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  • 1.
    Aamodt, Edvard
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Säkerhetsforskning.
    Meraner, Christoph
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Säkerhetsforskning.
    Brandt, Are W
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Säkerhetsforskning.
    Review of efficient manual fire extinguishing methods and equipment for the fire service2020Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The late 90s and the early 2000s was a period with relative extensive research and innovation in the area of manual fire extinguishing methods and equipment for the fire service. New equipment such as the cutting extinguisher and extinguishing spears allowed to conduct offensive attacks from the exterior of a building, reducing the exposure of fire fighters to fire and smoke and their associated risks in general. This led to the development of new firefighting tactics, as for example the Quadrant Model of the Dutch fire service, which extends the “traditional” offensive interior attack and defensive exterior attack by the offensive exterior attack and defensive interior attack.Recently the research focus has furthermore increasingly shifted to environmental aspects, such as the water consumption and effect of additives (i.e., foam) on humans and the environment. Extinguishing with smaller amounts of water is beneficial for the environment, reduces water damage and lowers the burden on the water delivery system.ConclusionIn conclusion, the systems most relevant to be further tested in a fire situation in a small house or dwelling are the cutting extinguisher and the extinguishing spear.These systems are different in operation but have both shown to be promising with regard to fulfilling the different objectives of the overall project. Being relatively easy to utilize with the right training during internal extinguishing efforts executed from the outside of the building, and being only water based to minimize contamination, due to lower water consumption, of the surrounding areas give these systems advantages over conventional equipment.Especially if the systems are used in combination with an IR camera to locate the fire, the extinguishing efforts can be started early and effectively, and the water amount needed to control the fire may be reduced. The need for firefighters with breathing apparatus is reduced as well, hence reducing the smoke exposure to firefighters.The fact that the fire service also recognizes the potential of using these systems early in the extinguishing efforts, and is working on implementing them, prompts the need for scientific backup.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 2.
    Antonsson, Ulf
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Bygg och fastighet.
    Bok, Gunilla
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Bygg och fastighet.
    Peltoperä, Janne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Bygg och fastighet.
    Bygg- och möbelskiva som tillverkas av återvunna mjölkförpackningar2022Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Trenden i samhället är att öka återvinningsgrad av produkter för att skapa ytterligare värden av förbrukade produkter. Detta projekt har initierats av möjligheten att återanvända mjölkkartonger till bygg- och möbelskivor i syfte att minska byggindustrins totala miljöpåverkan genom minskat uttag av primärmaterial och lägre CO2 belastning. Förpackningsmaterial för mat och dryck innehåller ofta ett skikt av plast, av typen PET med syfte att hålla livsmedlet färskt och fritt från atmosfären. Efter användning samlas förpackningar in till förbränning då det inte finns något annat sätt att återvinna/återbruka dessa material. Det är svårt att skilja pappkartong och plast åt vid dagens förbränningsanläggningar och därmed skapas stora förorenande utsläpp (bland annat CO2). Det är önskvärt att hitta ett område där kartonger för livsmedel kan återvinnas till ett annat högvärdigt material och då kan ersätta material med högre miljöbelastning. Att göra en skiva till bygg och möbelindustrin genom att sönderdela kartonger för livsmedel och utan tillsatser pressa dem till en produkt som därmed ersätter mer belastande skivor som gips och OSB ger industrin en möjlighet att ytterligare minska sin miljöpåverkan. Ett potentiellt område kan vara inom byggindustrin, och att då hitta en ersättning eller komplement till de skivmaterial som idag används i väggar och tak. Dagens skivor är tillverkade av blandade material, i form av OSB (träspån och lim) och gips (kalk och papp). Initiala prover, genomförda av tillverkaren ej RISE, av den framtagna skivan har visat på god teknisk prestanda, men byggindustrin är på goda grunder kritisk till nya material, varför det krävs en noggrann kontroll av prestanda på såväl lång som kort sikt för att säkerställa ett kontrollerat byte till mer hållbart material. Metoden att samla in och sönderdela kartonger på ett band för press under tryck och värme, och att skapa en bygg- och möbelskiva producerad av återvunnet material utan andra tillsatser i processen är lovande. Den ingående andelen PET agerar som bindemedel för att skapa skivan som är homogen och stark. Initiala tester har visat en funktionsprestanda mellan OSB och gips, varför målsättningen är att ersätta kombinationer av dessa i flera applikationer. Introduktion av material och produkter kräver en robusthet avseende tekniska egenskaper samt tester i faktiska miljöer för introduktion i byggindustrin. Men ett ökat intresse för och krav ur miljösynpunkt öppnar för möjligheter att skapa värde. För att realisera detta värde finns det ett behov av att testa och verifiera olika tekniska egenskaper av produkten mot de funktionella krav som finns på marknaden för denna typ av produktändamål. Tekniska egenskaper som bör verifieras är bland annat formstabilitet, tålighet mot fukt, akustik, brand och avslutningsvis de miljöegenskaper som uppstår.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 3.
    Apanasevic, Tatjana
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Prototypande samhälle.
    Mjuk digital infrastruktur: Utmaningar som finns inom offentlig sektor2023Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här rapporten riktar sig till dig som arbetar med digitaliseringsinitiativ inom den svenska offentliga sektorn och har ett intresse för mjuk digital infrastruktur. Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka hur kommuner och offentliga organisationer genomför digitaliseringsinitiativ inom olika områden av sin verksamhet och vilka utmaningar som skapas av mjuk digital infrastruktur i denna process. Rapporten innehåller också möjliga vägar framåt och rekommendationer kring olika aspekter av mjuk digital infrastruktur till RISE, kommuner och myndigheter.

    I rapporten beskriver vi åtta fallstudier och identifierar skillnader och gemensamma drag mellan dem.

    Analysen bygger på intervjuer med forskare från olika avdelningar på RISE som har arbetat med mjuk digital infrastruktur inom smarta städer och IoT-data, öppna och delade data, eHälsa och omsorg, smarta fastigheter, mobilitet och transport, jordbruk samt vatten och avlopp.

    Analysen visade att kommuner och offentliga organisationer inom olika områden upplever precis samma tekniska, organisatoriska och affärsrelaterade utmaningar relaterade till mjuk digital infrastruktur. Den organisatoriska delen och brist på samordning kring ett gemensamt nationellt ramverk skapar de största utmaningarna. Dessutom visade analysen på behovet av nationell samordning och samverkan kring mjuk digital infrastruktur.

    Studien och rapporten är delar av ett internt RISE projekt med namnet ’TI Mjuk digital infrastruktur’. Författaren vill rikta ett speciellt tack till alla involverade och intervjuade RISE-forskare och experter.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 4.
    Arvidson, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport.
    An evaluation of residential sprinklers and water mist nozzles in a residential area fire scenario2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Commercial residential sprinklers are usually fitted with 3 mm glass bulbs having a nominal operating temperature of 68°C or a high-sensitivity solder link, usually with a nominal temperature rating of 74°C. Previous work show that there is a significant potential for improving sprinkler response times in a residential room fire scenario by using glass bulbs with a lower Response Time Index (RTI) and lower operating temperature than commonly used. The objective of this study was to investigate any improved performance due to earlier activation of residential sprinklers. A series of fire tests was conducted inside a test compartment sized 3.66 m by 3.66 m. The fire test source consisted of either a simulated or authentic upholstered chair. For the majority of the tests, the flow rate of the residential sprinkler was 30.3 liter/min (corresponding to the minimum design density 2.05 mm/min as per the recommendations in NFPA 13D and 13R). Additional tests were conducted at 60.6 liter/min (the minimum design density 4.1 mm/min as per NFPA 13). Tests were also conducted with commercial low- and high-pressure water mist nozzles and a stand-alone high-pressure water mist system.

    The results show that earlier activation of residential sprinklers had a small effect on its performance, especially for the authentic upholstered chair scenario, when flowing 30.3 liter/min. The rather small effect is probably due to that the discharge density was too low to provide fire suppression. When the flow rate was increased to 60.6 liter/min, the performance was considerably improved as compared to the flow of 30.3 liter/min. Any improvement in performance of earlier activation was, however, not investigated for the 60.6 liter/min flow rate.

    The flow rates of the commercial low- and high-pressure water mist water mist nozzles ranged from 17.2 liter/min to 36.7 liter/min. Roughly, it could be concluded that the performance of the water mist nozzles were comparable or better than the residential sprinkler at approximately half the water flow rate for the tested fire scenarios.

    The stand-alone high-pressure water mist system had a flow rate of 8.2 liter/min. The performance was comparable to that of the other water mist nozzles in the study The performance was comparable to that of the other water mist nozzles in the study, despite a considerably earlier activation. However, the results indicate that the performance was relatively much influenced whether the simulated upholstered chair was orientated with its front towards the test compartment or with its front towards the back wall (poorer performance). This would suggest that the position of the fire test relative to the position of the unit is a crucial factor and underlines the importance of a thoughtful positioning in practical applications.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    RISE Rapport 2017_40
  • 5.
    Bergsten, Tobias
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Eklund, Gunnar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Comparison between GaAs and graphene QHR standards for resistance realisation at SP2016Inngår i: Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM 2016), 2016, artikkel-id 7540514Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We report the first precision QHR measurements at SP using a graphene chip. We compare the results of a resistance calibration using GaAs based chips with the results using a graphene chip. The results agree within a few parts in 109 for calibrations of 100 Ω and 10 kΩ resistors. Consistency checks indicate that the uncertainty is lower with the graphene chip, and the noise level is slightly lower. The measurements with the graphene chip were performed exclusively at 4.2 K, which simplifies the calibration procedure considerably compared with GaAs chips.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 6.
    Björkdahl, Joakim
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Fallahi, Sara
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Holmén, Magnus
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Organizing for parallel business models in established firms2018Inngår i: Academy of Management Proceedings, 2018, Vol. 1Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Prior business model innovation research has paid little attention to the various choices and decisions of organizing for parallel business models. This paper explores how established firms organize for new business models that are to be run in parallel with their primary business model. Empirically we study how Skanska and IKEA, two multinational corporations developed new business models by industrializing construction. Neither full separation nor full integration was a panacea for how to organize a new business model running in parallel with the primary because the firms were unable to determine what to organizationally integrate or separate prior to implementation of the new business model. The paper argues that firms are unlikely to know how to organize for parallel business models before they know how the new business model will operate.

  • 7.
    Boddaert, S.
    et al.
    CSTB, France .
    Bonomo, P
    SUPSI, Switzerland .
    Eder, G
    OFI, Austria .
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Ishii, H
    LIXIL Corporation, Japan .
    Kim, J-T
    Kongju National University, Republic of Korea .
    Ko, Y
    National Research Council Canada, Canada .
    Kovacs, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och resurser.
    Li, Tian
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Olano, X
    Tecnalia, Spain .
    Parolini, F
    SUPSI, Switzerland .
    Qi, D
    Université de Sherbrooke, Canada .
    Shabunko, V
    SERIS, Singapore .
    Slooff, L
    TNO, Netherlands .
    Stølen, Reidar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Valencia, D
    Tecnalia, Spain .
    Villa, S
    TNO, Netherlands .
    Wilson, H R
    Fraunhofer, Germany .
    Yang, R
    RMIT, Australia.
    Zang, Y
    RMIT, Australia.
    Fire safety of BIPV: International mapping of accredited and R&D facilities in the context of codes and standards 20232023Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of Task 15 of the IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme is to create an enabling framework to accelerate the penetration of BIPV products in the global market of renewables, resulting in an equal playing field for BIPV products, BAPV products and regular building envelope components, respecting mandatory issues, aesthetic issues, reliability issues, and financial issues.

    Subtask E of Task 15 is focused on pre-normative international research on BIPV characterisation methods and activity E.3 is dedicated to fire safety of BIPV modules and installations.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 8.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Engineering methods for structural fire design of wood buildings: Structural integrity during a full natural fire2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 9.
    Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Just, Alar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Andersson, Petra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Östman, Birgit
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Mitigation of fire damages in multi-storey timber buildings: Statistical analysis and guidelines for design2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of multi-storey timber buildings has increased during the last twenty years. Recent well-known fires in London, Dubai and Brazil, although not in timber buildings, have increased concerns regarding large fire spread and high damage fires. As timber is a combustible material, concerns have been expressed regarding property safety and it has been questioned whether fire damage is more significant in buildings with timber as the main structural material than in other types of buildings. This report includes a statistical study of data of fires in multi-storey timber buildings in New Zealand and an analysis of high damage fires that occurred in multi-storey timber buildings in the USA. The data from New Zealand showed no significant difference between share of fires that had flame damage out of the compartment of origin in (a) multi-storey timber buildings that were constructed in or later than 1992 and (b) other types of multi-storey buildings that were constructed in or later than 1992. Fires in multi-storey timber buildings that were constructed before 1992 spread more frequently to neighbouring compartments than fires in other multi-storey timber buildings constructed before 1992. Data of high damage fires occurring in multi-storey timber buildings in the USA indicated that outdoor fire spread is the most common cause for large fire spread. Additionally, the data indicates that high water damage is most often caused by fire service interference and is significantly less often related to sprinkler activation.

    Based on the analysis of fire spread of high damage fires in the USA, guidelines are given in the report to limit (1) outdoor fire spread, (2) fire spread through cavities, and (3) fire spread directly from a fire compartment to a neighbouring fire compartment. A number of these guidelines were evaluated using a fire test of a two-storey timber structure.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 10.
    Burden, Håkan
    et al.
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ornäs, Victor Hiort af
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    A Little Goes a Long Way - Opportunities for Multidisciplinary Education2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ambitions about deep interdisciplinary education may face barriers. However, interaction between student groups does not have to be difficult. We report on a collaboration including more than 200 students from different subject areas, at different curricular stages in a multidisciplinary concept workshop. By engaging with an external event we avoided some of the challenges involved in aligning agendas, while remaining true to the ambitions of giving students Concrete Experience and opportunity to Reflect in and on actions, balancing the ambitions of raising awareness of the relation between subjects and engaging students in collaborating in problem solving based on skills and knowledge from their respective discipline. Our results show how collaborating with industry can help bridge some of the challenges with internal collaboration between students from different disciplines.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 11.
    Collin, Anthony
    et al.
    Université de Lorraine, France.
    Suzanne, Mathieu
    Préfecture de Police de Paris, France.
    Testa, Fabian
    Brigade de Sapeurs-Pompiers de Paris, France.
    Doelsch, Pascal
    Service Départemental d'Incendie et de Secours de Meurthe et Moselle, France.
    Acem, Zoubir
    Université de Lorraine, France.
    Thiry-Muller, Aurélien
    Préfecture de Police de Paris, France.
    Zeinali, Davood
    Université de Lorraine, France.
    Erez, Giacomo
    Brigade de Sapeurs-Pompiers de Paris, France.
    Moriau, Yannick
    Service Départemental d'Incendie et de Secours de Meurthe et Moselle, France.
    Hardy, Louis
    Université de Lorraine, France; Préfecture de Police de Paris, France.
    Mehaddi, R
    Université de Lorraine, France.
    Parent, G
    Université de Lorraine, France.
    Quantification of radiative attenuation provided by fire hose nozzles2022Inngår i: Fire and MaterialsArtikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 12.
    Debela, A. M.
    et al.
    Sorbonne University, France.
    Ortiz, Mayreli
    Rovira i Virgili University, Spain.
    Beni, Valerio
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Lesage, Denis
    Sorbonne University, France.
    Cole, Richard B.
    Sorbonne University, France.
    O'Sullivan, Ciara K.
    Rovira i Virgili University, Spain; Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançais, Spain.
    Thorimbert, Serge
    Sorbonne University, France.
    Hasenknopf, Bernold
    Sorbonne University, France.
    Functionalized deoxynucleotides and DNA primers for electrochemical diagnostics of disease predispostions2017Inngår i: ECS Transactions, Electrochemical Society Inc. , 2017, nr 11, s. 1873-1883Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Redox labeled DNAs are of increasing interest for the fabrication of next generation molecular tools. In the present work we are investigating the use of various redox labeled dNTPs, ddNTPs and DNA primers for use in detection of diseases. We have reported the use of Polyoxometalate (POM) labeled DNA primers and dNTPs for use in PCR and subsequently used for direct electrochemical detection of PCR products. The use of POM labeled DNAs in PCR enabled us to check the compatibility with polymerases and PCR incorporability of the modified DNAs. Furthermore we have investigated the solid-phase array based primer extension (é-PEX) with redox labelled ddNTPs (ferrocene (Fc), anthraquinone (AQ) phenothiazine (PTZ) and methylene blue (MB)) to prove the strategy of detection of single nucleotide polymorphisms using the labeled ddNTPs. This strategy will allow the development of cost-effective, rapid and user-friendly platform for the screening of known and unknown genetic mutations.

  • 13.
    Dopfer, Martina
    et al.
    University of St Gallen, Switzerland.
    Fallahi, Sara
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Kirchberger, Markus
    Porsche AG, Germany.
    Gassmann, Oliver
    University of St Gallen, Switzerland.
    Adapt and strive: How ventures under resource constraints create value through business model adaptations2017Inngår i: Creativity and Innovation Management, ISSN 0963-1690, E-ISSN 1467-8691, Vol. 26, nr 3, s. 233-246Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper looks into how new ventures organize their business models in order to meet their available resources. It employs the business model as the unit of analysis to investigate the role and nature of business model adaptation as a coping mechanism with resource constraints. By drawing on a case study with two ventures starting with different resources, the paper shows how those ventures use business model adaptation under resource constraints as a way to create comparable offerings. Business model adaptation involves a process of continuous search, selection, and improvement in value creation, value proposition, and value capture, based on the surrounding environment. For the two new ventures included in this study, early business model adaptations were related to (1) market — geography and customer, (2) strategy — marketing, sales, and growth, (3) profit — profit formula and cost structure, and (4) structures, processes, and capabilities. This paper also shows how the adaptation process is conditioned by the venture's stock and flow of resources. Bringing a resource perspective into the process of business model adaptation implies practical implications for new ventures that are developing and adapting their business models to strategically co‐develop their offering with their resources such that they match required adaptations. 

  • 14.
    Edelbro, Catrin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden .
    Hulthén, Erik
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Clausen, Elisabeth
    Technical University of Clausthal, Germany.
    Tanner, David
    University of Limerick, Ireland.
    Herrera Herbert, Juan
    Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain.
    Jonsson, Kristina
    LKAB, Sweden.
    Bealieu, Stephan
    RUSAL Aughinish Alumina, Ireland.
    Kamp, Aldert
    Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Försth, Michael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    European Initiative on CDIO in Raw Material Programmes2017Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    One of five Knowledge and Innovation Communities (KICs), was launched in Europe in 2014 and has its focus on exploration, extraction, mineral processing, metallurgy, recycling and material substitution of raw materials. To reach the vision, where the European Union’s industrial strength is based on a cost-efficient, secure, sustainable supply and use of raw materials, a new generation of skilled people entering industry, universities and research needs to be developed. Today’s technical MSc graduates in raw materials and especially primary resources (i.e. exploration, extraction, mining and mineral processing and metallurgy) best suits large companies where they often act as specialists and experts. For small to medium enterprises as well as for our future engineers other skills than technical are necessary. As a part of the KIC Raw Materials, the education project “The implementation of CDIO in raw material programmes” started in 2016. The project focuses, during 2016-2017, on (WP1) faculty- and (WP2) pilot case development. There are no academic institutes in Europe that have yet applied CDIO for primary resource related MSc programmes. This paper describes an education project within the KIC Raw material and presents key outputs with implementing CDIO in mining and metallurgy related programmes.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 15.
    Edo Giménez, Mar
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Jensen, Carl
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Johansson, Inge
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Rapp, Magnus
    Ragn-Sells Recycling AB, Sweden.
    Radlert, Åke
    Swerock AB, Sweden.
    Sahlin, Jenny
    PROFU, Sweden.
    Weiss, Monika
    SRV återvinning AB, Sweden.
    Manual för plockanalyser av brännbart bygg- och rivningsavfall2019Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This manual provides instructions on how to perform sorting analyses of combustible construction and demolition waste studied in the project Framtidens avfallsbränsle – Uppströmsarbete och kvalitet.The sorting strategy described in this manual recommends sorting out the content of the waste sample based on its composition (referred to as main fractions) and functionality (referred to as subfractions). In this way, four material fractions are identified and sorted out (i.e. plastic, paper, wood and “others combustible and non-combustible materials”), and up to 48 different subfraction (i.e. plastic pipes, wooden furniture, packaging paper, cables, metal pieces etc.).It is important to mention that the subfractions listed in this report are indicative: not all of the subfractions listed are always found in the combustible construction and demolition waste. Additions or substitutions may be necessary to ensure the best outcomes from the sorting analyses depending on the aim and goals of the project.The way the waste sample is handled before a sorting analysis is performed is essential. For that reason, this manual also includes instructions about sample collection, identification and storage once the sample is received at the sorting waste plants; as well as brief recommendations about how to perform a pre-sorting of those materials with a potential for recycling and waste which can be easily removed.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 16.
    Fallahi, Sara
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    In Search of a Route Map: Exploring Business Model Innovation Processes in Established Firms2018Inngår i: Academy of Management Proceedings, 2018, Vol. 1Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the millennium, discussion of business models as important vehicles and sources of innovation has increased. This paper explores the process of business model innovation in seven established firms from various industries. The findings provide evidence that business model innovation can follow a purposeful, or an unintentional and emerging process. Purposeful business model innovation occurs under conditions of perceived threats and is characterized by greater uncertainty, and the parallel design and implementation of several new business model elements that are organized in a separate business. The analyses reveal also that when embarking on the emerging process, the intention of managers was not necessarily to renew the firm's business model but rather to work on the design and development of a new value proposition. However, the complementarities among business model elements directed their attention to the changes required in other business model elements which ultimately resulted in a new business model as the process outcome. The main contribution of this paper is therefore to business model research by providing an explanatory, rather than prescriptive, approach to the process of business model innovation.

  • 17.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge. Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway; Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg, Germany.
    Fighting flameless fires: Initiating and extinguishing self-sustainedsmoldering fires in wood pellets2018Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Smoldering fires represent domestic, environmental and industrial hazards. This flameless form of combustion is more easily initiated than flaming, and is also more persistent and difficult to extinguish. The growing demand for non-fossil fuels has increased the use of solid biofuels such as biomass. This represents a safety challenge, as biomass self-ignition can cause smoldering fires, flaming fires or explosions.

    Smoldering and extinguishment in granular biomass was studied experimentally. The set-up consisted of a cylindrical fuel container of steel with thermally insulated side walls. The container was closed at the bottom, open at the top and heated from below by a hot surface. Two types of wood pellets were used as fuel, with 0.75-1.5 kg samples.

    Logistic regression was used to determine the transition region between non-smoldering and self-sustained smoldering experiments, and to determine the influence of parameters. Duration of external heating was most important for initiation of smoldering. Sample height was also significant, while the type of wood pellet was near-significant and fuel container height was not.

    The susceptibility of smoldering to changes in air supply was studied. With a small gap at the bottom of the fuel bed, the increased air flow in the same direction as the initial smoldering front (forward air flow) caused a significantly more intense combustion compared to the normal set-up with opposed air flow.

    Heat extraction from the combustion was studied using a water-cooled copper pipe. Challenges with direct fuel-water contact (fuel swelling, water channeling and runoff) were thus avoided. Smoldering was extinguished in 7 of 15 cases where heat extraction was in the same range as the heat production from combustion. This is the first experimental proof-of-concept of cooling as an extinguishment method for smoldering fires.

    Marginal differences in heating and cooling separated smoldering from extinguished cases; the fuel bed was at a heating-cooling balance point. Lower cooling levels did not lead to extinguishment, but cooling caused more predictable smoldering, possibly delaying the most intense combustion. Also observed at the balance point were pulsating temperatures; a form of long-lived (hours), macroscopic synchronization not previously observed in smoldering fires.

    For practical applications, cooling could be feasible for prevention of temperature escalation from self-heating in industrial storage units. This study provides a first step towards improved fuel storage safety for biomass. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Mikalsen_DoctoralThesis_FightingFlamelessFires
  • 18.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Fjærestad, Janne Siren
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Vold, Mari
    TBRT Trøndelag Fire and Rescue Service, Norway.
    Fjellanger, Inger Johanne
    DSB Norwegian Directorate for Civil Protection, Norway.
    Communication of fire safety2023Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is made by Fire Research and Innovation Centre (FRIC). The purpose is to find the best ways to communicate knowledge about fire and fire safety to different target groups and to learn from those working with communication of fire safety in Norway today. These include local fire services, organizations like the Norwegian Fire Protection Association (Norsk Brannvernforening), insurance companies and local, regional and national authorities. The study poses three main questions. Information is collected through a survey which 40 Norwegian fire services answered, through dialogue with relevant stakeholdersin meetings and in a webinar, and through the authors’ own experiences in their own organizations.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 19.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Fjærestad, Janne Siren
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Vold, Mari
    TBRT Trøndelag brann og redningstjeneste, Norway.
    Fjellanger, Inger Johanne
    DSB Direktoratet for samfunnssikkerhet og beredskap, Norway.
    Kommunikasjon av brannsikkerhet2023Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [no]

    Denne rapporten er utarbeidet av brannforsknings- og innovasjonssenteret Fire Research and Innovation Centre (FRIC). Målsettingen er å finne ut hvordan man best kan kommunisere kunnskap om brann og brannsikkerhet til ulike målgrupper, og å lære av de som driver med kommunikasjon av brannsikkerhet i Norge i dag. Dette inkluderer lokalt brannvesen, organisasjoner slik som Norsk Brannvernforening, forsikringsselskaper, samt lokale, regionale og nasjonale myndigheter. Tre hovedspørsmål er belyst. Informasjon er samlet inn gjennom en spørreundersøkelse som 40 norske brannvesen besvarte, gjennom dialog med relevante aktører i møter og på et webinar, samt fra forfatternes egne erfaringer med arbeid på temaet i sine organisasjoner.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 20.
    He, Kun
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet. University of Science and Technology of China, China.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Cheng, Xudong
    University of Science and Technology of China, China.
    Fire spread among multiple vehicles in tunnels using longitudinal ventilation2023Inngår i: Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, ISSN 0886-7798, E-ISSN 1878-4364, Vol. 133, artikkel-id 104967Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The characteristics of fire spread among multiple vehicles in tunnels using longitudinal ventilation were investigated by analyzing the experimental data from a series of fire tests in a 1:15 scale tunnel. Further, a simple theoretical model for gas temperature in a tunnel with multiple fire sources was proposed and used in analysis of the experimental data. The results showed that, for objects (wood piles) placed at a same separating distance downstream of the fire, the fire spread occurred faster and faster along the tunnel. Validation of the simplified temperature model for multiple fire sources was made against both model and full-scale tunnel fire tests. The model was further used to predict the critical conditions for fire spread to the second and third objects. Comparisons with the test data showed that average excess temperature of 465 K (or an equivalent incident heat flux of 18.7 kW/m2) could be used as the criterion for fire spread, and this was verified further by other model-scale tests and full-scale tests. The results showed that the critical fire spread distance monotonously increases with the heat release rate, and decreases with the tunnel perimeter. For multiple fire sources with equivalent heat release rates, as the separation distance between the first two fire sources increases, the critical fire spread distance from the second fire source to the third fire source decreases, but the total fire spread distance from the first fire source to the third one increases. If the total heat release rate at the site of a downstream fire source is greater than that at the former fire source, the critical fire spread distance becomes longer.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 21.
    Huang, Chen
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Bloching, Marius
    IND EX®, Germany.
    Lipatnikov, Andrei
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Vented dust explosions: comparing experiments, simulations and standards2022Inngår i: Proceedings of the Tenth International Seminar on Fire and Explosion Hazards, 2022Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A vented corn starch dust explosion in an 11.5 m3 vessel is studied by comparing experiments, simulations and thestandards. The reduced explosion overpressure inside the vessel is recorded using two pressure sensors installed on theinner wall of the vessel. 3D Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes simulations of the experiment are performedusing the Flame Speed Closure (FSC) model and its extended version. The FSC model predicts the influence of turbulenceon premixed combustion, and the extended version allows for self-acceleration of a large-scale flame kernel, which isassociated with the combustion-induced thermal expansion effect. Such an extension is highly relevant to large-scaleindustrial application. The explosion overpressure-time trace computed using the extended FSC model agrees reasonablywell with the experimental data. Furthermore, the effect of vent size and ignition location on the explosion overpressureis studied by comparing the simulation results and the standards. The developed numerical tool and model is especiallyuseful for scenarios, which are not addressed in the standards, and it deserves further study in simulations of other largescalesdust or gaseous explosions together with comparison with experiments.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    ISFEH10_paper_33
  • 22.
    Huffmeier, Johannes
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Bram, Staffan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Human Impact on Safety of Shipping2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Humans, especially the crews have an important role in the safe operation of ships. The crews, given the right circumstances are able to safely maneuver, navigate, maintain and operate the vessel. The crews are dependent on many factors that enable this work, from the design of the vessel and work place, the procedures, processes given by the ship management and the business approach the ship owner applies to the vessel.

    The traffic to and from Åland is an advanced transport system that enables safe ferry services in shipping fairways with narrow passages, meeting and crossing traffic as well as winter navigation - a shipping system combining people and technology to create safe transport.

    The introduction of more automation requires a systems perspective and will not be a straight forward development. Total autonomy as proposed by some technology developers is often neglecting the functions and roles that humans have on maritime safety and the business case for increased automation neglects the full contribution of humans onboard. Total autonomy will therefore require high-end products that are built on standardized complex systems. Controlling and monitoring these systems will set new requirements on operators to uphold situated understanding in these complex systems.

    Many aspects will be affected by increased automation towards smart shipping - regulations, organization, workplace, working methods, HMI, roles and skills. To cope with the foreseen changes it is important to develop further training, skills, experience, openness in the organization and familiarization giving the future crews the right pre-conditions to succeed in the future, as well as mindful design and integration of newly automated systems

    In the future, the ISM code will likely have to change to improve the interaction between land organisations and crews in order to facilitate better integration of split responsibilities and split physical locations by the management system which in the long run allows for an increased land-based monitoring and control

    of vessels’ systems and move certain tasks to shore to lower workload onboard, which should be one of the main drivers for automation.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 23.
    Hynynen, Jonna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Willstrand, Ola
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Quant, Maria
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Investigation of extinguishing water and combustion gases from vehicle fires2023Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Sales of electric vehicles doubled in 2021 compared to the previous year and nearly 10% of the global new-car sales were electric in 2021. In the recent IEA Global EV Outlook 2022, Norway, Iceland, and Sweden were reported to have the highest electric car shares of the new car market: 86%, 72% and 43%, respectively. Electrification of transport has multiple benefits but has also raised some concerns. For example, the use of rare metals and their sourcing are concerns from an environmental perspective, the capacity of the electricity network and the limited number of charging stations has been raised as an implementation barrier, and the new fire and explosion risks of batteries have caused concerns amongst users, property owners and rescue services alike society.Fires starting in the traction batteries (lithium-ion battery) are rare but if the battery catches fire, it can be difficult to extinguish since the battery packs are generally well protected and difficult to reach. To cool the battery cells, firefighters must prolong the application duration of suppression agent. This generally results in use of large amounts of water/fire extinguishing agent, which could carry pollutants into the environment.In this work, extinguishing water from three vehicle fires as well as from one battery pack fire has been investigated. Large-scale fire tests were performed with both conventional and electric vehicles. Tests were performed indoors at RISE, Borås, which also allowed analysis of combustion gases for both inorganic and organic pollutants in the gas and liquid phase.It was found that nickel, cobalt, lithium, manganese and hydrogen fluoride appeared in higher concentrations in the effluents from the battery electric vehicle and lithium-ion battery compared to from the internal combustion engine vehicle. However, lead was found in higher concentrations in the effluents from the internal combustion engine vehicle, both in the combustion gases as well as in the extinguishing water. Ecotoxicity analysis showed that extinguishing water from all vehicle and battery fires analysed in this work were toxic against the tested aquatic species.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Investigation of extinguishing water and combustion gases from vehicle fires
  • 24.
    Janhager Stier, Jenny
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Stattin, Eva
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Certifiering.
    Larsen, Katarina
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Innovation ecosystem challenges: - Experiences from socially critical digitalization projects2023Inngår i: Proceedings of the XXXIV ISPIM Innovation Conference: Innovation and Circular Economy, 2023Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Solving many current societal challenges requires collaboration between numerous actors from different disciplines. However, there are several challenges in these interdisciplinary collaborations that have managerial implications, which this article aims to describe. The study is based on observations and fourteen interviews with actors from three innovation ecosystems (IES) that attack the challenges with the help of digitalization and enabling technology. Examples of identified challenges are difficulties for participating competitors to cooperate, that actors may feel threatened by the approaching result from the collaboration, that the actors may have different underlying motives for participating in the IES, and difficulties for actors to understand each other due to different domain knowledge.

  • 25. Jensen, Sara
    et al.
    Lidbom, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad.
    Tiljander, Pia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad.
    Utvärdering av innpvativ värmeväxlare i kyldisk: för effektivare energianvändning i butiker2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, a new innovative type of air-to-liquid heat exchanger, called HEALEX (which stands for High Efficiency Air to Liquid Heat Exchanger), has been tested and demonstrated in an open display cabinet at a supermarket. HEALEX is adapted for obtaining good heat transfer performance even at a laminar flow regime on the liquid side, which is often the case in indirect cooling systems in supermarkets. The heat exchanger consists of parallel plates, with liquid in every second passage and air in the other passages. The purpose of the demonstration was to show the potential of increasing the energy efficiency by replacing the conventional cooling coils by HEALEX. On the long term, the purpose of the project was to raise the interest and acceptance for this type of heat exchanger, and through raised acceptance increase the amount of energy efficient heat exchangers in supermarkets, which in turn would result in energy savings.

    One of the objectives of the project was to confirm results from a previous study where tests had been performed in a laboratory. The results from the laboratory tests showed that the same cooling capacity and average temperature of the “food packages” could be obtained with around 6 K higher inlet temperature of the liquid, -7°C with the traditional coil and ‑1°C with HEALEX.

    The project was not intended to directly compare the performance of the original heat exchanger and the one of HEALEX regarding efficiency. A field study is not well suited for direct comparisons of different heat exchanger performances, since there are too many hard-to-control variables (ambient climate, customer behavior etc.) that affect the performance of the cooling system. Studies for direct and exact comparisons should always be carried out in a laboratory, where parameters that affect the result can be controlled.

    The first tests were made with the original heat exchanger placed in the bottom of the display cabinet, and thereafter the heat exchanger was replaced with HEALEX. The data collected in the project were air- and liquid temperatures before and after the heat exchangers, air temperatures and humidities in the display cabinet, liquid and air pressure drop and liquid volume flow. Temperature and humidity of the ambient air is also measured.

    The results from this study show that there is a potential of energy savings by using HEALEX in display cabinets at supermarkets instead of conventional cooling coils. The inlet temperature of the secondary refrigerant could be raised 6°C after the installation of HEALEX and almost the same cooling capacity and average temperature in the display cabinet as for the original heat exchanger could be obtained. These results confirm to a large extent the results from the laboratory tests.

    The results from this study also indicate that the need for defrosting will occur much more seldom for HEALEX compared to a conventional cooling coil. Defrosting was initiated by time control at 6.00 am and at 7.00 pm. Since the pressure drop is constant during the measurement period it is likely that there is no frosting and thereby no need for defrosting. In order to find out if defrosting is needed or not, the it would have been necessary to increase the intervals between the defrosts, which was not possible in this study.

    Earlier studies have shown that COP increase with approximately 2.5% per oC increased liquid temperature. Thereby an increase of the liquid temperature with 6oC implies energy savings of about 15% for the compressor drive energy.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 26.
    Johnson, Peter
    et al.
    Arup, Australia.
    Beyler, Craig
    Jensen Hughes, USA.
    Croce, Paul
    FM Global, USA.
    Dubay, Chris
    National Fire Protection Association, USA.
    McNamee, Margaret
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Very Early Smoke Detection Apparatus(VESDA), David Packham, John Petersen,Martin Cole: 2017 DiNenno Prize2017Inngår i: Fire Science Reviews, Vol. 6, nr 5Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The 2017 Phillip J. DiNenno Prize was awarded to the innovators of the VESDA smoke detection system. The initialtechnology was invented and patented byDavid PackhamandLen Gibson, who worked withJohn Petersenonprototype development, field trials, and applications engineering.Dr. Martin Colewas responsible for the successfulcommercial development and many further patented technical developments. The VESDA technology and its pre-eminent role in the introduction of aspirated smoke detection (ASD) internationally has led to a major global impacton public safety.The recipients of the 2017 Philip J. DiNenno Prize areDavid Packham,John Petersen,andDr. Martin Cole.Amplecommendation is given to their deceased co-inventor and passionate advocateLen Gibson.Otherimportantcontributions are noted, including technical and other staff from IEI, CSIRO, SSL and Telecom Australia.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 27.
    Kumm, Mia
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Storm, Artur
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Hådell, Per
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Räddningsinsatser med och utan säker tillgång till släckvatten i spårtunnlar2022Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten avses att utgöra ett stöd för planering och riskbedömning inför och vid räddningsinsatser i spårtunnlar. Rapporten sammanfattar tidigare forskning och kunskap avseende branddynamik i tunnlar, räddningstjänstens förflyttning vid insats, brandsläckning i fordon samt insatshöjande åtgärder i form av såväl bärbar teknik och utrustning som permanenta installationer i tunneln.

    Räddningsinsatser i tunnlar har traditionellt innefattat samtidig slanguppbyggnad, baserat på tolkningen av arbetsmiljöföreskrifterna för rökdykning (AFS 2007:7) samt förfarandet vid rökdykarinsatser vid brand i byggnad. Förhållandena vid bränder i byggnader och vid bränder i tunnlar skiljer väsentligt. I en byggnad är tillgången till säker vattenförsörjning en förutsättning för rökdykarens säkerhet. I en tunnel, där ytskikten är obrännbara, brandgaserna inte ansamlas i ett begränsat utrymme och berget kyler brandgaserna längre bort från branden, är inte alltid tillgången till säker vattenförsörjning det som bäst tillgodoser säkerheten för räddningstjänstens personal när arbetsmoment som inte innefattar släckning genomförs. Detta innebär inte att kraven på säkerhet ska sänkas, utan att andra åtgärder som bibehåller eller höjer säkerhetsnivån behöver vidtas. Sådana åtgärder kan vara utökad användning av värmekamera, utökad övervakning av luftförsörjningen, tekniska installationer som stödjer orientering och vägledning samt utrustning, exempelvis spårbundna räddningstrallor, som medför snabbare förflyttning och minskad luftförbrukning.

    I rapporten föreslås en indelning i fyra zoner, som direkt kopplar till de branddynamiska förhållanden som råder i respektive zon. Förenklat innebär zonindelningen följande:

    • Kall zon – Ingen risk för rökfyllnad. Ingen risk för värmepåverkan från branden.
    • Sval zon – Viss risk för rökfyllnad. Ingen risk för värmepåverkan från branden.
    • Varm zon – Delvis eller helt rökfylld tunnel, men liten risk för värmepåverkan från branden.
    • Het zon – Direkt påverkan från branden. Brand eller risk för brand.

    Till respektive zon kopplas sedan relevanta skyddsnivåer och det arbete som bedöms kunna genomföras beskrivs. I varm zon bedöms arbete kunna genomföras utan tillgång till säkert vatten, utom i de fall syftet med arbetet är att bygga upp vattenförsörjning för senare arbete i het zon. I het zon ska alltid säker tillgång till vattenförsörjning finnas.

    En viktig del av en säker insats i tunnlar, med eller utan säkert vatten, är den kunskap som både den enskilde rökdykaren och de befäl som beslutar om operativa eller strategiska åtgärder behöver besitta. Rapporten ger därför både en vetenskaplig grund för beslut och pekar på indikatorer som kräver övervakning i syfte att säkerställa rökdykarnas arbetsmiljö.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 28.
    Leisner, Peter
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik. Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Zanella, C.
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Belov, I.
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Edström, Curt
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik.
    Sandulache, G.
    Happy Plating, Austria.
    Hansal, W. E. G.
    Happy Plating, Austria.
    Control of silver throwing power by pulse reverse electroplating2017Inngår i: Transactions of the Institute of Metal Finishing, ISSN 0020-2967, E-ISSN 1745-9192, Vol. 95, nr 1, s. 25-30Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of electroplating parameters on throwing power (TP) is studied in additive-free silver cyanide solutions under direct current and pulse reverse electroplating conditions. It is found that the best TP is obtained when no agitation of the electrolyte is applied. The most important parameters for controlling the TP are the cathodic current density, the anodic to cathodic charge ratio, and the ratio between the anodic and cathodic current densities. Guidelines for process optimisation are given.

  • 29.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Ingason, HaukurRISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Proceedings from the Eighth International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security, Borås, Sweden, March 14-16, 20182018Konferanseproceedings (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This report includes the Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security (ISTSS) held in Borås, Sweden, 14-16th of March, 2018. The Proceedings include 41 papers given by session speakers and 16 extended abstracts presenting posters exhibited at the Symposium. The papers were presented in 12 different sessions. Among them are Fire Safety Engineering: Cases & Incidents, Fire Safety Engineering: The Aims, Fire Detection, Explosions, Risk Analysis, Fire Safety Engineering: Case studies, Ventilation, Fire Safety Engineering: State of the Art, Fire Dynamics, Fixed Fire Fighting Systems (FFFS) and Evacuation and Human Behavior.

    Each day was opened by invited Keynote Speakers (in total six) addressing broad topics of pressing interest. The Keynote Speakers, selected as leaders in their field, consisted of Hans Brun, the Swedish Defence University, Dr Iain Bowman, Mott MacDonald, Canada, Dr Ying Zhen Li, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Dr Johan Lundin, WSP, Sweden, Allan Skovlund, Greater Copenhagen Fire Department, Denmark and Prof David Purser, Hartford Environmental Research, UK. We are grateful that the keynote speakers were able to share their knowledge and expertise with the participants of the symposium.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 30.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Säkerhetsforskning.
    Ingason, HaukurRISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Säkerhetsforskning.
    Proceedings from the Ninth International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security, Munich, Germany, March 11-13, 20202020Konferanseproceedings (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This report includes the Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security (ISTSS) held in Münich, Germany, 11-13th of March, 2020. The Proceedings include 42 papers given by session speakers and 13 extended abstracts presenting posters exhibited at the Symposium. The papers were presented in 12 different sessions. Among them are Keynote sessions, Tunnel Safety Concepts, Fire Dynamics, Risk Analysis 1&2, Tunnel Safety Design Concepts, Poster Corner, Explosion Hazards, Active Protection 1&2, Emergency Management, Ventilation, Passive Protection and Evacuation.  

    Each day was opened by invited Keynote Speakers (in total six) addressing broad topics of pressing interest. The Keynote Speakers, selected as leaders in their field, consisted of Anne Lehan, German Highway Research Institute, Germany, Marc Tesson, Centre for Tunnel Studies (CETU), France, Trond H. Hansen, Oslo Fire and Rescue Service, Norway, Mia Kumm, RISE, Sweden, Roland Leucker, Research Association for Tunnels and Transportation Facilities (STUVA), Germany and Rune Brandt, HI Haerter, Switzerland.   We are grateful that the keynote speakers were able to share their knowledge and expertise with the participants of the symposium.   

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 31.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Persson, Henry
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Hedenstedt, Anders
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Jones, Frida
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Davidsson, Kent
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Johansson, Inge
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Boström, Sara
    Sweco, Sweden.
    Rekommendation för proaktivt brandskyddsarbete2019Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 32.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Persson, Henry
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Trella, Fredrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Interactive.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Boström, Sara
    Sweco, Sweden.
    Bergérus Rensvik, Åsa
    Sweco, Sweden.
    Brandsäkerhet vid lagring av avfallsbränslen2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med detta projekt har varit att ge ökad kunskap kring olika förekommande brandrisker och råd om hur dessa kan reduceras med olika åtgärder, primärt baserat på praktiska erfarenheter från genomfört säkerhetsarbete samt uppkomna bränder ute i olika anläggningar. Målet är att de samlade kunskaperna och erfarenheterna kan komma till nytta för hela branschen, övriga berörda intressenter och myndigheter och på sikt ligga till grund för t.ex. framtida branschrekommendationer.

    Projektet kan delas in metodmässigt i; statistik, workshoppar samt analys av anläggningsspecifik information.

    Analysen av insatsstatistik från Myndigheten för samhällsskydd och beredskap (MSB) pekar på att det inträffar i storleksordningen 60–70 bränder årligen i avfallsanläggningar och att brandorsaken i de flesta fall är självantändning eller okänd anledning. Tittar man på "brand ej i byggnad" med relevanta bränder för avfallsanläggningar så ser man en svagt ökande trend i antal bränder 2012–2015. 

    De vanligaste materialfraktionerna som enligt statistik från MSB är kopplade till bränder i avfallsanläggningar är sopor, kompost, fluff, papper, trädgårdsavfall, däckgranulat, annat, skrot, återvinningscontainrar. Även en del av flisbränderna kan vara relaterade till RT-trä.

    Från avfallsindustrins sida ansågs bark, returträ, flisat material och GROT (grenar och toppar) kunna ge problem med självuppvärmning. Även krossning av avfall angavs som ett generellt problem av flera deltagare.

    Många incidenter och bränder anses bero på felsorterat eller feldeklarerat avfall och kontrollen av inkommande gods är därför väldigt viktig. Det är också viktigt att kommunicera uppströms i leveranskedjan för att öka chanserna att komma tillrätta med problemen. Många deltagare identifierade batterier (speciellt litiumbatterier) som ett växande problem.

    Hanteringen av förorenat släckvatten varierar mycket. Man påpekar att samma krav över hela landet vore bra. Man önskar tydligare riktlinjer för släckvattenanalyser, kunskap om vad vattnet kan innehålla och information om reningsmetoder för släckvatten.

    Det påpekas att det finns många standarder och normer att förhålla sig till så det vore därför bra att ha en lägsta nivå av krav som bestäms i samarbete med branschen som man kan förhålla sig till och någon form av vägledning från myndigheterna för göra hanteringen mer lik över riket.

    Diskussionerna under workshopparna och tillsammans med projektets referensgrupp har lett fram till 33 rekommendationer uppdelade på olika områden. För varje rekommendation ges i rapporten ytterligare förklaringar. Dessa rekommendationer kan ligga till grund för framtida riktlinjer.

  • 33.
    Maragkos, Georgios
    et al.
    Ghent University, Belgium.
    Zeinali, Davood
    Universit´e de Lorraine, France.
    Merci, Bart
    Ghent University, Belgium.
    Influence of convective heat transfer modelling in CFD simulations of upward flame spread2021Inngår i: Fire Safety Journal, Vol. 122, artikkel-id 103347Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 34.
    Mattsson, Sandra
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Forming a cognitive automation strategy for Operator 4.0 in complex assembly2020Inngår i: Computers & Industrial Engineering, Vol. 139, nr 105360Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to today’s technological advances in the area of Industry 4.0, having a strategy for cognitive automation solutions is crucial. Operator 4.0, will have handle and manage different work tasks ranging from learning new tasks to solving difficult problems and initiate changes. To support the operator moving between these tasks a specific strategy for the design of cognitive automation solutions is needed. The suggested strategy has three steps: (1) select assembly modes, (2) choose level of cognitive automation carrier and (3) suggest cognitive automation content. It is important that the operator is part of the design and that the solution supports movement between the modes learning, operational and disruptive modes. The strategy could support manufacturing companies meeting challenges regarding social sustainability e.g. stress, attractive workplaces and demography changes as well as system transparency and complexity.

  • 35.
    Mattsson, Sandra
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Using the compleXity index for improvement work: investigating utilisation in an automotive company2020Inngår i: International Journal of Manufacturing Research, Vol. 15, nr 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    CompleXity index (CXI) is a method that measures perceived production complexity. CXI was applied in the assembly and material-handling department at a manufacturer in the automotive industry, followed by workshops. The aim of the article was, based on the results, to investigate if CXI could be used to capture and transmit a current situation and be used by the operators and managers for improvement work. A high CXI level was measured for most of the production areas. The areas were mainly perceived as complex due to work variance and station design. The workshops revealed that the operators felt identified with the results and thought the method could be used to discuss their situation in detail.

  • 36.
    Mattsson, Sandra
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Metodik för produktframtagning.
    Gåsvaer, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Metodik för produktframtagning.
    Interoperabilitet - Rapport om arbetssätt, nycklar och utmaningar: Ett perspektiv på arbetssätt, nycklar och utmaningar inom området2021Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    I takt med den ökade digitaliseringen så blir vi alltmer uppkopplade, antalet olika system ökar,mängden data stiger och med det komplexiteten. Detta berör alla nivåer av företaget - så ävenmontering. Syftet med denna rapport är därför att öka kunskap och medvetenhet inom ett viktigttema som genomsyrar många angränsande frågor – interoperabilitet.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 37.
    Nilsson Tengelin, Maria
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Källberg, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Effects of non-visual optical flicker in an office with two different light sources.2017Inngår i: PROCEEDINGS of the Conference on "Smarter Lighting for Better Life"at the CIE Midterm Meeting 2017., 2017, s. 451-Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    LED lighting solutions sometimes give rise to optical flicker. In most cases, the temporal modulations are too fast to be perceived directly, but may still be noticed through stroboscopic effects. We report on an investigation on how people experience the lighting in an office where two LED lamps are modulated separately with different frequencies. The test subjects performed tasks for evaluation of perception, attention and reaction time. The subjects are found to be affected by the modulated light as the reaction times are shorter and the attention test scores are higher in modulated lighting compared to constant lighting. Furthermore, the study confirms that the stroboscopic effect depends on the nature of the tasks and that it is more easily perceived at lower frequencies but noticed up to at least 400 Hz.

  • 38.
    Nordløkken, Per Gunnar
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Sesseng, Christian
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Wormdahl, Espen D.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Energibesparende bygg og brannsikkerhet2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltekst
  • 39.
    Sesseng, Christian
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Røykvarslere for bruk i bolig: Kartlegging av forskningsfront2012Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [no]

    I byggeforskrift av 1985 ble det innført krav til røykvarslere i nye boliger. I Forskrift om brannforebyggende tiltak og brannsyn (FOBTOB) av 1990, ble det i tillegg innført krav om røykvarslere i eksisterende boliger.

     Et litteraturstudium har blitt gjennomført for å kartlegge teknologistatus for røykvarslere i boliger. Det er lagt vekt på hvilken forskning og utvikling som er gjort med tanke på røykvarslere for boliger siden år 2000. Hvilke deteksjonsprinsipper kan benyttes, og kan ny teknologi gjøre detektorene bedre?

    Rapporten oppsummerer litteraturstudiet, innenfor forskjellige fokusområder, og gir i tillegg forslag til videre forskning på temaet.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltekst
  • 40.
    Stolen, Reidar
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Stensaas, Reidar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Solcelleteknologi og brannsikkerhet2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [no]

    Bruken av solcelleteknologi er i stor vekst i Norge. I denne studien er branntekniske utfordringer ved bruk av solcelleteknologi undersøkt, med hensyn på brannstart, brannspredning og brannslokking. Studien danner et kunnskapsgrunnlag for å ivareta brannsikkerheten under montering, drift og under slokkeinnsats, samt for å utforme et enhetlig og tydelig regelverk. Resultatene fra studien viser:

    Brannstart: Solcelleinstallasjoner inneholder mange koblingspunkt, som kan være potensielle tennkilder, og en liten mengde brennbare materialer. Dermed er det som trengs til stede for å starte en brann. Det er viktig at alle kontaktpunkter i solcelleinstallasjonen er robuste og tåler den påkjenningen de blir utsatt for gjennom sin levetid uten at det oppstår dårlig kontakt som kan føre til brann.

    Brannspredning: For utenpåmonterte solcellemoduler er det ofte en åpen luftspalte mellom modul og bygning. Dersom det er en brann i denne luftspalten, vil varmen kunne bli akkumulert, noe som kan føre til raskere og større brannspredning enn om bygningsoverflaten ikke hadde vært tildekket. I fullskalaforsøk med solcellemoduler montert på tak spredte brannen seg under hele arealet som var dekket av moduler, men stoppet da den nærmet seg kanten av dette arealet. Dette illustrerer viktigheten av at områder med solceller utenpå en bygning blir seksjonert for å unngå brannspredning. Eventuelt kan det benyttes mindre brennbare materialer på taket under solcellemodulene for å motvirke den økte varmepåkjenningen som solcellemodulene gir. Luftspalten mellom modul og bygning kan potensielt også gi endringer i luftstrømningen langs bygget, som igjen kan påvirke brannspredningen.

    Brannslokking: Brannvesenet har behov for informasjon om det er solcelleinstallasjon i bygget og hvilke deler av det elektriske anlegget som kan være spenningssatt. Under slokkeinnsats må brannvesenet ta hensyn til berøringsfare, og fare for at det kan oppstå lysbuer og andre feil som kan føre til nye antennelsespunkt. Ferskvann kan brukes som slokkemiddel, dette må spyles fra minimum 1 meters avstand med spredt stråle og minimum 5 meters avstand med samlet stråle. Solcellemoduler kan komplisere brannslokking ved at de danner en fysisk barriere mellom brannvesenet og brannen, samt fordi det må tas hensyn til plassering av spenningssatte komponenter. Når disse punktene er tatt høyde for, bør ikke utenpåmonterte solcelleinstallasjoner være et problem.

    Videre arbeid: For utenpåmonterte solcelleinstallasjoner, er det lite forskning på vertikal montering (på fasader), og hvordan en eventuell endret branndynamikk kan påvirke brannspredning og slokking. Videre er det i dag økende bruk av bygningsintegrerte solcelleinstallasjoner, noe som gir mange mulige nye utfordringer for brannsikkerheten og for regelverk, ettersom solcellen da er en del av bygningskroppen, samtidig som den er en elektrisk komponent. Tysk statistikk tyder på at brannrisiko for slike installasjoner kan være større enn for utenpåmonterte solcelleinstallasjoner, og dette vil det derfor være viktig å undersøke nærmere.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    RISE-rapport2018_31_Solcellete_Brann
  • 41.
    Storm, Artur
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Kumm, Mia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Räddningsinsats i långa spårtunnlar2023Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Räddningsinsatser i undermarksanläggningar kan vara komplexa och kräva såväl kunskap som stora resurser. Spårtunnlar är dock generellt sett lättare att orientera sig i då tågtrafiken kräver relativt raka tunnlar utan stora lutningar. Om tunneln inte försetts med brännbar kondensisolering gör bergets eller betongens ytskikt och egenskaper att risken för övertändning är försumbar utom exempelvis inuti ett fordon eller i slutna teknikutrymmen. Detta gör att behovet av släckvatten för självskydd längre bort från branden är liten och att behovet av snabb och effektiv förflyttning vid rekognosering och avsökning motiverar förflyttning utan samtidig slanguppbyggnad.

    Inom Ostlänken-projektet har ett insatskoncept tagits fram, där huvudsaklig förflyttning sker i en brandtekniskt avskild servicetunnel och förflyttning från närliggande tvärtunnlar till en plats på säkert avstånd från branden sker i det drabbade tunnelröret. Förflyttningen från tvärtunneln mot branden föreslås ske utan samtidig slanguppbyggnad i de fall detta kan ske utan risk för den enskilda rökdykaren. Insatskonceptet för Ostlänken bygger också på att räddningstjänsten ska kunna dra nytta av de tekniska installationer som projekterats som stöd för utrymning, exempelvis belysning i handledare ovan gångbana.

    Projektet har genomförts i syfte att studera förflyttnings- och avsökningshastigheter i spårtunnelmiljö utan samtidig slangdragning, samt för assisterad förflyttning med bår eller med spårgående räddningstralla.  Målsättningen var att påbörja insamlandet av ett vetenskapligt underlag som kan användas i verifieringen av insatskoncept liknande Ostlänken och vid andra tillfällen när bedömning av räddningstjänstens förmåga eller metoder behöver genomföras.

    Rökdykarnas hastighet vid avsökning var snabbare än vad som visats i andra försök med samtidig slanguppbyggnad. Avsökningshastigheten var ca 0,5–0,6 m/s gående på gångbana och ca 0,6–2,0 m/s när avsökningen skedde från räddningstrallan. Ljusförhållandena var dock betydligt bättre än under tidigare försök i och med den kontinuerliga belysningen på handledaren. När avsökningen skedde från trallan var det endast det rökdykarpar som hade den lägsta förflyttningshastigheten som lyckades hitta den nödställde på gångbanan bakom tåget.

    Tillgången till värmekamera angavs i all utvärdering som en förutsättning för säker förflyttning i den rökfyllda miljön. Användandet av dubbla värmekameror skapade en trygghet i att båda rökdykarna enskilt kunde avsöka och orientera sig i tunneln. En skarp rekommendation som stöds av detta, samt tidigare genomförda, försök är att samtliga rökdykare som rör sig i den rökfyllda tunnelmiljön förses med egen värmekamera.

    Även om samtliga medverkande rökdykare i enkäter och vid de gemensamma genomgångarna uppgav att de kände sig trygga att genomföra förflyttning och insats utan samtidig slanguppbyggnad, fanns ett mindre antal rökdykare som angav att de vid en skarp insats gärna sett tillgång till säkert vatten, trots att de inte kunde redogöra för vilken nytta de skulle ha av brandslangen i liknande miljöer längre bort från branden. Detta visar på ett behov av ytterligare utbildning, övning och utveckling för att räddningstjänstens personal ska känna sig trygga med att genomföra insatser längre bort från brandplatsen utan tillgång till säkert vatten.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 42.
    Vermina Lundström, Frida
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Andersson, Petra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Faktorer som påverkar en bostadsbrands storlek – analys av försäkringsbolagens data2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Every year, the insurance sector reports 23 000 fire incidents in Sweden. Of these, the fire rescue service are called into 6 000. Since there is little knowledge on the fires that the fire rescue service is not involved in, incident data from insurance companies has been analyzed.

    One limitation to the results in this report is that the insurance sector’s definition of fire is broad; e.g. short-circuit is regarded a fire incident.

    Still, the data complies with the statistics from the fire rescue service: Kitchen fires and fire in electric equipment are the most common sources of fire in residential buildings.

    The cost (property damage) of a fire is also presented. It is seen that the most common fires sources commonly lead to a relatively low economical loss.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 43.
    Viallon, J.
    et al.
    BIPM Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, France.
    Meyer, C.
    NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology, USA.
    Moussay, P.
    BIPM Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, France.
    Schmidt, J.
    NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology, USA.
    Maxwell, S.
    NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology, USA.
    Arrhén, Fredrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Wielgosz, R. I.
    BIPM Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, France.
    A high accuracy reference facility for ongoing comparisons of CO2 in air standards2023Inngår i: Metrologia, ISSN 0026-1394, E-ISSN 1681-7575, Vol. 60, nr 6, artikkel-id 065014Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The design, performance characteristics and validation of a next generation reference facility for carbon dioxide (CO2) in air standards based on manometry is presented. Novel attributes of the facility include automated operation, avoidance of significant pressure corrections for measurements on extracted CO2, fully characterized trapping efficiencies, and reduced measurement uncertainty. Improvements in system performance have been achieved using specific materials, notably Silconert®-treated stainless-steel, providing increased mechanical stability whilst minimizing carbon dioxide adsorption on surfaces, and avoiding use of elastomer O-rings, which would lead to losses of CO2. Full automation of the cryogenic extraction process of CO2 from air has been achieved, avoiding any manual intervention within the temperature stabilized section of the facility, and allowed full characterization and correction for trapping efficiencies and trace water measurement. The facility has been validated across the CO2 in air amount fraction range of (380-800) µmol mol−1 using standards with values traceable to the reference value of the CCQM−K120 (2018) comparison. It was demonstrated to operate with a standard measurement uncertainty of 0.09 µmol mol−1 at 400 µmol mol−1. The automation allows five measurement results per day to be produced with a typical standard deviation of the mean at or below 0.02 µmol mol−1. The facility will be used as a stable reference in the future BIPM.QM−K2 ongoing comparison, to compare consistency of amount fraction values in different CO2 in air standards. The CO2 amount fraction in two ensembles of nine BIPM standards covering the same range will also be measured with the facility to provide their SI-traceable values, and further monitored on a longer time scale. Each ensemble will constitute a CO2 in air scale to be compared with other available scales such as WMO.CO2.X2019 through the BIPM.QM−K5 comparison.

  • 44.
    Yao, Yongzheng
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Fire Behaviors and smoke transportation law of tunnel fires under confined portal boundaries2019Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    An increasing number of tunnels have been built around the world. They play an important role to relieve traffic congestions and facilitate goods transportation. However, in the event of a fire in tunnels, the consequences can be serious due to its narrow-long structure. The previous studies about tunnel fire dynamics and mitigation measures are mostly based on good ventilation conditions in tunnels, such as longitudinal ventilation and natural ventilation with the premise that a tunnel has two open portals. However, the studies about the characteristics of tunnel fires under confined portal boundaries with complete or incomplete sealing at both portals are rare. Typical fire scenarios can appear in a subway train, a building corridor, an underground utility tunnel, a mining tunnel, a tunnel during construction and the application of sealing tunnel portals for fighting large tunnel fires and so on. The knowledge of tunnel fire dynamics for tunnels under good ventilation conditions is probably not applicable to the scenarios of tunnel fires under confined portal boundaries. Conducting the studies of tunnel fires under confined portal boundaries is of great significance for better understanding the characteristics of this type of tunnel fires and developing tunnel fire mitigation measures. Therefore, by combining model-scale tunnel experiments and theoretical analyses, this thesis studies the fire behaviors and smoke transportation law of tunnel fires under confined portal boundaries. The main research contents include:

    1.Scaling effects of mass loss rate per unit area (MLRPUA) for well-ventilated pool fires are studied by summarizing large amounts of experimental data from the literature together with theoretical analyses. As a further extension of tunnel fire similarity theory, it provides the basis and reference for later model/medium-scale tunnel experiments. Results show that when a small-scale pool fire (D<1 m) occurs in the open, increasing wind velocity tends to increase the MLRPUA, especially for pools with D<0.2 m. This is because the ventilation significantly increases the conductive and convective heat feedbacks (leading role). But when small-scale pool fires occurs in tunnels with a short distance between the pool surface and ceiling (Hef/D<3), the radiative heat feedback from the tunnel ceiling is probably dominating, leading to a much higher MLRPUA than that in the free burn. When subjected to longitudinal flows, the MLRPUA decreases due to the reduced radiation effect from the ceiling. With the increase of pool diameter, the influence of wind on the MLRPUA decreases gradually, no matter whether the pool occurs in the open or in a tunnel. Finally, when the pool diameter exceeds 1 m, the radiation from flame itself is probably predominant. The MLRPUA is not significantly affected by increasing wind velocity and most likely fluctuates within 30% for a wide range of wind velocities based on the test data collected.

    2.The flame behaviors and the maximum gas temperature rise beneath the ceiling in an enclosed tunnel are studied using a model-scale tunnel. Results show that when a fire (small fire) is not located at the tunnel center, the flame inclines towards the closer tunnel end due to the asymmetric flow field on both sides of the flame. The flame inclination angle keeps increasing when the fire is moving away from the tunnel center. Furthermore, when a fire is in Region I (0< ≤0.64), the maximum gas temperature rise decreases with the increasing dimensionless fire distance due to the increasing flame inclination angle. When a fire is in Region II (0.64< <1), the maximum gas temperature rise increases with the increasing dimensionless fire distance due to the heat feedback of returned hot smoke bounced from the end wall. By introducing a concept of equivalent ventilation velocity based on the flame inclination mechanism, a prediction model of maximum gas temperature rise beneath the ceiling in Region I is developed. Beyond that, an extra correction factor is proposed to the improved model in Region II with a consideration of heat feedback of returned hot smoke bounced from the end wall. Besides, further dimensional analysis indicates that the normalized maximum gas temperature rise follows an exponential attenuation law with the dimensionless fire distance.

    3.The coupling control effects of sealing ratio and initial sealing time on the fire development (large fire) are studied using a model-scale tunnel. Results show that sealing tunnel portals can decrease the mass loss rate of fuel and gas temperature inside the tunnel, no matter whether the sealing is complete or incomplete. The earlier the initial sealing time is, the better the fire can be controlled. For the incomplete sealing, when the sealing is implemented during the violent burning stage, the sealing not only does not limit the fire growth but also exacerbates the tunnel fire, producing an extremely high CO concentration at tunnel portals and a longer ceiling flame jet. This will result in a huge threat to the rescue service at tunnel portals. Besides, if the tunnel portals are sealed incompletely, it will leave a small area for the exchange of smoke and air. The smoke will not continue to spread horizontally after leaving the tunnel portals under the action of inertial forces. In order to maintain the combustion of fuel, the fresh air from external environment flows into the tunnel vigorously and quickly from the gap and then uplifts the smoke out of the tunnel portals, which is also an important phenomenon for firefighters and needs to draw their attentions.

    4.The critical conditions for the occurrence of under-ventilated tunnel fires and the combustion mechanisms under confined portal boundaries are studied by using both model-scale and medium-scale tunnels. Results show that the critical equivalence ratio for the occurrence of under-ventilated tunnel fires is within 0.53 - 0.6, which is less than the theoretical value of 1. This is related to the occurrence of vitiation, consequently reducing the level of oxygen around the flame by diluting the O2 concentration. The low ventilation rate and vitiation result in a low O2 volume fraction around the flame, and then the MLRPUA starts to decrease and at the same time the air mass flow into the tunnel becomes almost constant. Also, an oscillating MLRPUA and lifted flame are observed in the model-scale tests. Consequently, the ventilation rate approaches and even reaches the amount required for complete combustion of vaporized fuel. This means that the insufficient combustion in early under-ventilated tunnel fires has converted to sufficient combustion (from the perspective of the change of equivalence ratio, the fire has converted from under-ventilated to well-ventilated). As a result, no significant increase in CO production in under-ventilated fires is observed in both test series.

    5.The critical conditions for the occurrence of self-extinguishment and influencing factors in under-ventilated tunnel fires are studied in a model-scale tunnel during construction. The tunnel consists of an inclined access tunnel and a horizontal main tunnel. Results show that when a fire is in the horizontal main tunnel, the critical equivalence ratio for self-extinguishment is within 0.28 - 1.38 for the propane gas burner and 1.11 - 3.6 for the fibre board soaked with heptane. The difference is related to the burning behavior of the different fuels used. Moreover, the critical O2 volume fraction is about within 12 - 15% when the fires self-extinguish. When a fire is at the closed end of the horizontal main tunnel, the stratification of smoke is destroyed after hitting the closed end, and then the smoke seems to spread over the entire cross section of the tunnel. The smoke spread velocity is proportional to the ventilation rate. However, when a fire occurs at the closed end of the inclined access tunnel, the fire does not self-extinguish, even when the ventilation rate is 0 m3/s. The corresponding smoke spread velocity is higher than that in the horizontal main tunnel. This is probably related to the increasing component of buoyancy in the longitudinal direction in the inclined access tunnel. Besides, no insignificant vitiation behind the fire is found. These two characteristics in the inclined access tunnel increase the temperature of smoke flowing out of the tunnel portal and in turn promote the natural ventilation and increase the O2 volume fraction.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 45. Zeinali, Davood
    Assessment of the thermal response of concrete by inverse modeling2014Annet (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 46.
    Zeinali, Davood
    Ghent University, Belgium.
    Flame spread and fire behavior in a corner configuration2019Annet (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 47.
    Zeinali, Davood
    et al.
    Ghent University, Belgium.
    Gupta, Ankur
    FM Global, USA.
    Maragkos, Georgios
    Ghent University, Belgium.
    Agarwal, Gaurav
    FM Global, USA.
    Beji, Tarek
    Ghent University, Belgium.
    Chaos, Marcos
    FM Global, USA; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, USA.
    Wang, Yi
    FM Global, USA.
    Degroote, Joris
    Ghent University, Belgium.
    Merci, Bart
    Ghent University, Belgium.
    Study of the importance of non-uniform mass density in numerical simulations of fire spread over MDF panels in a corner configuration2019Inngår i: Combustion and Flame, Vol. 200, s. 303-315Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 48. Zeinali, Davood
    et al.
    Inglod, Florian
    Acem, Zoubir
    Mehaddi, Rabah
    Parent, Gilles
    Collin, Anthony
    Boulet, Pascal
    Experimental study of radiation attenuation using water curtains in a reduced-scale deck of a ro-ro ship2021Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Experiments have been conducted at LEMTA to evaluate the containment of thermal radiation using water curtains in a model setup of a ro-ro ship’s cargo deck with a scale of 1 to 12.5, providing data for future numerical simulations. The water curtains are created with one or two rows of water mist nozzles at pressures ranging from 3 to 8 bar, while the radiation source is an electric black body at 550ºC. The containment effect in terms of radiative attenuation is evaluated by comparing the radiation levels with and without water curtains measured using a multispectral infrared camera.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 49.
    Zeinali, Davood
    et al.
    Ghent University, Belgium.
    Vandemoortele, Emma
    Ghent University, Belgium.
    Verstockt, Steven
    Ghent University, Belgium.
    Beji, Tarek
    Ghent University, Belgium.
    Maragkos, Georgios
    Ghent University, Belgium.
    Merci, Bart
    Ghent University, Belgium.
    Experimental Study of Corner Wall Fires with One or Two Combustible Walls2020Inngår i: Fire Safety Journal, Vol. 121, artikkel-id 103265Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 50.
    Zeinali, Davood
    et al.
    Ghent University, Belgium.
    Verstockt, Steven
    Ghent University, Belgium.
    Beji, Tarek
    Ghent University, Belgium.
    Maragkos, Georgios
    Ghent University, Belgium.
    Degroote, Joris
    Ghent University, Belgium.
    Merci, Bart
    Ghent University, Belgium.
    Experimental study of corner fires—Part I: Inert panel tests2018Inngår i: Combustion and Flame, Vol. 189, s. 472-490Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
12 1 - 50 of 52
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