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  • 1.
    Aarstad, Olav
    et al.
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Heggset, Ellinor B
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, PFI.
    Pedersen, Ina Sander
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Björnöy, Sindre H.
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Syverud, Kristin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, PFI.
    Strand, Berit L.
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Mechanical properties of composite hydrogels of alginate and cellulose nanofibrils2017In: Polymers, ISSN 2073-4360, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 9, no 8, article id 378Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alginate and cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) are attractive materials for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. CNF gels are generally weaker and more brittle than alginate gels, while alginate gels are elastic and have high rupture strength. Alginate properties depend on their guluronan and mannuronan content and their sequence pattern and molecular weight. Likewise, CNF exists in various qualities with properties depending on, e.g., morphology and charge density. In this study combinations of three types of alginate with different composition and two types of CNF with different charge and degree of fibrillation have been studied. Assessments of the composite gels revealed that attractive properties like high rupture strength, high compressibility, high gel rigidity at small deformations (Young’s modulus), and low syneresis was obtained compared to the pure gels. The effects varied with relative amounts of CNF and alginate, alginate type, and CNF quality. The largest effects were obtained by combining oxidized CNF with the alginates. Hence, by combining the two biopolymers in composite gels, it is possible to tune the rupture strength, Young’s modulus, syneresis, as well as stability in physiological saline solution, which are all important properties for the use as scaffolds in tissue engineering.

  • 2.
    Basu, Alex
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Lindh, Jonas
    Uppsala university, Sweden.
    Ålander, Eva
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Strömme, Maria
    Uppsala university, Sweden.
    Ferraz, Natalia
    Uppsala university, Sweden.
    On the use of ion-crosslinked nanocellulose hydrogels for wound healing solutions: Physicochemical properties and application-oriented biocompatibility studies2017In: Carbohydrate Polymers, ISSN 0144-8617, E-ISSN 1879-1344, Vol. 174, p. 299-308Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Calcium ion-crosslinked nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) hydrogels were investigated as potential materials for wound healing dressings. The physicochemical properties of the hydrogels were examined by rheology and water retention tests. Skin cells and monocytes were selected for application-oriented biocompatibility studies. The NFC hydrogels presented entangled fibrous networks and solid-like behavior. Water retention tests showed the materialÂŽs potential to maintain a suitable moist environment for different type of wounds. The hydrogels did not affect dermal fibroblasts monolayer cultures upon direct contact, as cell monolayers remained intact after application, incubation and removal of the materials. Inflammatory response studies with blood-derived mononuclear cells revealed the inert nature of the hydrogels in terms of cytokine secretion and reactive oxygen species production. Results highlight the great potential of ion-crosslinked NFC hydrogels for the development of advanced wound dressings, where further functionalization of the material could lead to improved properties towards the healing of specific wound types.

  • 3.
    Bergquist, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Mörck, M.
    From fever to flu: The rhetoric of reporting Asia in a Swedish business magazine1999In: AI & Society: The Journal of Human-Centred Systems and Machine Intelligence, ISSN 0951-5666, E-ISSN 1435-5655, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 235-246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper some aspects of the stereotyping of China and Japan are explored by using a sample of articles from a Swedish business magazine. The main objective is to show how stereotypes are adapted to capture new developments in economy and technology. During the years of high hopes for the largest Asian economies, stereotypes proved to be far from timeless and unchanging. Also a large number of metaphors were used to express perceived similarities between East and West, further undermining tradi-tional Western understanding of Asia as inert and eternally different. The recent decline of Japan put an end to this, creating a return to a vocabulary of cultural characterisations and explanations.

  • 4.
    Björn, Camilla
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Medicinteknik. University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Sahlgrenska Academy, Sweden.
    Antimicrobial peptides in the treatment of infectious and inflammatory conditions: Preclinical studies of mechanism of action, efficacy, and safety2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid emergence of antibiotic-resistant microbes worldwide and the urgent need of new antimicrobial agents have stimulated interest in antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) as new therapeutics for treatment of infectious diseases. AMPs are present in all living species and constitute an important part of the innate immune system in multicellular organisms, including humans. AMPs display a remarkably broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity covering both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including many antibiotic-resistant strains, as well as fungi, viruses, and protozoa. Further, in contrast to many conventional antibiotics, AMPs rapidly kill bacteria instead of just inhibiting bacterial growth. In addition, AMPs act as modulators of the innate immune system and, importantly, bacteria seem less efficient in developing resistance towards AMPs than towards conventional antibiotics. Together these properties make AMPs highly attractive as a new class of antimicrobials, with clinical potential also extending to diseases where inflammation is part of the pathology. The aim of this thesis was to study novel AMPs with respect to their mechanism of action (MOA), antimicrobial spectrum, propensity to select for resistance, and in vivo efficacy and safety. To achieve this, we used a number of in vitro and in vivo assays, together generating a comprehensive preclinical evaluation of the peptides. The hypothesis was that the AMPs in this thesis have potential to be developed as therapeutic agents for several infectious and inflammatory conditions, including treatment of skin and soft tissue infections and prevention of postsurgical adhesion formation. The results showed that all AMPs tested (i.e. PXL03, PXL150, HLR1r, and five variants of CEN1 HC-Br) had broad antimicrobial spectra in vitro with varying sensitivity to salt and serum. Furthermore, PXL150 caused a rapid permeabilization of bacterial membrane in vitro, indicating that this is at least one part of the MOA of this peptide. Under selection pressure in vitro, bacteria did not develop resistance to the peptides tested, i.e. PXL150 and CEN1 HC. Interestingly, all peptides showed anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting the secretion of proinflammatory mediators from stimulated human cell lines. In addition, PXL01, PXL150, and HLR1r demonstrated fibrinolytic ability in vitro by suppressing the release of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). In ex vivo and in vivo skin/wound infection models, the peptides reduced the number of viable bacteria and yeast cells. Further, PXL01 decreased postsurgical adhesion formation in vivo. Notably, nonclinical safety studies showed that PXL150 was safe and well tolerated. In conclusion, several of the peptides evaluated in this thesis demonstrated a promising preclinical efficacy and safety profile motivating further development as drug candidates for local treatment of infectious and inflammatory conditions.

  • 5.
    Björn, Camilla
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Medicinteknik. Pergamum AB, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Mahlapuu, Margit
    Pergamum AB, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Mattsby-Baltzer, Inger
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Håkansson, Joakim
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Medicinteknik. Pergamum AB, Sweden.
    Anti-infective efficacy of the lactoferrin-derived antimicrobial peptide HLR1r2016In: Peptides, ISSN 0196-9781, E-ISSN 1873-5169, Vol. 81, p. 21-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have emerged as a new class of drug candidates for the treatment of infectious diseases. Here we describe a novel AMP, HLR1r, which is structurally derived from the human milk protein lactoferrin and demonstrates a broad spectrum microbicidal action in vitro. The minimum concentration of HLR1r needed for killing ≥99% of microorganisms in vitro, was in the range of 3-50 μg/ml for common Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and for the yeast Candida albicans, when assessed in diluted brain-heart infusion medium. We found that HLR1r also possesses anti-inflammatory properties as evidenced by inhibition of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) secretion from human monocyte-derived macrophages and by repression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) secretion from human mesothelial cells, without any cytotoxic effect observed at the concentration range tested (up to 400 μg/ml). HLR1r demonstrated pronounced anti-infectious effect in in vivo experimental models of cutaneous candidiasis in mice and of excision wounds infected with MRSA in rats as well as in an ex vivo model of pig skin infected with S. aureus. In conclusion, HLR1r may constitute a new therapeutic alternative for local treatment of skin infections.

  • 6.
    Boge, Lukas
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Life Science. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Bysell, Helena
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Life Science.
    Ringstad, Lovisa
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Life Science.
    Wennman, David
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Process Development, Analys och fastfas.
    Umerska, Anita
    University of Angers, France.
    Cassisa, Viviane
    CHU Angers, France.
    Eriksson, Jonny
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Joly-Guillou, Marie-Laure
    CHU Angers, France.
    Edwards, Katarina
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Andersson, Martin
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lipid-based liquid crystals as carriers for antimicrobial peptides: Phase behavior and antimicrobial effect2016In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 32, no 17, p. 4217-4228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is increasing worldwide, and the demand for novel antimicrobials is constantly growing. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) could be an important part of future treatment strategies of various bacterial infection diseases. However, AMPs have relatively low stability, because of proteolytic and chemical degradation. As a consequence, carrier systems protecting the AMPs are greatly needed, to achieve efficient treatments. In addition, the carrier system also must administrate the peptide in a controlled manner to match the therapeutic dose window. In this work, lyotropic liquid crystalline (LC) structures consisting of cubic glycerol monooleate/water and hexagonal glycerol monooleate/oleic acid/water have been examined as carriers for AMPs. These LC structures have the capability of solubilizing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic substances, as well as being biocompatible and biodegradable. Both bulk gels and discrete dispersed structures (i.e., cubosomes and hexosomes) have been studied. Three AMPs have been investigated with respect to phase stability of the LC structures and antimicrobial effect: AP114, DPK-060, and LL-37. Characterization of the LC structures was performed using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), dynamic light scattering, ζ-potential, and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (Cryo-TEM) and peptide loading efficacy by ultra performance liquid chromatography. The antimicrobial effect of the LCNPs was investigated in vitro using minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and time-kill assay. The most hydrophobic peptide (AP114) was shown to induce an increase in negative curvature of the cubic LC system. The most polar peptide (DPK-060) induced a decrease in negative curvature while LL-37 did not change the LC phase at all. The hexagonal LC phase was not affected by any of the AMPs. Moreover, cubosomes loaded with peptides AP114 and DPK-060 showed preserved antimicrobial activity, whereas particles loaded with peptide LL-37 displayed a loss in its broad-spectrum bactericidal properties. AMP-loaded hexosomes showed a reduction in antimicrobial activity.

  • 7.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Stahl, Selim
    Lorentzon, Katarina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Berlin, Johanna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Socio-economic analysis based on a life cycle perspective: The comparison of existing and emerging production process for trimethyl phosphite2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Cano, Stefan J
    et al.
    Modus Outcomes, UK.
    Pendrill, Leslie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Barbic, Skye P
    University of British Columbia, Canada.
    Fisher Jr, William P
    University of California, USA.
    Patient-centred outcome metrology for healthcare decision-making2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Valid and precise quantification of clinical variables is essential for appropriate interpretation to inform healthcare decision making. The outcomes produced from different measurement procedures and instruments, purporting to quantify the same measurand, should be directly comparable. This ensures the appropriate application and widespread adoption of clinical research findings. Metrology provides a framework for the development of a common language of reference measurement systems, which have the potential to improve the accuracy and comparability of patients’ results. However, the practices, procedures and instruments used in social measurement are currently excluded from any formal metrological framework. In this paper, we build on previous arguments, and propose a new international body to bring together metrology, psychometrics, philosophy, and clinical management to support the global comparability and equivalence of measurement results in patient centred outcome measurement to improve healthcare.

  • 9.
    Cano, Stefan
    et al.
    Modus Outcomes, UK.
    Pendrill, Leslie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Melin, Jeanette
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Fisher, William
    University of California, US.
    Towards consensus measurement standards for patient-centered outcomes2019In: Measurement, Vol. 141, p. 62-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Patient centered outcomes pertain to a patient's beliefs, opinions and needs in conjunction with a clinician's medical expertise and assessment. The rise of patient-centered outcome (PCO) measurement parallels increased interest in patient-centered care. PCO measures offer the opportunity for more meaningful measurement of health outcomes informative enough to guide treatment decisions. However, it has been suggested that, for practical and scientific reasons, existing PCO measures are currently not capable of delivering the kind of quality assured measurement required for high-stakes decision making. Potential solutions include: addressing the lack of units in PCO measurement through recourse to mathematical models devised to define meaningful, invariant, and additive units of measurement with known uncertainties; establishing coordinated international networks of key stakeholders guided by five principles (i.e., collaboration, alignment, integration, innovation and communication); better use of technology leveraging measurement through item banks linking PCO reports via common items, common patients, or specification equations based in strong explanatory theory. And finally ensuring PCO measurement always is associated with: (1) a clear definition of the measurand in regards to the intended clinical use; (2) a clear definition of the clinically allowable error of measurement; (3) international cooperation and consensus to navigate the complexities of the development of metrologically sound reference measurement systems; and (4) continued clinical validation of newly calibrated measures. In this article, we illustrate the principles to improve PCO measures with examples from breast cancer, vision-related patient-reported outcome measures, and dementia clinician-reported and performance outcome measures.

  • 10.
    Carlred, Louise
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Medicinteknik. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Michno, Wojciech
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kaya, Ibrahim
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sjövall, Peter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Medicinteknik. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Syvänen, Stina
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Hanrieder, Jörg
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; University College London, UK.
    Probing amyloid-β pathology in transgenic Alzheimer's disease (tgArcSwe) mice using MALDI imaging mass spectrometry2016In: Journal of Neurochemistry, ISSN 0022-3042, E-ISSN 1471-4159, Vol. 138, no 3, p. 469-478Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The pathological mechanisms underlying Alzheimer's disease (AD) are still not understood. The disease pathology is characterized by the accumulation and aggregation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides into extracellular plaques, however the factors that promote neurotoxic Aβ aggregation remain elusive. Imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) is a powerful technique to comprehensively elucidate the spatial distribution patterns of lipids, peptides and proteins in biological tissues. In the present study, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS)-based imaging was used to study Aβ deposition in transgenic mouse brain tissue and to elucidate the plaque-associated chemical microenvironment. The imaging experiments were performed in brain sections of transgenic Alzheimer's disease mice carrying the Arctic and Swedish mutation of amyloid-beta precursor protein (tgArcSwe). Multivariate image analysis was used to interrogate the IMS data for identifying pathologically relevant, anatomical features based on their chemical identity. This include cortical and hippocampal Aβ deposits, whose amyloid peptide content was further verified using immunohistochemistry and laser microdissection followed by MALDI MS analysis. Subsequent statistical analysis on spectral data of regions of interest revealed brain region-specific differences in Aβ peptide aggregation. Moreover, other plaque-associated protein species were identified including macrophage migration inhibitory factor suggesting neuroinflammatory processes and glial cell reactivity to be involved in AD pathology. The presented data further highlight the potential of IMS as a powerful approach in neuropathology. Hanrieder et al. described an imaging mass spectrometry based study on comprehensive spatial profiling of C-terminally truncated Aβ species within individual plaques in tgArcSwe mice. Here, brain region-dependent differences in Aβ truncation and other plaque-associated proteins, such as macrophage migration inhibitory factor, were observed. The data shed further light on plaque-associated molecular mechanisms implicated in Alzheimer's pathogenesis.

  • 11.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Advanced biomaterials based on nanofibrillated cellulose: from nanopapers to nanomedicine2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) offers a wide range of interesting opportunities and advantages, being biodegradable, renewable and thus environmentally sound. Extensive research has been performed on the effective production and application of NFC. The proposed applications extend from being a component in paper, coatings and composite materials to being applied in bio-medicine as part of wound dressings or in drug delivery systems. Some of the major advantages of NFC are the dimensions and the structural and chemical composition of nanofibrils, which lead to the formation of dense networks with optimized optical and mechanical properties. In this respect, the concept of nanopaper has been introduced. Nanopapers are strong structures, with high light transmittance and smooth surfaces. These characteristics open for novel applications, including the formation of smooth substrates for printing functionality. A recently explored example is the printing of bioactive biomacromolecules and conductive structures on tailor-made nanopapers, which could form the basis for novel biosensors. Additionally, nanobarriers are most promising in novel packaging applications where the self-assembly properties of the material facilitate the formation of dense structures with high barrier against oxygen. However, NFC alone does not seem to be sufficient for the formation of adequate nanobarriers due to the brittle and hygroscopic characteristics of the material. Novel biocomposite concepts need thus closer attention, where the strong and high barrier properties of NFC could be complemented with adequate bioplastics and additives for the formation of ductile films, suitable for conversion processes. From the biomedical point of view, NFC offers several advantages. Depending on the structural and chemical composition of the material and the cross-linking with adequate polymers and particles, micro-porous and elastic gels can be formed. Such gels can hold a considerable amount of water, thus being an excellent material for keeping a moist environment during wound healing and for facilitating the regeneration process of human tissue. Additionally, NFC gels based on oxidized nanofibrils can have pH-sensitive characteristics, a property with potential in drug delivery. With the intention of giving an extensive description of NFC and its modern applications, this presentation will be divided into three main sections; i) production and definition, ii) characterization including structural, chemical and biological aspects and iii) novel applications of NFC from nanopapers to biomedical devices.

  • 12.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Kirsebom, H.
    Syverud, Kristin
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Designing nanocellulose qualities for wound dressings2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Powell, L.C
    Cardiff University School of Dentistry, UK; Swansea University, UK.
    Khan, S
    Cardiff University, UK.
    Hill, K.E
    Cardiff University UK.
    Thomas, D.W
    Cardiff University, UK.
    Wood nanocellulose: Characterization and potential application as barrier against wound bacteria2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood nanocellulose is a novel biomaterial for wound dressing applications. Wood nanocellulose was produced from never-dried P. radiata pulp fibres. The applied pre-treatment was 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyl-1-oxyl  (TEMPO) mediated oxidation. To characterise bacterial growth, P. aeruginosa PAO1 biofilms were grown in Mueller Hinton broth on air-dried films. Various microscopy techniques, including atomic force microscopy (AFM), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), were applied to characterise the nanocellulose material and the bacterial-nanocellulose interactions.   Multiscale assessments, including FESEM and AFM, revealed the effective fibrillation of the fibre wall structure, yielding nanofibrils with diameters less than 20 nm and lengths in the micrometre-scale. Importantly, we have demonstrated that the growth of PAO1 was inhibited in the presence of the nanocellulose suspensions when compared to the control. Additionally, SEM imaging revealed distinct clusters of PAO1 cells growing on the surfaces of nanocellulose films. This work highlights the potential usefulness of novel nanocellulose materials in wound dressings with optimized characteristics.

  • 14.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Powell, L.C
    Cardiff University School of Dentistry, UK; Swansea University, UK.
    Nordli, H.R
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Khan, S
    Cardiff University, UK.
    Hill, K.E
    Cardiff University, UK.
    Syverud, Kristin
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Thomas, D.W
    Cardiff University, UK.
    Nanocellulose from wood as a biomaterial for biomedical applications2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decades major efforts have been made to produce nanocellulose from wood, where the cellulose fibres are disintegrated into individualized nanofibrils with diameters < 20 nm and lengths in the micrometre scale. Production procedures include various pre-treatments, which yield nanocelluloses with varying chemical and structural properties. One important area of research is nanocellulose as a biomaterial with potential applications within the health sector. As an example, the superior mechanical properties, good moisture retention capability and the ability to form elastic macro-porous structures are advantageous properties for utilizing nanocellulose substrates for wound dressings. However, the utilization of nanocellulose as a substrate for wound dressings requires a thorough assessment of the biocompatibility of the material.  In this respect, it has been demonstrated in-vitro that nanocellulose does not exert acute toxic phenomena on fibroblast cells. However, in addition to in-vitro cytotoxicity testing, in-vivo testing of nanocellulose and the ability of nanocellulose to resist bacterial colonization need a closer attention. This presentation will give an overview of the current research on nanocellulose as a biomaterial for wound dressing applications, considering the morphology of nanocellulose structures, mechanical properties, moisture absorption, cytotoxicity tests and nanocellulose-bacteria interactions.

  • 15.
    Choi, Hyunok
    et al.
    University at Albany, USA.
    Schmidbauer, Norbert
    Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Norway.
    Bornehag, Carl Gustav
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology. Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Volatile organic compounds of possible microbial origin and their risks on childhood asthma and allergies within damp homes2017In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 98, p. 143-151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Risk of indoor exposure to volatile organic compounds of purported microbial origin on childhood symptoms of wheezing, rhinitis, and/or eczema, and doctor-diagnosed asthma, rhinitis, and eczema, respectively, remain unclear. Objective To test hypotheses that total sum of 28 microbial volatile organic compounds (Σ26 MVOCs): 1) poses independent risk on doctor-diagnosed asthma, rhinitis, and eczema, respectively, as well as multiple symptom presentation with a minimum of the two of the above conditions (i.e. case); 2) is associated with significant interaction with absolute humidity (AH) on additive scale. Methods In a case-control investigation, 198 cases and 202 controls were examined during November 2001 – March 2002 period through home indoor air sampling, air quality inspection, and health outcome ascertainment. Results Not only the Σ28 MVOCs but also the global MVOC index were significantly higher within the homes of the cases with a high AH, compared to the controls with a low AH (all Ps < 0.001). Only the cases, but not the controls, were associated with a dose-dependent increase in the exposure variables of interest (Σ28 MVOCs) per quartile increase in AH (P < 0.0001 for the cases; P = 0.780 for the controls). Only among the children who live in a high AH homes, a natural log (ln)-unit of Σ 28 MVOCs was associated with 2.5-times greater odds of the case status (95% CI, 1.0–6.2; P = 0.046), compared to 0.7-times the odds (95% CI, 0.4–1.0; P = 0.074) of the same outcome among the low AH homes. Specifically, joint exposure to a high MVOCs and high AH was associated with 2.6-times greater odds of the doctor-diagnosed asthma status (95% CI, 0.7–8.91; P = 0.137). Conclusion Joint occurrence of high Σ28 MVOCs and AH was associated with a significant increase in the case status and asthma risks in an additive scale.

  • 16.
    Colombo, Stefan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Brisander, Magnus
    XSpray Microparticles AB, Sweden.
    Haglöf, Jakob
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Sjövall, Peter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Medicinteknik.
    Andersson, Per
    XSpray Microparticles AB, Sweden.
    Østergaard, Jesper
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Malmsten, Martin
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Matrix effects in nilotinib formulations with pH-responsive polymer produced by carbon dioxide-mediated precipitation2015In: International Journal of Pharmaceutics, ISSN 0378-5173, E-ISSN 1873-3476, Vol. 494, no 1, p. 205-217, article id 15114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Factors determining the pH-controlled dissolution kinetics of nilotinib formulations with the pH-titrable polymer hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate, obtained by carbon dioxide-mediated precipitation, were mechanistically examined in acid and neutral environment. The matrix effect, modulating the drug dissolution, was characterized with a battery of physicochemical methodologies, including ToF-SIMS for surface composition, SAXS/WAXS and modulated DSC for crystallization characterization, and simultaneous UV-imaging and Raman spectroscopy for monitoring the dissolution process in detail. The hybrid particle formulations investigated consisted of amorphous nilotinib embedded in a polymer matrix in single continuous phase, displaying extended retained amorphicity also under wet conditions. It was demonstrated by Raman and FTIR spectroscopy that the efficient drug dispersion and amorphization in the polymer matrix were mediated by hydrogen bonding between the drug and the phthalate groups on the polymer. Simultaneous Raman and UV-imaging studies of the effect of drug load on the swelling and dissolution of the polymer matrix revealed that high nilotinib load prevented matrix swelling on passage from acid to neutral pH, thereby preventing re-precipitation and re-crystallization of incorporated nilotinib. These findings provide a mechanistic foundation of formulation development of nilotinib and other protein kinase inhibitors, which are now witnessing an intense therapeutic and industrial attention due to the difficulty in formulating these compounds so that efficient oral bioavailability is reached.

  • 17.
    de Fine Licht, Karl
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Justifying Antibiotic Resistance Interventions: Uncertainty, Precaution and Ethics2018In: Ethics and Drug-Resistant Infections:  Collective Responsibility for Global Public Health / [ed] Jamrozik E. och Selgelid M.J, Springer, 2018, 5Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter charts and critically analyses the ethical challenge of assessing how much (and what kind of) evidence is required for the justification of interventions in response antibiotic resistance (ABR), as well as other major public health threats. Our ambition here is to chart and briefly discuss main issues, and point to ways in which these need to be further advanced in future research. This will result in a tentative map of complications, underlying problems and possible challenges. This map illustrates that the ethical challenges in this area are much more complex and profound than is usually acknowledged, leaving no tentatively plausible intervention package free of downsides. This creates potentially overwhelming theoretical conundrums when trying to justify what to do. We therefore end by pointing out two general features of the complexity we find to be of particular importance, and a tentative suggestion for how to create a theoretical basis for further analysis.

  • 18.
    Fadeel, Bengt
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Fornara, Andrea
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Toprak, Muhammet S.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Bhattacharya, Kunal
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Keeping it real: The importance of material characterization in nanotoxicology2015In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 468, no 3, p. 498-503Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanomaterials are small and the small size and corresponding large surface area of nanomaterials confers specific properties, making these materials desirable for various applications, not least in medicine. However, it is pertinent to ask whether size is the only property that matters for the desirable or detrimental effects of nanomaterials? Indeed, it is important to know not only what the material looks like, but also what it is made of, as well as how the material interacts with its biological surroundings. It has been suggested that guidelines should be implemented on the types of information required in terms of physicochemical characterization of nanomaterials for toxicological studies in order to improve the quality and relevance of the published results. This is certainly a key issue, but it is important to keep in mind that material characterization should be fit-for-purpose, that is, the information gathered should be relevant for the end-points being studied.

  • 19.
    Hedberg, Y. S.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Pradhan, S.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Cappellini, F.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Karlsson, M. -E
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Blomberg, Eva
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Life Science. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Karlsson, H. L.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Odnevall Wallinder, I.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Hedberg, J. F.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Electrochemical surface oxide characteristics of metal nanoparticles (Mn, Cu and Al) and the relation to toxicity2016In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 212, p. 360-371Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most metal nanoparticles (NPs), except noble metal NPs, rapidly form a thin surface oxide in ambient conditions. The protective properties of these oxides improve or worsen depending on the environment, e.g., the human lung. Several properties, including the chemical/electrochemical stability and defect density, determine the capacity of these surface oxides to hinder the bulk metal from further oxidation (corrosion). The aim of this study was to investigate whether electrochemical surface oxide characterization of non-functionalized base metal NPs of different characteristics (Al, Mn and Cu) can assist in understanding their bioaccessibility (metal release) in cell media (DMEM+) and their cytotoxic properties following exposure in lung epithelial (A549) cells. The composition and valence states of surface oxides of metal NPs and their electrochemical activity were investigated using an electrochemical technique based on a graphite paste electrode to perform cyclic voltammetry in buffer solutions and open circuit potential measurements in DMEM+. The electrochemical surface oxide characterization was complemented and verified by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The open circuit potential trends in DMEM+ correlated well with metal release results in the same solution, and provided information on the kinetics of oxide dissolution in the case of Cu NPs. Extensive particle agglomeration in cell medium (DMEM+) was observed by means of photon-cross correlation spectroscopy for all metal NPs, with sedimentation taking place very quickly. As a consequence, measurements of the real dose of added non-functionalized metal NPs to cell cultures for cytotoxicity testing from a sonicated stock solution were shown necessary. The cytotoxic response was found to be strongly correlated to changes in physico-chemical and electrochemical properties of the surface oxides of the metal NPs, the most potent being Cu NPs, followed by Mn NPs. No cytotoxicity was observed for Al NPs. The electrochemical surface oxide characterization corresponded well with other tools commonly used for nanotoxicological characterization and provided additional information.

  • 20.
    Hornborg, Sara
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Hallström, Elinor
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Bergman, Kristina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Troell, Max
    Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Centre, Sweden.
    Jonell, Malin
    Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Centre, Sweden.
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Henriksson, Patrik
    Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Centre, Sweden; WorldFish, Malaysia.
    Frisk med fisk utan risk?: Betydelsen av svensk konsumtion av sjömat för hälsa och miljö2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Seafood is a diverse food commodity, comprising of over 2 500 species from capture fisheries and over 600 species from farming, with vast differences between production methods. Dietary advice often includes recommendations to increase consumption of seafood, based on health benefits and that seafood may be produced with less environmental impacts and resources use compared to many other animal-based foods. However, at the same time, there are frequent media alarms related to potential health risks (some species have diet restrictions) and destructive production practices from both fisheries and aquaculture. As a result, there is often confusion on which seafood to eat or not to eat.The aim of this report is primarily to collate available information on health risks and benefits of Swedish seafood consumption, and to combine this with environmental aspects (focus on carbon footprint).Around 40 seafood products consumed in Sweden were included in the analysis. Potential health risks could only be included qualitatively, since the collected data is risk-based and thus not all products are sampled. It was found that the nutritional content and carbon footprint vastly differ between species. There were also several data gaps identified, such as the need for more detailed data on performance from different production systems. The combined assessment of nutritional value and carbon footprint categorised some species as win-win in terms of nutritional content and environmental pressures (such as small pelagic fish), while others could be more categorised as having less nutritional value and with high environmental costs (such as Northern prawn) respectively.The report provides decision support for further data collection needed to enable combined assessment of nutritional risks, benefits and environmental sustainability of seafood products. Results may be used to discuss suitable level of details of dietary advice.

  • 21.
    Jack, Alison A.
    et al.
    Cardiff University School of Dentistry, UK.
    Nordli, Henriette R.
    NTNU, Norway.
    Powell, Lydia C.
    Cardiff University School of Dentistry, UK.
    Powell, Kate A.
    Cardiff University School of Dentistry, UK.
    Kishnani, Himanshu
    Cardiff University School of Dentistry, UK.
    Johnsen, Per Olav
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, PFI.
    Pukstad, Brita
    Trondheim University Hospital, Norway.
    Thomas, David W.
    Cardiff University School of Dentistry, UK.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, PFI.
    Hill, Katja E.
    Cardiff University School of Dentistry, UK.
    The interaction of wood nanocellulose dressings and the wound pathogen P. aeruginosa2017In: Carbohydrate Polymers, ISSN 0144-8617, E-ISSN 1879-1344, Vol. 157, p. 1955-1962Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chronic wounds pose an increasingly significant worldwide economic burden (over £1 billion per annum in the UK alone). With the escalation in global obesity and diabetes, chronic wounds will increasingly be a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) are highly versatile and can be tailored with specific physical properties to produce an assortment of three-dimensional structures (hydrogels, aerogels or films), for subsequent utilization as wound dressing materials. Growth curves using CNF (diameter &lt;20 nm) in suspension demonstrated an interesting dose-dependent inhibition of bacterial growth. In addition, analysis of biofilm formation (Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1) on nanocellulose aerogels (20 g/m2) revealed significantly less biofilm biomass with decreasing aerogel porosity and surface roughness. Importantly, virulence factor production by P. aeruginosa in the presence of nanocellulose materials, quantified for the first time, was unaffected (p &gt; 0.05) over 24 h. These data demonstrate the potential of nanocellulose materials in the development of novel dressings that may afford significant clinical potential.

  • 22. Johansson Hanse, Jan
    et al.
    Harlin, Ulrika
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF, Arbetsmiljö.
    Jarebrant, Caroline
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF, Arbetsmiljö.
    Winkel, Jörgen
    Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) and Psychosocial Factors at Work Among Healthcare Professionals2014In: Journal of Nursing and Care, ISSN 2167-1168 JNC, Vol. 3, no 5, p. 1-5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The study aims to examine the associations between leader–member exchange (LMX) and psychosocial factors at work.

    Methods: A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was undertaken at four units in two not-for-profit hospitals in southwestern Sweden. The study sample included 240 employees.

    Results: Significant correlations were found between LMX items and most of the psychosocial domains and dimensions. The strongest correlations were found between the LMX item affect and rewards/recognition, role clarity and predictability, and the LMX item loyalty and rewards/recognition. In sum, high-quality LMX was associated with good psychosocial work conditions experienced by the employees.

    Conclusions: The results support possible ways for managers and employees to strengthen their relationships and this may in turn lead to more sustainable systems in health care.

  • 23.
    Karazisis, Dimitrios
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ballo, Ahmed M.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; University of British Columbia, Canada.
    Petronis, Sarunas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Medicinteknik. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Agheli, Hossein
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Emanuelsson, Lena
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Thomsen, Peter
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Omar, Omar
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    The role of well-defined nanotopography of titanium implants on osseointegration: Cellular and molecular events in vivo2016In: International Journal of Nanomedicine, ISSN 1176-9114, E-ISSN 1178-2013, Vol. 11, p. 1367-1382Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Mechanisms governing the cellular interactions with well-defined nanotopography are not well described in vivo. This is partly due to the difficulty in isolating a particular effect of nanotopography from other surface properties. This study employed colloidal lithography for nanofabrication on titanium implants in combination with an in vivo sampling procedure and different analytical techniques. The aim was to elucidate the effect of well-defined nanotopography on the molecular, cellular, and structural events of osseointegration. Materials and methods: Titanium implants were nanopatterned (Nano) with semispherical protrusions using colloidal lithography. Implants, with and without nanotopography, were implanted in rat tibia and retrieved after 3, 6, and 28 days. Retrieved implants were evaluated using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, histology, immunohistochemistry, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Results: Surface characterization showed that the nanotopography was well defined in terms of shape (semispherical), size (79±6 nm), and distribution (31±2 particles/μm2). EDS showed similar levels of titanium, oxygen, and carbon for test and control implants, confirming similar chemistry. The molecular analysis of the retrieved implants revealed that the expression levels of the inflammatory cytokine, TNF-α, and the osteoclastic marker, CatK, were reduced in cells adherent to the Nano implants. This was consistent with the observation of less CD163-positive macrophages in the tissue surrounding the Nano implant. Furthermore, periostin immunostaining was frequently detected around the Nano implant, indicating higher osteogenic activity. This was supported by the EDS analysis of the retrieved implants showing higher content of calcium and phosphate on the Nano implants. Conclusion: The results show that Nano implants elicit less periimplant macrophage infiltration and downregulate the early expression of inflammatory (TNF-α) and osteoclastic (CatK) genes. Immunostaining and elemental analyses show higher osteogenic activity at the Nano implant. It is concluded that an implant with the present range of well-defined nanocues attenuates the inflammatory response while enhancing mineralization during osseointegration.

  • 24.
    Karazisis, Dimitrios
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska Academy, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Sweden; BIOMATCELL, Sweden.
    Petronis, Sarunas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials. BIOMATCELL, Sweden.
    Agheli, Hossein
    Sahlgrenska Academy, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Sweden; BIOMATCELL, Sweden.
    Emanuelsson, Lena
    Sahlgrenska Academy, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Sweden; BIOMATCELL, Sweden.
    Norlindh, Birgitta
    Sahlgrenska Academy, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Sweden; BIOMATCELL, Sweden.
    Johansson, Anna
    Sahlgrenska Academy, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Sweden; BIOMATCELL, Sweden.
    Rasmusson, Lars
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Thomsen, Peter
    Sahlgrenska Academy, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Sweden; BIOMATCELL, Sweden.
    Omar, Omar
    Sahlgrenska Academy, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Sweden; BIOMATCELL, Sweden.
    The influence of controlled surface nanotopography on the early biological events of osseointegration.2017In: Acta Biomaterialia, ISSN 1742-7061, E-ISSN 1878-7568, Vol. 53, p. 559-571Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The early cell and tissue interactions with nanopatterned titanium implants are insufficiently described in vivo. A limitation has been to transfer a pre-determined, well-controlled nanotopography to 3D titanium implants, without affecting other surface parameters, including surface microtopography and chemistry. This in vivo study aimed to investigate the early cellular and molecular events at the bone interface with screw-shaped titanium implants superimposed with controlled nanotopography. Polished and machined titanium implants were firstly patterned with 75-nm semispherical protrusions. Polished and machined implants without nano-patterns were designated as controls. Thereafter, all nanopatterned and control implants were sputter-coated with a 30nm titanium layer to unify the surface chemistry. The implants were inserted in rat tibiae and samples were harvested after 12h, 1d and 3d. In one group, the implants were unscrewed and the implant-adherent cells were analyzed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. In another group, implants with surrounding bone were harvested en bloc for histology and immunohistochemistry. The results showed that nanotopography downregulated the expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), at 1d, and triggered the expression of osteocalcin (OC) at 3d. This was in parallel with a relatively lower number of recruited CD68-positive macrophages in the tissue surrounding the nanopatterned implants. Moreover, a higher proportion of newly formed osteoid and woven bone was found at the nanopatterned implants at 3d. It is concluded that nanotopography, per se, attenuates the inflammatory process and enhances the osteogenic response during the early phase of osseointegration. This nanotopography-induced effect appeared to be independent of the underlying microscale topography.

    STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides a first line of evidence that pre-determined nanopatterns on clinically relevant, screw-shaped, titanium implants can be recognized by cells in the complex in vivo environment. Until now, most of the knowledge relating to cell interactions with nanopatterned surfaces has been acquired from in vitro studies involving mostly two-dimensional nanopatterned surfaces of varying chemical composition. We have managed to superimpose pre-determined nanoscale topography on polished and micro-rough, screw-shaped, implants, without changes in the microscale topography or chemistry. This was achieved by colloidal lithography in combination with a thin titanium film coating on top of both nanopatterned and control implants. The early events of osseointegration were evaluated at the bone interface to these implants. The results revealed that nanotopography, as such, elicits downregulatory effects on the early recruitment and activity of inflammatory cells while enhancing osteogenic activity and woven bone formation.

  • 25.
    Karlsson, Staffan
    et al.
    AstraZeneca, Sweden.
    Sörensen, Henrik
    AstraZeneca, Sweden.
    Andersen, Sören M.
    AstraZeneca, Sweden.
    Cruz, Angele
    AstraZeneca, Sweden.
    Ryberg, Per
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Process Development.
    An Enantioselective Hydrogenation of an Alkenoic Acid as a Key Step in the Synthesis of AZD27162016In: Organic Process Research & Development, ISSN 1083-6160, E-ISSN 1520-586X, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 262-269Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A classical resolution of a racemic carboxylic acid through salt formation and an asymmetric hydrogenation of an α,β-unsaturated carboxylic acid were investigated in parallel to prepare an enantiomerically pure alkanoic acid used as a key intermediate in the synthesis of an antiplaque candidate drug. After an extensive screening of rhodium- and ruthenium-based catalysts, we developed a rhodium-catalyzed hydrogenation that gave the alkanoic acid with 90% ee, and after a subsequent crystallization with (R)-1-phenylethanamine, the ee was enriched to 97%. The chiral acid was then used in sequential Negishi and Suzuki couplings followed by basic hydrolysis of a nitrile to an amide to give the active pharmaceutical ingredient in 22% overall yield.

  • 26.
    Kuna, V K
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Padma, A M
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Håkansson, Joakim
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Nygren, J
    TATAA Biocenter, Sweden.
    Sjöback, R
    TATAA Biocenter, Sweden.
    Petronis, Sarunas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Sumitran-Holgersson, S
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Significantly accelerated wound healing of full-thickness skin using a novel composite gel of porcine acellular dermal matrix and human peripheral blood cells2017In: Cell Transplantation, ISSN 0963-6897, E-ISSN 1555-3892, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 293-307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Herein, we report the fabrication of a novel composite gel from decellularized gal-gal-knockout porcine skin and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMC) for full-thickness skin wound healing. Decellularized skin extracellular matrix (ECM) powder was prepared via chemical treatment, freeze-drying and homogenization. The powder was mixed with culture medium containing hyaluronic acid to generate a pig skin gel (PSG). The effect of the gel in regeneration of full-thickness wound was studied in nude mice. We found significantly accelerated wound closure already on day 15 in animals treated with PSG only or PSG+hPBMC as compared to untreated and hyaluronic acid treated controls (p<0.05). Addition of the hPBMC to the gel resulted in marked increase of host blood vessels as well as the presence of human blood vessels. At day 25, histologically, the wounds in animals treated with PSG only or PSG+hPBMC were completely closed as compared to controls. Thus, the gel facilitated generation of new skin with well arranged epidermal cells and restored bilayer structure of the epidermis and dermis. These results suggest that porcine skin ECM gel together with human cells may be a novel and promising biomaterial for medical applications especially for patients with acute and chronic skin wounds.

  • 27.
    Larsson, Simon
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden.
    de Fine Licht, Karl
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    De som injicerar droger självklar målgrupp för hepatit C-behandling: debatt2017In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 114, p. 2article id ER4AArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Lavelle, E
    et al.
    Trinity College, Ireland.
    Moran, L
    Trinity College, Ireland.
    Andersson, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation.
    The impact of chitosan acetylation pattern on inflammation and toxicity2018In: The 14th International Chitin and Chitosan Conference (14th ICCC): 12th Asia‐Pacific Chitin and Chitosan Symposium (12th APCCS), 2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The inherent properties of chitosan, being nontoxic, biodegradable and antimicrobial have attracted many scientists developing products for humans use in the fields of biomaterials and pharmaceuticals. Examples of such uses are as a carrier for vaccines and drugs, and as a scaffold for living cells. Many projects have failed due to unwanted side reactions, failure to meet technical specifications or to comply with the regulatory standards set by the medical authorities. There are several contradictions in the literature regarding the role chitosan plays in inducing inflammatory reactions. One common view is that chitosan possess anti-inflammatory properties but there are also examples indicating the opposite, that chitosan promotes inflammation. The origin of an inflammatory reaction is often difficult to tell, is it an effect of the chitosan itself or could it be attributed to remaining impurities in it, like endotoxins or protein residues? Purity and consistency in manufacturing are certainly two issues that need to be overcome. The role of chitosan in inflammatory processes is still not fully understood and further experiments with well characterized preparations are needed to reveal the underlying mechanisms.

    Technically chitosan can be divided in two categories based on their acetylation pattern, heterogeneously and homogeneously deacetylated chitosans.  Their different acetylation pattern follows on the processes used for their manufacturing. This means that depending on the manufacturing process two chitosans could have the same degree of deacetylation and molecular weight, be indistinguishable by 1H-NMR and still be structurally different.

    With a set of well characterized samples, representing heterogeneously and homogeneously deacetylated chitosans, we have investigated the effects of six different chitosans with respect to their impact on different inflammatory markers and cell toxicity. Our results show large differences between the two categories. The homogenously deacetylated chitosans are all poor inducers of inflammatory reactions and show very low toxicity whereas their heterogeneously deacetyleted cousins are significantly more toxic and seems to promote inflammatory reactions.

  • 29.
    Lie, Ewa
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biobased Materials.
    Ålander, Eva
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biobased Materials.
    Lindström, Tom
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Possible toxicological effects of nanocellulose: an updated literature study, No. 22017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This literature review covers open publications and reports on the subject of nanocellulose and its possible toxicological effects. There is currently a rather low number of peer reviewed articles on the subject. However, from the articles reviewed, caution of inhalation of nanocellulose would be recommended since in vivo tests have shown immunotoxicity effect on lungs even though residues of other production chemicals, biocides and endotoxins from bacterial contamination might affect the results.

  • 30. Lilledahl, M
    et al.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Davies, C
    Three-Dimensional Visualization and Quantification of Structural Fibres for Biomedical Applications2013In: Confocal Laser Microscopy: Principles and Applications in Medicine, Biology and the Food Sciences, InTech , 2013Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 31. Lilledahl, Magnus B
    et al.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Three-dimensional visualization and quantification of structural fibres for biomedical applications2013In: Confocal laser microscopy: Principles and applications in medicine, biology and the food sciences / [ed] Lagali Neil, InTech, 2013Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 32. Lindberg, U
    et al.
    Einarson, D
    Wählby, U
    Platbardis, J
    Glasö, S
    Bäckström, K
    Wendin, K
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Aktivt Åldrande – individuellt anpassade måltidslösningar för hälsa och livskvalitet hos äldre – Beställning och distribution av mat för den äldre2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    ”Active Ageing – Personalised food and meal solutions for health and quality of life” (Aktivt åldrande – individuellt anpassade måltidslösningar för hälsa och livskvalitet hos äldre. Diarienr 2013-02780) is a project that aims to maintain the quality of life and autonomy of older persons, through individual and personalised meal solutions that fit their needs and requirements. The target group are primarily the age 75 or older. Five work packages are included in the project. This report describes the work package that had the scope of developing a concept for the ordering, distribution and delivery of meal to the elderly. Refrigeration technology and the cold-chain will play an important role in the concept by preserving the safety and quality of foods during its transportation to the elderly. Refrigeration technology and the cold-chain will also make it possible to prepare specific types of foods that meet the demand of the elderly. In particular for the elderly consumers that would like to eat at home and decrease their independency and overall quality of life. It is also important the value chain and concept for the business model must be flexible and taking into account needs from the elderly consumers at all stages, starting from ordering the meal, handling in the household and disposing of the packaging material. An interdisciplinary approach – combining knowledge of ICT (information and communications technology) – Technology, food quality, packaging, logistic, sensory, and waste/return systems for the food that is distributed is increasingly necessary. As the demand for food for the elderly is on the rise, the development of new products, models and services might be facilitated by collaborating with SMEs (micro, small and mediumsized enterprises) and other business partners interested in delivering solutions for the elderly consumers. The concept for the ordering, distribution and delivery of meal to the elderly developed in the project can be used by other end users and/or for other products and services. Key words: : Aktivt åldrande, distribution, energi, IKT, IoT-sensorer, kvalitet, kyla, livsmedel, säkerhet, teknik, åldrande befolkning

  • 33.
    Liu, Jun
    et al.
    Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Cheng, Fang
    Åbo Akademi University, Finland; University of Turku, Finland.
    Xu, Wenyang
    Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Willför, Stefan
    Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Syverud, Kristin
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute. NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Xu, Chunlin
    Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Hemicellulose-reinforced nanocellulose hydrogels for wound healing application2016In: Cellulose (London), ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 3129-3143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polysaccharides are finding an increasing number of applications in medical and pharmaceutical fields thanks to their biodegradability, biocompatibility, and in some cases bioactivity. Two approaches were applied to use hemicelluloses as crosslinkers to tune the structural and mechanical properties of nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) hydrogel scaffolds, and thus to investigate the effect of these properties on the cellular behavior during wound healing application. Different types of hemicellulose (galactoglucomannan (GGM), xyloglucan (XG), and xylan) were introduced into the NFC network via pre-sorption (Method I) and in situ adsorption (Method II) to reinforce the NFC hydrogels. The charge density of the NFC, the incorporated hemicellulose type and amount, and the swelling time of the hydrogels were found to affect the pore structure, the mechanical strength, and thus the cells’ growth on the composite hydrogel scaffolds. The XG showed the highest adsorption capacity on the NFC, the highest reinforcement effect, and facilitated/promoted cell growth. The pre-sorbed XG in the low-charged NFC network with a lower weight ratio (NFC/XG-90:10) showed the highest efficacy in supporting the growth and proliferation of fibroblast cells (NIH 3T3). These all-polysaccharide composite hydrogels may work as promising scaffolds in wound healing applications to provide supporting networks and to promote cells adhesion, growth, and proliferation.

  • 34. Loftager Okkels, S
    et al.
    Wendin, K
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Olsson, V
    Mandelmel-muffins til ældre - Et pilotprojekt med tilberedning- og ingrediensjustering WP2 - Udvikling og afprøvning af herlige ELDORADO måltider2016Report (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Mahlapuu, Margit
    et al.
    Promore Pharma AB, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Håkansson, Joakim
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Medicinteknik.
    Ringstad, Lovisa
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Life Science.
    Björn, Camilla
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Medicinteknik. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Antimicrobial peptides: An emerging category of therapeutic agents2016In: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, E-ISSN 2235-2988, Vol. 6, no DEC, article id 194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), also known as host defense peptides, are short and generally positively charged peptides found in a wide variety of life forms from microorganisms to humans. Most AMPs have the ability to kill microbial pathogens directly, whereas others act indirectly by modulating the host defense systems. Against a background of rapidly increasing resistance development to conventional antibiotics all over the world, efforts to bring AMPs into clinical use are accelerating. Several AMPs are currently being evaluated in clinical trials as novel anti-infectives, but also as new pharmacological agents to modulate the immune response, promote wound healing, and prevent post-surgical adhesions. In this review, we provide an overview of the biological role, classification, and mode of action of AMPs, discuss the opportunities and challenges to develop these peptides for clinical applications, and review the innovative formulation strategies for application of AMPs.

  • 36.
    Matougui, Nada
    et al.
    Inserm, France.
    Boge, Lukas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Life Science.
    Groo, Anne-Claire
    Inserm, France.
    Umerska, Anita
    Inserm, France.
    Ringstad, Lovisa
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Life Science.
    Bysell, Helena
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Life Science.
    Saulnier, Patrick
    Inserm, France; CHU Angers, France.
    Lipid-based nanoformulations for peptide delivery2016In: International Journal of Pharmaceutics, ISSN 0378-5173, E-ISSN 1873-3476, Vol. 502, no 1-2, p. 80-97Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanoformulations have attracted a lot of attention because of their size-dependent properties. Among the array of nanoformulations, lipid nanoformulations (LNFs) have evoked increasing interest because of the advantages of their high degree of biocompatibility and versatility. The performance of lipid nanoformulations is greatly influenced by their composition and structure. Therapeutic peptides represent a growing share of the pharmaceutical market. However, the main challenge for their development into commercial products is their inherent physicochemical and biological instability. Important peptides such as insulin, calcitonin and cyclosporin A have been incorporated into LNFs. The association or encapsulation of peptides within lipid-based carriers has shown to protect the labile molecules against enzymatic degradation. This review describes strategies used for the formulation of peptides and some methods used for the assessment of association efficiency. The advantages and drawbacks of such carriers are also described.

  • 37.
    Melin, Jeanette
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Pendrill, Leslie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Quality assurance of cognitive assessments and other categorical data2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Did you ever wonder how to account for biases such as ceiling eects in your (cognitive) data?

    Metrological quality assurance of human-based responses is in its infancy and analyzing categorial data and other human responses is challenging. However, there is a need to tackle those challenges to ensure that decisions about health care are made correctly. Quality assured comparability, interoperability and decision-making can successfully be done by applying sound metrological approaches to enable traceability as well as stressing declaration of measurement uncertainties. In the seminar, we present metrological approaches to ensure quality assurance of categorical data,such as cognitive assessments and other human-reported responses. This is followed by a hands-onworkshop where you are welcome to bring your own or freely available data for analyses.

  • 38.
    Melin, Jeanette
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Pendrill, Leslie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Cano, Stefan
    Modus Outcome, Uk.
    NeuroMET Memory Metric version 0.12019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Alongside a lack clinically validated, minimally invasive diagnostic tools for early diagnosis and/or monitoring of disease progression in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), there are no sound metrological assessment protocols and measurements for cognition, nor measurement comparability through SI (System of International Units), traceability and uncertainty for regulatory approval of biomarkers. As part of the on-going EMPIR HLT04 NeuroMET project in which several national metrology institutes work together with clinicians and academics to overcome specific measurement issues to improve diagnosis and disease progression, we describe here the justification for and development of the ‘NeuroMET Memory Metric’ (version 0.1).

    Re-examination of traditional widely used ‘legacy’ cognitive assessment protocols using invariant measurement theory aims at more accurately capturing the patient’s cognitive ability and improving the analysis of correlations with various AD biomarkers. Two principal elements provide sound metrological underpinnings: (i) a correct formulation of a measurement model; and (ii) proper handling of the ordinal cognitive data. In turn, this enables formulation of novel construct specification equations for patient cognitive ability as a function of diverse biomarkers (e.g., in plasma, CSF and saliva together with MRI/MRS data) as well as for cognitive task difficult as a function of test design.

    To further improve the accuracy in patient’s cognitive ability work is now in progress to develop a NeuroMET Memory Metric based on legacy cognitive assessments (e.g., MMSE, Corsi Block Test, Digital Span Test). This work can be ascribed a level-5 construct theory. This means the realization of more fit-for-purpose, better targeted and better administered cognitive measurement systems. It will also enable traceable calibration of both additional cognitive tasks as well as the effects of intervention (or disease progression) on the cognitive ability of each individual patient.

  • 39.
    Moodie, Lindon W. K.
    et al.
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Žužek, Monika C.
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Frangež, Robert
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Andersen, Jeanette H.
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Hansen, Espen
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Olsen, Elisabeth K.
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Cergolj, Marija
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia; University of Rijeka, Croatia.
    Sepčić, Kristina
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Hansen, Kine Ø
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Svenson, Johan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Medicinteknik. UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Synthetic analogs of stryphnusin isolated from the marine sponge: Stryphnus fortis inhibit acetylcholinesterase with no effect on muscle function or neuromuscular transmission2016In: Organic and biomolecular chemistry, ISSN 1477-0520, E-ISSN 1477-0539, Vol. 14, no 47, p. 11220-11229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The marine secondary metabolite stryphnusin (1) was isolated from the boreal sponge Stryphnus fortis, collected off the Norwegian coast. Given its resemblance to other natural acetylcholinesterase antagonists, it was evaluated against electric eel acetylcholinesterase and displayed inhibitory activity. A library of twelve synthetic phenethylamine analogs, 2a-7a and 2b-7b, containing tertiary and quaternary amines respectively were synthesized to investigate the individual structural contributions to the activity. Compound 7b was the strongest competitive inhibitor of both acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase with IC50 values of 57 and 20 μM, respectively. This inhibitory activity is one order of magnitude higher than the positive control physostigmine, and is comparable with several other marine acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. The physiological effect of compound 7b on muscle function and neuromuscular transmission was studied and revealed a selective mode of action at the investigated concentration. This data is of importance as the interference of therapeutic acetylcholinesterase inhibitors with neuromuscular transmission can be problematic and lead to unwanted side effects. The current findings also provide additional insights into the structure-activity relationship of both natural and synthetic acetylcholinesterase inhibitors.

  • 40. NeuroMET constorium, EMPIR HLT04
    et al.
    Melin, Jeanette
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Pendrill, Leslie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Innovative measurements for improved diagnosis and management of neurodegenerative diseases2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Development of novel therapies for Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is constrained by the lack of available methods for preclinical diagnosis, despite extensive research on biomarker identification. The EMPIR NeuroMET project unites National Measurement Laboratories, clinicians and academics, to overcome limitations in measurement methods and provide a better understanding of how to improve, combine and analyse measurements in AD diagnosis and treatment. Comparability through SI (System of International Units) traceability and uncertainty analysis is an, as yet, unmet requirement for regulatory approval of biomarkers, patient centred outcome measures, clinical thresholds and new therapeutic drugs. We will report on:

    • Multimodal statistical analysis on blood, CSF and saliva biomarkers data from the NeuroMET cohort generated by using mass spectroscopy and immunoassay platforms, including a novel immunoassay approach to overcome matrix effects when relative quantification is not sensitive enough. A new digital PCR approach was developed to assess microRNAs quantities in blood to compare with established biomarkers.
    • Progress towards the development of mass spectrometry reference measurement procedures traceable to the SI for t-tau and α-synuclein in cerebrospinal fluids.
    • Development of ultrahigh field Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Spectroscopy protocols for increased spatial and spectral resolution and decreased uncertainty, and their application to the NeuroMET cohort.
    • Improved cognitive assessment protocols, with improved metrological evaluation of cognitive performance scores and the development of construct specification equations for various cognitive protocols and biomarkers.
    • Potential relationships between volumes of AD-related brain structures and neurometabolite concentrations with measured cognitive function.

    Improved reference methods to underpin the production of calibrators and improve measurement comparability of established biomarkers has the potential to further the understanding of AD and boost research for disease modifying therapies.

  • 41.
    Nilebäck, Linnea
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Hedin, Jesper
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Widhe, Mona
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Floderus, Lotta S
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Krona, Annika
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Bysell, Helena
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Hedhammar, My
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Self-Assembly of Recombinant Silk as a Strategy for ChemicalFree Formation of Bioactive Coatings – a Real-Time Study2017In: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 846-854Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Functionalization of biomaterials with biologically active peptides can improve their performance after implantation. By genetic fusion to self-assembling proteins, the functional peptides can easily be presented on different physical formats. Herein, a chemical-free coating method based on self-assembly of the recombinant spider silk protein 4RepCT is described and used to prepare functional coatings on various biomaterial surfaces. The silk assembly was studied in real-time, revealing occurrence of continuous assembly of silk proteins onto surfaces and formation of nanofibrillar structures. The adsorbed amounts and viscoelastic properties were evaluated, and the coatings were shown to be stable against wash with hydrogen chloride, sodium hydroxide, and ethanol. Titanium, stainless steel, and hydroxyapatite were coated with silk fused to an antimicrobial peptide or a motif from fibronectin. Human primary cells cultured on the functional silk coatings show good cell viability and proliferation, implying potential to improve implant performance and acceptance by the body.

  • 42.
    Nilsson Tengelin, Maria
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Källberg, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Hedekvist, Per Olof
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Measurement of the Effect of Dynamic Lighting on Alertness, Mood and Sleepiness2017In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE LUX EUROPA 2017, Lighting for modern society / [ed] Matej B. Kobav, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia, 2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The lighting in the workplace is known to have a significant effect on the workers’ well-being and alertness. It also affects sleep/wake-cycles and mood. The aim of this pilot study is to investigate a method to evaluate non-visual effects of variable lighting in workplaces using both self-assessed and physical data. The lighting in two offices was varied according to pre-programmed schedules, including daylight simulating scenario for two weeks and activity promoting scenario for two weeks. The method was successful and provided interesting results on the measured physical data. The resting pulse was lowered and the sleep quality improved for the test subjects during the weeks of dynamic office lighting.

  • 43.
    Nordli, H.R
    et al.
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Rokstad, A.M
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Pukstad, B
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway; Trondheim University Hospital, Norway.
    Immunogenic properties of TEMPO-treated wood nanocellulose2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) has been shown to be a good candidate in wound healing applications. However, there exists to date no cost efficient mass production of BNC. On the other side, wood nanocellulose (WNC) can be produced in large-scale and has also been suggested as a potential substrate for wound dressings. In WNC the cellulose fibers are disintegrated into individualized nanofibrils with typical diameters < 20 nm. Chemical pretreatment such as TEMPO-mediated oxidation yields a homogenous nanofibril morphology and modifies the surface chemistry of cellulose by introducing carboxyl groups and a small amount of aldehyde groups. A difference between BNC and WNC is that the last one usually consists of hemicellulose and small amounts of lignin, in addition to cellulose. Recently, we have demonstrated that WNC is not cytotoxic to 3T3-cells (mouse fibroblasts). However, to properly assess the properties of WNC for wound healing it is necessary to measure the cytotoxicity towards human skin cells, i.e. keratinocytes and fibroblasts, which is performed in this study. Additionally, using the lepirudin whole blood model the effect a material has on the activation of the complement system and the coagulation pathway can be studied. In order to use this model it is crucial to have a material which is free from bacterial composites, such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Importantly, we have in this work developed a new protocol for producing ultrapure nanocellulose with LPS concentration below 100 EU/g. This presentation will give an overview of recent results within the testing of the cytotoxic and immunogenic properties of WNC, which is important to verify for advanced wound healing applications.

  • 44.
    Nyberg, Magda
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Sweden.
    Olsson, Viktoria
    Kristianstad University, Sweden.
    Örtman, Gerd
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Pajalic, Zada
    Linnaeus University, Sweden; Oslo and Akershus University, Norway; Kristianstad University, Sweden.
    Andersson, Håkan S
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Blucher, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Lindborg, Ann-Louise
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Wendin, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. Kristianstad University, Sweden; University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Westergren, Albert
    Kristianstad University, Sweden.
    The meal as a performance: food and meal practices beyond health and nutrition2018In: Ageing & Society, ISSN 0144-686X, E-ISSN 1469-1779, Vol. 38, no 1, p. 83-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The proportion of elderly people in the population is increasing, presenting a number of new challenges in society. The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate how elderly persons with motoric eating difficulties perceive and perform their food and meal practices in everyday life. By using Goffman's concept of performance as a theoretical framework together with Bourdieu's thinking on habitus, a deeper understanding of food and meal practices is obtained. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 elderly people (aged between 67 and 87 years) and meal observations were carried out with 11 of these people. Participants were found to manage food and meal practices by continuously adjusting and adapting to the new conditions arising as a result of eating difficulties. This was displayed by conscious planning of what to eat and when, avoiding certain foods and beverages, using simple eating aids, but also withdrawing socially during the meals. All these adjustments were important in order to be able to demonstrate proper food and meal behaviour, to maintain the façade and to act according to the perceived norms. As well as being a pleasurable event, food and meals were also perceived in terms of being important for maintaining health and as ‘fuel’ where the main purpose is to sustain life. This was strongly connected to the social context and the ability to enjoy food and meals with family members and friends, which appeared to be particularly crucial due to the impending risk of failing the meal performance.

  • 45.
    Nyström, Lina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Nordström, Randi
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Bramhill, Jane
    University of Manchester, UK.
    Saunders, Brian R.
    University of Manchester, UK.
    Álvarez-Asencio, Rubén
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; IMDEA Nanoscience, Spain.
    Rutland, Mark W.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Life Science. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Malmsten, Martin
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Factors affecting peptide interactions with surface-bound microgels2016In: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 669-678Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effects of electrostatics and peptide size on peptide interactions with surface-bound microgels were investigated with ellipsometry, confocal microscopy, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Results show that binding of cationic poly-l-lysine (pLys) to anionic, covalently immobilized, poly(ethyl acrylate-co-methacrylic acid) microgels increased with increasing peptide net charge and microgel charge density. Furthermore, peptide release was facilitated by decreasing either microgel or peptide charge density. Analogously, increasing ionic strength facilitated peptide release for short peptides. As a result of peptide binding, the surface-bound microgels displayed pronounced deswelling and increased mechanical rigidity, the latter quantified by quantitative nanomechanical mapping. While short pLys was found to penetrate the entire microgel network and to result in almost complete charge neutralization, larger peptides were partially excluded from the microgel network, forming an outer peptide layer on the microgels. As a result of this difference, microgel flattening was more influenced by the lower Mw peptide than the higher. Peptide-induced deswelling was found to be lower for higher Mw pLys, the latter effect not observed for the corresponding microgels in the dispersed state. While the effects of electrostatics on peptide loading and release were similar to those observed for dispersed microgels, there were thus considerable effects of the underlying surface on peptide-induced microgel deswelling, which need to be considered in the design of surface-bound microgels as carriers of peptide loads, for example, in drug delivery or in functionalized biomaterials.

  • 46.
    Olsen, Elisabeth K.
    et al.
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Hansen, Espen
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Moodie, Lindon W. K.
    University of Umeå, Sweden.
    Isaksson, Johan
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Sepčić, Kristina
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Cergolj, Marija
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia; University of Rijeka, Croatia.
    Svenson, Johan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Medicinteknik.
    Andersen, Jeanette H.
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Marine AChE inhibitors isolated from Geodia barretti: Natural compounds and their synthetic analogs2016In: Organic and biomolecular chemistry, ISSN 1477-0520, E-ISSN 1477-0539, Vol. 14, no 5, p. 1629-1640Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Barettin, 8,9-dihydrobarettin, bromoconicamin and a novel brominated marine indole were isolated from the boreal sponge Geodia barretti collected off the Norwegian coast. The compounds were evaluated as inhibitors of electric eel acetylcholinesterase. Barettin and 8,9-dihydrobarettin displayed significant inhibition of the enzyme, with inhibition constants (Ki) of 29 and 19 μM respectively towards acetylcholinesterase via a reversible noncompetitive mechanism. These activities are comparable to those of several other natural acetylcholinesterase inhibitors of marine origin. Bromoconicamin was less potent against acetylcholinesterase, and the novel compound was inactive. Based on the inhibitory activity, a library of 22 simplified synthetic analogs was designed and prepared to probe the role of the brominated indole, common to all the isolated compounds. From the structure-activity investigation it was shown that the brominated indole motif is not sufficient to generate a high acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity, even when combined with natural cationic ligands for the acetylcholinesterase active site. The four natural compounds were also analysed for their butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity in addition and shown to display comparable activities. The study illustrates how both barettin and 8,9-dihydrobarettin display additional bioactivities which may help to explain their biological role in the producing organism. The findings also provide new insights into the structure-activity relationship of both natural and synthetic acetylcholinesterase inhibitors.

  • 47.
    Pendrill, Leslie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Assuring measurement quality in person-centred healthcare2018In: Measurement science and technology, ISSN 0957-0233, E-ISSN 1361-6501, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 034003-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Is it realistic to aspire to the same kind of quality-assurance of measurement in person-centred care, currently being implemented in healthcare globally, as is established in the physical sciences and engineering? Ensuring metrological comparability (‘traceability’) and reliably declaring measurement uncertainty when assessing patient ability or increased social capital are however challenging for subjective measurements often characterised by large dispersion. Drawing simple analogies between ‘instruments’ in the social sciences – questionnaires, ability tests, etc.–  and  engineering instruments such as thermometers does not go far enough. A possible way forward apparently equally applicable to both physical and social measurement, seems to be to model inferences in terms performance metrics of a measurement system. Person-centred care needs person-centred measurement and a full picture of the measurement process when Man acts as a measurement instrument is given in the present paper. This complements previous work by presenting the process, step by step, from the observed indication (e.g. probability of success, Psuccess, of achieving atask), through restitution with Rasch Measurement Theory, to the measurand (e.g. task difficulty). Rasch invariant measure theory can yield quantities –‘latent’ (or ‘explanatory’) variables such as task challenge or person ability – with characteristics akin to those of physical quantities. Metrological references for comparability via traceability and reliable estimates ofuncertainty and decision risks are then in reach even for perceptive measurements (and other qualitative properties). As a case study, the person-centred measurement of cognitive ability is examined, as part of the EUproject EMPIR 15HLT04 NeuroMet, for Alzheimer’s, where better analysis of correlations with brain atrophy is enabled thanks to the Rasch metrological approach.

  • 48.
    Pendrill, Leslie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Assuring quality in person-centred healthcare2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Pendrill, Leslie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    How to calibrate a questionnaire: quality-assuring categorical data with psychometric measurement theory2018In: / [ed] Charité, 2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Measurements in the social sciences – with ‘instruments’ such as questionnaires, ability tests, – in education, healthcare and so on, need metrological quality assurance. A patient, for instance, expects the same quality of care wherever and whenever provided. This is a challenge since the usual tools of statistics do not always work on the categorical scales typical of such measurements. Modelling a measurement system where the instrument is a human being, and where the output is a performance metric, i.e., how well the set-up performs an assessment, appears to be a way forward. This BEMC Colloquium will present the necessary tools, such as psychometric Rasch measurement theory, and will be followed by a hands-on workshop where you yourselves can analyse cases such as (i) the Quality of the BEMC Colloquium Series and (ii) a Healthy Lifestyle.

  • 50.
    Pendrill, Leslie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Limits to the reliability of the Rasch psychometric model2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Metrological assurance of qualitative evaluations, such as made by a person acting as a Measurement Instrument (e.g. in person-centred care) seems to be possible using a generalised linear model specifically based on the Rasch psychometric approach. Traditional classical test theory and many of the usual tools of statistics cannot work reliably on ordinal or nominal scales typical of person responses, rating questionnaires or other qualitative evaluations. This talk recalls how to establish metrological references (item banks of task difficulty, for example) and uncertainty budgets for categorical data (using informational entropy). New insight will then be given into how the reliability of subjective measurement systems and the Rasch model can be evaluated with respect to measurement scale shift and scale stretching with novel tools analysing rating scores and logistic regression residuals. Examples will range from physical rehabilitation to cognitive assessment.

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