Sequences in Spatial and Verbal Memory Tasks: What Do We Measure?2023Inngår i: Entropy, E-ISSN 1099-4300, Vol. 25, nr 5, artikkel-id 813Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There are different views in the literature about the number and inter-relationships of cognitive domains (such as memory and executive function) and a lack of understanding of the cognitive processes underlying these domains. In previous publications, we demonstrated a methodology for formulating and testing cognitive constructs for visuo-spatial and verbal recall tasks, particularly for working memory task difficulty where entropy is found to play a major role. In the present paper, we applied those insights to a new set of such memory tasks, namely, backward recalling block tapping and digit sequences. Once again, we saw clear and strong entropy-based construct specification equations (CSEs) for task difficulty. In fact, the entropy contributions in the CSEs for the different tasks were of similar magnitudes (within the measurement uncertainties), which may indicate a shared factor in what is being measured with both forward and backward sequences, as well as visuo-spatial and verbal memory recalling tasks more generally. On the other hand, the analyses of dimensionality and the larger measurement uncertainties in the CSEs for the backward sequences suggest that caution is needed when attempting to unify a single unidimensional construct based on forward and backward sequences with visuo-spatial and verbal memory tasks.

  • 48.
    Parker, H. E.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Sengupta, S.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Harish, A. V.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Soares, R.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Joensson, H. N.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Margulis, Walter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Russom, A.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Laurell, F.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Digital droplet microfluidic integrated lab-in-a-fiber detection of SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA2021Inngår i: Optics InfoBase Conference Papers, The Optical Society , 2021Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 49.
    Pasquier, Eva
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Rosendahl, Jennifer
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Metodik för produktframtagning.
    Solberg, Amalie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Ståhlberg, Anders
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Håkansson, Joakim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Metodik för produktframtagning. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Chinga Carrasco, Gary
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Polysaccharides and Structural Proteins as Components in Three-Dimensional Scaffolds for Breast Cancer Tissue Models: A Review2023Inngår i: Bioengineering, E-ISSN 2306-5354, Vol. 10, nr 6, artikkel-id 682Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women, and even though treatments are available, efficiency varies with the patients. In vitro 2D models are commonly used to develop new treatments. However, 2D models overestimate drug efficiency, which increases the failure rate in later phase III clinical trials. New model systems that allow extensive and efficient drug screening are thus required. Three-dimensional printed hydrogels containing active components for cancer cell growth are interesting candidates for the preparation of next generation cancer cell models. Macromolecules, obtained from marine- and land-based resources, can form biopolymers (polysaccharides such as alginate, chitosan, hyaluronic acid, and cellulose) and bioactive components (structural proteins such as collagen, gelatin, and silk fibroin) in hydrogels with adequate physical properties in terms of porosity, rheology, and mechanical strength. Hence, in this study attention is given to biofabrication methods and to the modification with biological macromolecules to become bioactive and, thus, optimize 3D printed structures that better mimic the cancer cell microenvironment. Ink formulations combining polysaccharides for tuning the mechanical properties and bioactive polymers for controlling cell adhesion is key to optimizing the growth of the cancer cells. © 2023 by the authors.

  • 50.
    Pendrill, Leslie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Assuring quality in person-centred healthcare2017Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
12 1 - 50 of 76
RefereraExporteraLink til resultatlisten
Permanent link
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annet format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annet språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
v. 2.43.0