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  • 1.
    Arvidson, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport.
    An evaluation of residential sprinklers and water mist nozzles in a residential area fire scenario2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Commercial residential sprinklers are usually fitted with 3 mm glass bulbs having a nominal operating temperature of 68°C or a high-sensitivity solder link, usually with a nominal temperature rating of 74°C. Previous work show that there is a significant potential for improving sprinkler response times in a residential room fire scenario by using glass bulbs with a lower Response Time Index (RTI) and lower operating temperature than commonly used. The objective of this study was to investigate any improved performance due to earlier activation of residential sprinklers. A series of fire tests was conducted inside a test compartment sized 3.66 m by 3.66 m. The fire test source consisted of either a simulated or authentic upholstered chair. For the majority of the tests, the flow rate of the residential sprinkler was 30.3 liter/min (corresponding to the minimum design density 2.05 mm/min as per the recommendations in NFPA 13D and 13R). Additional tests were conducted at 60.6 liter/min (the minimum design density 4.1 mm/min as per NFPA 13). Tests were also conducted with commercial low- and high-pressure water mist nozzles and a stand-alone high-pressure water mist system.

    The results show that earlier activation of residential sprinklers had a small effect on its performance, especially for the authentic upholstered chair scenario, when flowing 30.3 liter/min. The rather small effect is probably due to that the discharge density was too low to provide fire suppression. When the flow rate was increased to 60.6 liter/min, the performance was considerably improved as compared to the flow of 30.3 liter/min. Any improvement in performance of earlier activation was, however, not investigated for the 60.6 liter/min flow rate.

    The flow rates of the commercial low- and high-pressure water mist water mist nozzles ranged from 17.2 liter/min to 36.7 liter/min. Roughly, it could be concluded that the performance of the water mist nozzles were comparable or better than the residential sprinkler at approximately half the water flow rate for the tested fire scenarios.

    The stand-alone high-pressure water mist system had a flow rate of 8.2 liter/min. The performance was comparable to that of the other water mist nozzles in the study The performance was comparable to that of the other water mist nozzles in the study, despite a considerably earlier activation. However, the results indicate that the performance was relatively much influenced whether the simulated upholstered chair was orientated with its front towards the test compartment or with its front towards the back wall (poorer performance). This would suggest that the position of the fire test relative to the position of the unit is a crucial factor and underlines the importance of a thoughtful positioning in practical applications.

  • 2.
    Bergsten, Tobias
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Eklund, Gunnar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Comparison between GaAs and graphene QHR standards for resistance realisation at SP2016Ingår i: Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM 2016), 2016, artikel-id 7540514Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We report the first precision QHR measurements at SP using a graphene chip. We compare the results of a resistance calibration using GaAs based chips with the results using a graphene chip. The results agree within a few parts in 109 for calibrations of 100 Ω and 10 kΩ resistors. Consistency checks indicate that the uncertainty is lower with the graphene chip, and the noise level is slightly lower. The measurements with the graphene chip were performed exclusively at 4.2 K, which simplifies the calibration procedure considerably compared with GaAs chips.

  • 3.
    Björkdahl, Joakim
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Fallahi, Sara
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Holmén, Magnus
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Organizing for parallel business models in established firms2018Ingår i: Academy of Management Proceedings, 2018, Vol. 1Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Prior business model innovation research has paid little attention to the various choices and decisions of organizing for parallel business models. This paper explores how established firms organize for new business models that are to be run in parallel with their primary business model. Empirically we study how Skanska and IKEA, two multinational corporations developed new business models by industrializing construction. Neither full separation nor full integration was a panacea for how to organize a new business model running in parallel with the primary because the firms were unable to determine what to organizationally integrate or separate prior to implementation of the new business model. The paper argues that firms are unlikely to know how to organize for parallel business models before they know how the new business model will operate.

  • 4.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Engineering methods for structural fire design of wood buildings: Structural integrity during a full natural fire2018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 5.
    Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Just, Alar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Andersson, Petra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Östman, Birgit
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Mitigation of fire damages in multi-storey timber buildings: Statistical analysis and guidelines for design2018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of multi-storey timber buildings has increased during the last twenty years. Recent well-known fires in London, Dubai and Brazil, although not in timber buildings, have increased concerns regarding large fire spread and high damage fires. As timber is a combustible material, concerns have been expressed regarding property safety and it has been questioned whether fire damage is more significant in buildings with timber as the main structural material than in other types of buildings. This report includes a statistical study of data of fires in multi-storey timber buildings in New Zealand and an analysis of high damage fires that occurred in multi-storey timber buildings in the USA. The data from New Zealand showed no significant difference between share of fires that had flame damage out of the compartment of origin in (a) multi-storey timber buildings that were constructed in or later than 1992 and (b) other types of multi-storey buildings that were constructed in or later than 1992. Fires in multi-storey timber buildings that were constructed before 1992 spread more frequently to neighbouring compartments than fires in other multi-storey timber buildings constructed before 1992. Data of high damage fires occurring in multi-storey timber buildings in the USA indicated that outdoor fire spread is the most common cause for large fire spread. Additionally, the data indicates that high water damage is most often caused by fire service interference and is significantly less often related to sprinkler activation.

    Based on the analysis of fire spread of high damage fires in the USA, guidelines are given in the report to limit (1) outdoor fire spread, (2) fire spread through cavities, and (3) fire spread directly from a fire compartment to a neighbouring fire compartment. A number of these guidelines were evaluated using a fire test of a two-storey timber structure.

  • 6.
    Debela, A. M.
    et al.
    Sorbonne University, France.
    Ortiz, Mayreli
    Rovira i Virgili University, Spain.
    Beni, Valerio
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Lesage, Denis
    Sorbonne University, France.
    Cole, Richard B.
    Sorbonne University, France.
    O'Sullivan, Ciara K.
    Rovira i Virgili University, Spain; Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançais, Spain.
    Thorimbert, Serge
    Sorbonne University, France.
    Hasenknopf, Bernold
    Sorbonne University, France.
    Functionalized deoxynucleotides and DNA primers for electrochemical diagnostics of disease predispostions2017Ingår i: ECS Transactions, Electrochemical Society Inc. , 2017, nr 11, s. 1873-1883Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Redox labeled DNAs are of increasing interest for the fabrication of next generation molecular tools. In the present work we are investigating the use of various redox labeled dNTPs, ddNTPs and DNA primers for use in detection of diseases. We have reported the use of Polyoxometalate (POM) labeled DNA primers and dNTPs for use in PCR and subsequently used for direct electrochemical detection of PCR products. The use of POM labeled DNAs in PCR enabled us to check the compatibility with polymerases and PCR incorporability of the modified DNAs. Furthermore we have investigated the solid-phase array based primer extension (é-PEX) with redox labelled ddNTPs (ferrocene (Fc), anthraquinone (AQ) phenothiazine (PTZ) and methylene blue (MB)) to prove the strategy of detection of single nucleotide polymorphisms using the labeled ddNTPs. This strategy will allow the development of cost-effective, rapid and user-friendly platform for the screening of known and unknown genetic mutations.

  • 7.
    Dopfer, Martina
    et al.
    University of St Gallen, Switzerland.
    Fallahi, Sara
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Kirchberger, Markus
    Porsche AG, Germany.
    Gassmann, Oliver
    University of St Gallen, Switzerland.
    Adapt and strive: How ventures under resource constraints create value through business model adaptations2017Ingår i: Creativity and Innovation Management, ISSN 0963-1690, E-ISSN 1467-8691, Vol. 26, nr 3, s. 233-246Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper looks into how new ventures organize their business models in order to meet their available resources. It employs the business model as the unit of analysis to investigate the role and nature of business model adaptation as a coping mechanism with resource constraints. By drawing on a case study with two ventures starting with different resources, the paper shows how those ventures use business model adaptation under resource constraints as a way to create comparable offerings. Business model adaptation involves a process of continuous search, selection, and improvement in value creation, value proposition, and value capture, based on the surrounding environment. For the two new ventures included in this study, early business model adaptations were related to (1) market — geography and customer, (2) strategy — marketing, sales, and growth, (3) profit — profit formula and cost structure, and (4) structures, processes, and capabilities. This paper also shows how the adaptation process is conditioned by the venture's stock and flow of resources. Bringing a resource perspective into the process of business model adaptation implies practical implications for new ventures that are developing and adapting their business models to strategically co‐develop their offering with their resources such that they match required adaptations. 

  • 8.
    Edelbro, Catrin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden .
    Hulthén, Erik
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Clausen, Elisabeth
    Technical University of Clausthal, Germany.
    Tanner, David
    University of Limerick, Ireland.
    Herrera Herbert, Juan
    Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain.
    Jonsson, Kristina
    LKAB, Sweden.
    Bealieu, Stephan
    RUSAL Aughinish Alumina, Ireland.
    Kamp, Aldert
    Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Försth, Michael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    European Initiative on CDIO in Raw Material Programmes2017Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    One of five Knowledge and Innovation Communities (KICs), was launched in Europe in 2014 and has its focus on exploration, extraction, mineral processing, metallurgy, recycling and material substitution of raw materials. To reach the vision, where the European Union’s industrial strength is based on a cost-efficient, secure, sustainable supply and use of raw materials, a new generation of skilled people entering industry, universities and research needs to be developed. Today’s technical MSc graduates in raw materials and especially primary resources (i.e. exploration, extraction, mining and mineral processing and metallurgy) best suits large companies where they often act as specialists and experts. For small to medium enterprises as well as for our future engineers other skills than technical are necessary. As a part of the KIC Raw Materials, the education project “The implementation of CDIO in raw material programmes” started in 2016. The project focuses, during 2016-2017, on (WP1) faculty- and (WP2) pilot case development. There are no academic institutes in Europe that have yet applied CDIO for primary resource related MSc programmes. This paper describes an education project within the KIC Raw material and presents key outputs with implementing CDIO in mining and metallurgy related programmes.

  • 9.
    Edo Giménez, Mar
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Jensen, Carl
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Johansson, Inge
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Rapp, Magnus
    Ragn-Sells Recycling AB, Sweden.
    Radlert, Åke
    Swerock AB, Sweden.
    Sahlin, Jenny
    PROFU, Sweden.
    Weiss, Monika
    SRV återvinning AB, Sweden.
    Manual för plockanalyser av brännbart bygg- och rivningsavfall2019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna handbok ger instruktioner om hur man utför plockanalyser på brännbart bygg- och rivningsavfall som studerats i projektet Framtidens avfallsbränsle - Uppströmsarbete och kvalitet.Det rekommenderas att man sorterar avfallet baserat på dess materialsammansättning (benämnt huvudfraktioner) och funktionalitet (benämnt delfraktioner). På så sätt identifieras och sorteras fyra materialfraktioner (dvs. plast, papper, trä och andra brännbara och icke brännbara material ") och upp till 48 olika delfraktioner (t.ex. plaströr, trämöbler, förpackningspapper, kablar, metall etc.).Det är viktigt att nämna att de delfraktioner som anges i denna rapport är vägledande: alla de angivna delfraktionerna påträffas inte alltid i brännbart bygg- och rivningsavfall. Tillägg och andra ändringar kan vara nödvändiga för att säkerställa de bästa resultaten från plockanalyserna utifrån syftet och målen med projektet.Det sätt som avfallsprovet hanteras innan en plockanalys utförs är väsentlig. Därför innehåller denna manual även instruktioner om provinsamling, identifiering och lagring när provet har tagits emot vid sorteringsanläggningen samt korta rekommendationer om hur man utför en grovsortering av material med potential för återvinning och som lätt kan avlägsnas.

  • 10.
    Fallahi, Sara
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    In Search of a Route Map: Exploring Business Model Innovation Processes in Established Firms2018Ingår i: Academy of Management Proceedings, 2018, Vol. 1Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the millennium, discussion of business models as important vehicles and sources of innovation has increased. This paper explores the process of business model innovation in seven established firms from various industries. The findings provide evidence that business model innovation can follow a purposeful, or an unintentional and emerging process. Purposeful business model innovation occurs under conditions of perceived threats and is characterized by greater uncertainty, and the parallel design and implementation of several new business model elements that are organized in a separate business. The analyses reveal also that when embarking on the emerging process, the intention of managers was not necessarily to renew the firm's business model but rather to work on the design and development of a new value proposition. However, the complementarities among business model elements directed their attention to the changes required in other business model elements which ultimately resulted in a new business model as the process outcome. The main contribution of this paper is therefore to business model research by providing an explanatory, rather than prescriptive, approach to the process of business model innovation.

  • 11.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge. Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway; Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg, Germany.
    Fighting flameless fires: Initiating and extinguishing self-sustainedsmoldering fires in wood pellets2018Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Smoldering fires represent domestic, environmental and industrial hazards. This flameless form of combustion is more easily initiated than flaming, and is also more persistent and difficult to extinguish. The growing demand for non-fossil fuels has increased the use of solid biofuels such as biomass. This represents a safety challenge, as biomass self-ignition can cause smoldering fires, flaming fires or explosions.

    Smoldering and extinguishment in granular biomass was studied experimentally. The set-up consisted of a cylindrical fuel container of steel with thermally insulated side walls. The container was closed at the bottom, open at the top and heated from below by a hot surface. Two types of wood pellets were used as fuel, with 0.75-1.5 kg samples.

    Logistic regression was used to determine the transition region between non-smoldering and self-sustained smoldering experiments, and to determine the influence of parameters. Duration of external heating was most important for initiation of smoldering. Sample height was also significant, while the type of wood pellet was near-significant and fuel container height was not.

    The susceptibility of smoldering to changes in air supply was studied. With a small gap at the bottom of the fuel bed, the increased air flow in the same direction as the initial smoldering front (forward air flow) caused a significantly more intense combustion compared to the normal set-up with opposed air flow.

    Heat extraction from the combustion was studied using a water-cooled copper pipe. Challenges with direct fuel-water contact (fuel swelling, water channeling and runoff) were thus avoided. Smoldering was extinguished in 7 of 15 cases where heat extraction was in the same range as the heat production from combustion. This is the first experimental proof-of-concept of cooling as an extinguishment method for smoldering fires.

    Marginal differences in heating and cooling separated smoldering from extinguished cases; the fuel bed was at a heating-cooling balance point. Lower cooling levels did not lead to extinguishment, but cooling caused more predictable smoldering, possibly delaying the most intense combustion. Also observed at the balance point were pulsating temperatures; a form of long-lived (hours), macroscopic synchronization not previously observed in smoldering fires.

    For practical applications, cooling could be feasible for prevention of temperature escalation from self-heating in industrial storage units. This study provides a first step towards improved fuel storage safety for biomass. 

  • 12.
    Huffmeier, Johannes
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Bram, Staffan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Human Impact on Safety of Shipping2018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Humans, especially the crews have an important role in the safe operation of ships. The crews, given the right circumstances are able to safely maneuver, navigate, maintain and operate the vessel. The crews are dependent on many factors that enable this work, from the design of the vessel and work place, the procedures, processes given by the ship management and the business approach the ship owner applies to the vessel.

    The traffic to and from Åland is an advanced transport system that enables safe ferry services in shipping fairways with narrow passages, meeting and crossing traffic as well as winter navigation - a shipping system combining people and technology to create safe transport.

    The introduction of more automation requires a systems perspective and will not be a straight forward development. Total autonomy as proposed by some technology developers is often neglecting the functions and roles that humans have on maritime safety and the business case for increased automation neglects the full contribution of humans onboard. Total autonomy will therefore require high-end products that are built on standardized complex systems. Controlling and monitoring these systems will set new requirements on operators to uphold situated understanding in these complex systems.

    Many aspects will be affected by increased automation towards smart shipping - regulations, organization, workplace, working methods, HMI, roles and skills. To cope with the foreseen changes it is important to develop further training, skills, experience, openness in the organization and familiarization giving the future crews the right pre-conditions to succeed in the future, as well as mindful design and integration of newly automated systems

    In the future, the ISM code will likely have to change to improve the interaction between land organisations and crews in order to facilitate better integration of split responsibilities and split physical locations by the management system which in the long run allows for an increased land-based monitoring and control

    of vessels’ systems and move certain tasks to shore to lower workload onboard, which should be one of the main drivers for automation.

  • 13. Jensen, Sara
    et al.
    Lidbom, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad.
    Tiljander, Pia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad.
    Utvärdering av innpvativ värmeväxlare i kyldisk: för effektivare energianvändning i butiker2018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, a new innovative type of air-to-liquid heat exchanger, called HEALEX (which stands for High Efficiency Air to Liquid Heat Exchanger), has been tested and demonstrated in an open display cabinet at a supermarket. HEALEX is adapted for obtaining good heat transfer performance even at a laminar flow regime on the liquid side, which is often the case in indirect cooling systems in supermarkets. The heat exchanger consists of parallel plates, with liquid in every second passage and air in the other passages. The purpose of the demonstration was to show the potential of increasing the energy efficiency by replacing the conventional cooling coils by HEALEX. On the long term, the purpose of the project was to raise the interest and acceptance for this type of heat exchanger, and through raised acceptance increase the amount of energy efficient heat exchangers in supermarkets, which in turn would result in energy savings.

    One of the objectives of the project was to confirm results from a previous study where tests had been performed in a laboratory. The results from the laboratory tests showed that the same cooling capacity and average temperature of the “food packages” could be obtained with around 6 K higher inlet temperature of the liquid, -7°C with the traditional coil and ‑1°C with HEALEX.

    The project was not intended to directly compare the performance of the original heat exchanger and the one of HEALEX regarding efficiency. A field study is not well suited for direct comparisons of different heat exchanger performances, since there are too many hard-to-control variables (ambient climate, customer behavior etc.) that affect the performance of the cooling system. Studies for direct and exact comparisons should always be carried out in a laboratory, where parameters that affect the result can be controlled.

    The first tests were made with the original heat exchanger placed in the bottom of the display cabinet, and thereafter the heat exchanger was replaced with HEALEX. The data collected in the project were air- and liquid temperatures before and after the heat exchangers, air temperatures and humidities in the display cabinet, liquid and air pressure drop and liquid volume flow. Temperature and humidity of the ambient air is also measured.

    The results from this study show that there is a potential of energy savings by using HEALEX in display cabinets at supermarkets instead of conventional cooling coils. The inlet temperature of the secondary refrigerant could be raised 6°C after the installation of HEALEX and almost the same cooling capacity and average temperature in the display cabinet as for the original heat exchanger could be obtained. These results confirm to a large extent the results from the laboratory tests.

    The results from this study also indicate that the need for defrosting will occur much more seldom for HEALEX compared to a conventional cooling coil. Defrosting was initiated by time control at 6.00 am and at 7.00 pm. Since the pressure drop is constant during the measurement period it is likely that there is no frosting and thereby no need for defrosting. In order to find out if defrosting is needed or not, the it would have been necessary to increase the intervals between the defrosts, which was not possible in this study.

    Earlier studies have shown that COP increase with approximately 2.5% per oC increased liquid temperature. Thereby an increase of the liquid temperature with 6oC implies energy savings of about 15% for the compressor drive energy.

  • 14.
    Johnson, Peter
    et al.
    Arup, Australia.
    Beyler, Craig
    Jensen Hughes, USA.
    Croce, Paul
    FM Global, USA.
    Dubay, Chris
    National Fire Protection Association, USA.
    McNamee, Margaret
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Very Early Smoke Detection Apparatus(VESDA), David Packham, John Petersen,Martin Cole: 2017 DiNenno Prize2017Ingår i: Fire Science Reviews, Vol. 6, nr 5Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The 2017 Phillip J. DiNenno Prize was awarded to the innovators of the VESDA smoke detection system. The initialtechnology was invented and patented byDavid PackhamandLen Gibson, who worked withJohn Petersenonprototype development, field trials, and applications engineering.Dr. Martin Colewas responsible for the successfulcommercial development and many further patented technical developments. The VESDA technology and its pre-eminent role in the introduction of aspirated smoke detection (ASD) internationally has led to a major global impacton public safety.The recipients of the 2017 Philip J. DiNenno Prize areDavid Packham,John Petersen,andDr. Martin Cole.Amplecommendation is given to their deceased co-inventor and passionate advocateLen Gibson.Otherimportantcontributions are noted, including technical and other staff from IEI, CSIRO, SSL and Telecom Australia.

  • 15.
    Leisner, Peter
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik. Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Zanella, C.
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Belov, I.
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Edström, C.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik.
    Sandulache, G.
    Happy Plating, Austria.
    Hansal, W. E. G.
    Happy Plating, Austria.
    Control of silver throwing power by pulse reverse electroplating2017Ingår i: Transactions of the Institute of Metal Finishing, ISSN 0020-2967, E-ISSN 1745-9192, Vol. 95, nr 1, s. 25-30Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of electroplating parameters on throwing power (TP) is studied in additive-free silver cyanide solutions under direct current and pulse reverse electroplating conditions. It is found that the best TP is obtained when no agitation of the electrolyte is applied. The most important parameters for controlling the TP are the cathodic current density, the anodic to cathodic charge ratio, and the ratio between the anodic and cathodic current densities. Guidelines for process optimisation are given.

  • 16.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Ingason, HaukurRISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Proceedings from the Eighth International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security, Borås, Sweden, March 14-16, 20182018Proceedings (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This report includes the Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security (ISTSS) held in Borås, Sweden, 14-16th of March, 2018. The Proceedings include 41 papers given by session speakers and 16 extended abstracts presenting posters exhibited at the Symposium. The papers were presented in 12 different sessions. Among them are Fire Safety Engineering: Cases & Incidents, Fire Safety Engineering: The Aims, Fire Detection, Explosions, Risk Analysis, Fire Safety Engineering: Case studies, Ventilation, Fire Safety Engineering: State of the Art, Fire Dynamics, Fixed Fire Fighting Systems (FFFS) and Evacuation and Human Behavior.

    Each day was opened by invited Keynote Speakers (in total six) addressing broad topics of pressing interest. The Keynote Speakers, selected as leaders in their field, consisted of Hans Brun, the Swedish Defence University, Dr Iain Bowman, Mott MacDonald, Canada, Dr Ying Zhen Li, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Dr Johan Lundin, WSP, Sweden, Allan Skovlund, Greater Copenhagen Fire Department, Denmark and Prof David Purser, Hartford Environmental Research, UK. We are grateful that the keynote speakers were able to share their knowledge and expertise with the participants of the symposium.

  • 17.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Persson, Henry
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Hedenstedt, Anders
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Jones, Frida
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Davidsson, Kent
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Johansson, Inge
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Boström, Sara
    Sweco, Sweden.
    Rekommendation för proaktivt brandskyddsarbete2019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 18.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Persson, Henry
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Trella, Fredrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Interactive.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Boström, Sara
    Sweco, Sweden.
    Bergérus Rensvik, Åsa
    Sweco, Sweden.
    Brandsäkerhet vid lagring av avfallsbränslen2018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med detta projekt har varit att ge ökad kunskap kring olika förekommande brandrisker och råd om hur dessa kan reduceras med olika åtgärder, primärt baserat på praktiska erfarenheter från genomfört säkerhetsarbete samt uppkomna bränder ute i olika anläggningar. Målet är att de samlade kunskaperna och erfarenheterna kan komma till nytta för hela branschen, övriga berörda intressenter och myndigheter och på sikt ligga till grund för t.ex. framtida branschrekommendationer.

    Projektet kan delas in metodmässigt i; statistik, workshoppar samt analys av anläggningsspecifik information.

    Analysen av insatsstatistik från Myndigheten för samhällsskydd och beredskap (MSB) pekar på att det inträffar i storleksordningen 60–70 bränder årligen i avfallsanläggningar och att brandorsaken i de flesta fall är självantändning eller okänd anledning. Tittar man på "brand ej i byggnad" med relevanta bränder för avfallsanläggningar så ser man en svagt ökande trend i antal bränder 2012–2015. 

    De vanligaste materialfraktionerna som enligt statistik från MSB är kopplade till bränder i avfallsanläggningar är sopor, kompost, fluff, papper, trädgårdsavfall, däckgranulat, annat, skrot, återvinningscontainrar. Även en del av flisbränderna kan vara relaterade till RT-trä.

    Från avfallsindustrins sida ansågs bark, returträ, flisat material och GROT (grenar och toppar) kunna ge problem med självuppvärmning. Även krossning av avfall angavs som ett generellt problem av flera deltagare.

    Många incidenter och bränder anses bero på felsorterat eller feldeklarerat avfall och kontrollen av inkommande gods är därför väldigt viktig. Det är också viktigt att kommunicera uppströms i leveranskedjan för att öka chanserna att komma tillrätta med problemen. Många deltagare identifierade batterier (speciellt litiumbatterier) som ett växande problem.

    Hanteringen av förorenat släckvatten varierar mycket. Man påpekar att samma krav över hela landet vore bra. Man önskar tydligare riktlinjer för släckvattenanalyser, kunskap om vad vattnet kan innehålla och information om reningsmetoder för släckvatten.

    Det påpekas att det finns många standarder och normer att förhålla sig till så det vore därför bra att ha en lägsta nivå av krav som bestäms i samarbete med branschen som man kan förhålla sig till och någon form av vägledning från myndigheterna för göra hanteringen mer lik över riket.

    Diskussionerna under workshopparna och tillsammans med projektets referensgrupp har lett fram till 33 rekommendationer uppdelade på olika områden. För varje rekommendation ges i rapporten ytterligare förklaringar. Dessa rekommendationer kan ligga till grund för framtida riktlinjer.

  • 19.
    Mirata, Murat
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Peter
    Sotenäs kommun, Sweden.
    Harris, Steve
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Martin, Michael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Fornell, Rickard
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Hackl, Roman
    Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, Sweden.
    Källqvist, Tobias
    Hifab, Sweden.
    Dalväg, Emma
    Hifab, Sweden.
    Broberg, Sarah
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    International and Swedish State of Play in Industrial Symbiosis: A review with proposals to scale up industrial symbiosis in Sweden2018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 20.
    Nilsson Tengelin, Maria
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Källberg, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Effects of non-visual optical flicker in an office with two different light sources.2017Ingår i: PROCEEDINGS of the Conference on "Smarter Lighting for Better Life"at the CIE Midterm Meeting 2017., 2017, s. 451-Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    LED lighting solutions sometimes give rise to optical flicker. In most cases, the temporal modulations are too fast to be perceived directly, but may still be noticed through stroboscopic effects. We report on an investigation on how people experience the lighting in an office where two LED lamps are modulated separately with different frequencies. The test subjects performed tasks for evaluation of perception, attention and reaction time. The subjects are found to be affected by the modulated light as the reaction times are shorter and the attention test scores are higher in modulated lighting compared to constant lighting. Furthermore, the study confirms that the stroboscopic effect depends on the nature of the tasks and that it is more easily perceived at lower frequencies but noticed up to at least 400 Hz.

  • 21.
    Nordløkken, Per Gunnar
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Sesseng, Christian
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Wormdahl, Espen D.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Energibesparende bygg og brannsikkerhet2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 22.
    Sesseng, Christian
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Røykvarslere for bruk i bolig: Kartlegging av forskningsfront2012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [no]

    I byggeforskrift av 1985 ble det innført krav til røykvarslere i nye boliger. I Forskrift om brannforebyggende tiltak og brannsyn (FOBTOB) av 1990, ble det i tillegg innført krav om røykvarslere i eksisterende boliger.

     

    Et litteraturstudium har blitt gjennomført for å kartlegge teknologistatus for røykvarslere i boliger. Det er lagt vekt på hvilken forskning og utvikling som er gjort med tanke på røykvarslere for boliger siden år 2000. Hvilke deteksjonsprinsipper kan benyttes, og kan ny teknologi gjøre detektorene bedre?

     

    Rapporten oppsummerer litteraturstudiet, innenfor forskjellige fokusområder, og gir i tillegg forslag til videre forskning på temaet.

  • 23.
    Stolen, Reidar
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Stensaas, Reidar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Solcelleteknologi og brannsikkerhet2018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [no]

    Bruken av solcelleteknologi er i stor vekst i Norge. I denne studien er branntekniske utfordringer ved bruk av solcelleteknologi undersøkt, med hensyn på brannstart, brannspredning og brannslokking. Studien danner et kunnskapsgrunnlag for å ivareta brannsikkerheten under montering, drift og under slokkeinnsats, samt for å utforme et enhetlig og tydelig regelverk. Resultatene fra studien viser:

    Brannstart: Solcelleinstallasjoner inneholder mange koblingspunkt, som kan være potensielle tennkilder, og en liten mengde brennbare materialer. Dermed er det som trengs til stede for å starte en brann. Det er viktig at alle kontaktpunkter i solcelleinstallasjonen er robuste og tåler den påkjenningen de blir utsatt for gjennom sin levetid uten at det oppstår dårlig kontakt som kan føre til brann.

    Brannspredning: For utenpåmonterte solcellemoduler er det ofte en åpen luftspalte mellom modul og bygning. Dersom det er en brann i denne luftspalten, vil varmen kunne bli akkumulert, noe som kan føre til raskere og større brannspredning enn om bygningsoverflaten ikke hadde vært tildekket. I fullskalaforsøk med solcellemoduler montert på tak spredte brannen seg under hele arealet som var dekket av moduler, men stoppet da den nærmet seg kanten av dette arealet. Dette illustrerer viktigheten av at områder med solceller utenpå en bygning blir seksjonert for å unngå brannspredning. Eventuelt kan det benyttes mindre brennbare materialer på taket under solcellemodulene for å motvirke den økte varmepåkjenningen som solcellemodulene gir. Luftspalten mellom modul og bygning kan potensielt også gi endringer i luftstrømningen langs bygget, som igjen kan påvirke brannspredningen.

    Brannslokking: Brannvesenet har behov for informasjon om det er solcelleinstallasjon i bygget og hvilke deler av det elektriske anlegget som kan være spenningssatt. Under slokkeinnsats må brannvesenet ta hensyn til berøringsfare, og fare for at det kan oppstå lysbuer og andre feil som kan føre til nye antennelsespunkt. Ferskvann kan brukes som slokkemiddel, dette må spyles fra minimum 1 meters avstand med spredt stråle og minimum 5 meters avstand med samlet stråle. Solcellemoduler kan komplisere brannslokking ved at de danner en fysisk barriere mellom brannvesenet og brannen, samt fordi det må tas hensyn til plassering av spenningssatte komponenter. Når disse punktene er tatt høyde for, bør ikke utenpåmonterte solcelleinstallasjoner være et problem.

    Videre arbeid: For utenpåmonterte solcelleinstallasjoner, er det lite forskning på vertikal montering (på fasader), og hvordan en eventuell endret branndynamikk kan påvirke brannspredning og slokking. Videre er det i dag økende bruk av bygningsintegrerte solcelleinstallasjoner, noe som gir mange mulige nye utfordringer for brannsikkerheten og for regelverk, ettersom solcellen da er en del av bygningskroppen, samtidig som den er en elektrisk komponent. Tysk statistikk tyder på at brannrisiko for slike installasjoner kan være større enn for utenpåmonterte solcelleinstallasjoner, og dette vil det derfor være viktig å undersøke nærmere.

  • 24.
    Vermina Lundström, Frida
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Andersson, Petra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Faktorer som påverkar en bostadsbrands storlek – analys av försäkringsbolagens data2018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Every year, the insurance sector reports 23 000 fire incidents in Sweden. Of these, the fire rescue service are called into 6 000. Since there is little knowledge on the fires that the fire rescue service is not involved in, incident data from insurance companies has been analyzed.

    One limitation to the results in this report is that the insurance sector’s definition of fire is broad; e.g. short-circuit is regarded a fire incident.

    Still, the data complies with the statistics from the fire rescue service: Kitchen fires and fire in electric equipment are the most common sources of fire in residential buildings.

    The cost (property damage) of a fire is also presented. It is seen that the most common fires sources commonly lead to a relatively low economical loss.

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