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  • 1.
    Arvidson, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport.
    An evaluation of residential sprinklers and water mist nozzles in a residential area fire scenario2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Commercial residential sprinklers are usually fitted with 3 mm glass bulbs having a nominal operating temperature of 68°C or a high-sensitivity solder link, usually with a nominal temperature rating of 74°C. Previous work show that there is a significant potential for improving sprinkler response times in a residential room fire scenario by using glass bulbs with a lower Response Time Index (RTI) and lower operating temperature than commonly used. The objective of this study was to investigate any improved performance due to earlier activation of residential sprinklers. A series of fire tests was conducted inside a test compartment sized 3.66 m by 3.66 m. The fire test source consisted of either a simulated or authentic upholstered chair. For the majority of the tests, the flow rate of the residential sprinkler was 30.3 liter/min (corresponding to the minimum design density 2.05 mm/min as per the recommendations in NFPA 13D and 13R). Additional tests were conducted at 60.6 liter/min (the minimum design density 4.1 mm/min as per NFPA 13). Tests were also conducted with commercial low- and high-pressure water mist nozzles and a stand-alone high-pressure water mist system.

    The results show that earlier activation of residential sprinklers had a small effect on its performance, especially for the authentic upholstered chair scenario, when flowing 30.3 liter/min. The rather small effect is probably due to that the discharge density was too low to provide fire suppression. When the flow rate was increased to 60.6 liter/min, the performance was considerably improved as compared to the flow of 30.3 liter/min. Any improvement in performance of earlier activation was, however, not investigated for the 60.6 liter/min flow rate.

    The flow rates of the commercial low- and high-pressure water mist water mist nozzles ranged from 17.2 liter/min to 36.7 liter/min. Roughly, it could be concluded that the performance of the water mist nozzles were comparable or better than the residential sprinkler at approximately half the water flow rate for the tested fire scenarios.

    The stand-alone high-pressure water mist system had a flow rate of 8.2 liter/min. The performance was comparable to that of the other water mist nozzles in the study The performance was comparable to that of the other water mist nozzles in the study, despite a considerably earlier activation. However, the results indicate that the performance was relatively much influenced whether the simulated upholstered chair was orientated with its front towards the test compartment or with its front towards the back wall (poorer performance). This would suggest that the position of the fire test relative to the position of the unit is a crucial factor and underlines the importance of a thoughtful positioning in practical applications.

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    RISE Rapport 2017_40
  • 2.
    Bergsten, Tobias
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Eklund, Gunnar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Comparison between GaAs and graphene QHR standards for resistance realisation at SP2016In: Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM 2016), 2016, article id 7540514Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report the first precision QHR measurements at SP using a graphene chip. We compare the results of a resistance calibration using GaAs based chips with the results using a graphene chip. The results agree within a few parts in 109 for calibrations of 100 Ω and 10 kΩ resistors. Consistency checks indicate that the uncertainty is lower with the graphene chip, and the noise level is slightly lower. The measurements with the graphene chip were performed exclusively at 4.2 K, which simplifies the calibration procedure considerably compared with GaAs chips.

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    fulltext
  • 3.
    Björkdahl, Joakim
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Fallahi, Sara
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Holmén, Magnus
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Organizing for parallel business models in established firms2018In: Academy of Management Proceedings, 2018, Vol. 1Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prior business model innovation research has paid little attention to the various choices and decisions of organizing for parallel business models. This paper explores how established firms organize for new business models that are to be run in parallel with their primary business model. Empirically we study how Skanska and IKEA, two multinational corporations developed new business models by industrializing construction. Neither full separation nor full integration was a panacea for how to organize a new business model running in parallel with the primary because the firms were unable to determine what to organizationally integrate or separate prior to implementation of the new business model. The paper argues that firms are unlikely to know how to organize for parallel business models before they know how the new business model will operate.

  • 4.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Engineering methods for structural fire design of wood buildings: Structural integrity during a full natural fire2018Report (Other academic)
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    fulltext
  • 5.
    Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Just, Alar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Andersson, Petra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Östman, Birgit
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Mitigation of fire damages in multi-storey timber buildings: Statistical analysis and guidelines for design2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of multi-storey timber buildings has increased during the last twenty years. Recent well-known fires in London, Dubai and Brazil, although not in timber buildings, have increased concerns regarding large fire spread and high damage fires. As timber is a combustible material, concerns have been expressed regarding property safety and it has been questioned whether fire damage is more significant in buildings with timber as the main structural material than in other types of buildings. This report includes a statistical study of data of fires in multi-storey timber buildings in New Zealand and an analysis of high damage fires that occurred in multi-storey timber buildings in the USA. The data from New Zealand showed no significant difference between share of fires that had flame damage out of the compartment of origin in (a) multi-storey timber buildings that were constructed in or later than 1992 and (b) other types of multi-storey buildings that were constructed in or later than 1992. Fires in multi-storey timber buildings that were constructed before 1992 spread more frequently to neighbouring compartments than fires in other multi-storey timber buildings constructed before 1992. Data of high damage fires occurring in multi-storey timber buildings in the USA indicated that outdoor fire spread is the most common cause for large fire spread. Additionally, the data indicates that high water damage is most often caused by fire service interference and is significantly less often related to sprinkler activation.

    Based on the analysis of fire spread of high damage fires in the USA, guidelines are given in the report to limit (1) outdoor fire spread, (2) fire spread through cavities, and (3) fire spread directly from a fire compartment to a neighbouring fire compartment. A number of these guidelines were evaluated using a fire test of a two-storey timber structure.

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  • 6.
    Burden, Håkan
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ornäs, Victor Hiort af
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    A Little Goes a Long Way - Opportunities for Multidisciplinary Education2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ambitions about deep interdisciplinary education may face barriers. However, interaction between student groups does not have to be difficult. We report on a collaboration including more than 200 students from different subject areas, at different curricular stages in a multidisciplinary concept workshop. By engaging with an external event we avoided some of the challenges involved in aligning agendas, while remaining true to the ambitions of giving students Concrete Experience and opportunity to Reflect in and on actions, balancing the ambitions of raising awareness of the relation between subjects and engaging students in collaborating in problem solving based on skills and knowledge from their respective discipline. Our results show how collaborating with industry can help bridge some of the challenges with internal collaboration between students from different disciplines.

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    fulltext
  • 7.
    Debela, A. M.
    et al.
    Sorbonne University, France.
    Ortiz, Mayreli
    Rovira i Virgili University, Spain.
    Beni, Valerio
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Lesage, Denis
    Sorbonne University, France.
    Cole, Richard B.
    Sorbonne University, France.
    O'Sullivan, Ciara K.
    Rovira i Virgili University, Spain; Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançais, Spain.
    Thorimbert, Serge
    Sorbonne University, France.
    Hasenknopf, Bernold
    Sorbonne University, France.
    Functionalized deoxynucleotides and DNA primers for electrochemical diagnostics of disease predispostions2017In: ECS Transactions, Electrochemical Society Inc. , 2017, no 11, p. 1873-1883Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Redox labeled DNAs are of increasing interest for the fabrication of next generation molecular tools. In the present work we are investigating the use of various redox labeled dNTPs, ddNTPs and DNA primers for use in detection of diseases. We have reported the use of Polyoxometalate (POM) labeled DNA primers and dNTPs for use in PCR and subsequently used for direct electrochemical detection of PCR products. The use of POM labeled DNAs in PCR enabled us to check the compatibility with polymerases and PCR incorporability of the modified DNAs. Furthermore we have investigated the solid-phase array based primer extension (é-PEX) with redox labelled ddNTPs (ferrocene (Fc), anthraquinone (AQ) phenothiazine (PTZ) and methylene blue (MB)) to prove the strategy of detection of single nucleotide polymorphisms using the labeled ddNTPs. This strategy will allow the development of cost-effective, rapid and user-friendly platform for the screening of known and unknown genetic mutations.

  • 8.
    Dopfer, Martina
    et al.
    University of St Gallen, Switzerland.
    Fallahi, Sara
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Kirchberger, Markus
    Porsche AG, Germany.
    Gassmann, Oliver
    University of St Gallen, Switzerland.
    Adapt and strive: How ventures under resource constraints create value through business model adaptations2017In: Creativity and Innovation Management, ISSN 0963-1690, E-ISSN 1467-8691, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 233-246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper looks into how new ventures organize their business models in order to meet their available resources. It employs the business model as the unit of analysis to investigate the role and nature of business model adaptation as a coping mechanism with resource constraints. By drawing on a case study with two ventures starting with different resources, the paper shows how those ventures use business model adaptation under resource constraints as a way to create comparable offerings. Business model adaptation involves a process of continuous search, selection, and improvement in value creation, value proposition, and value capture, based on the surrounding environment. For the two new ventures included in this study, early business model adaptations were related to (1) market — geography and customer, (2) strategy — marketing, sales, and growth, (3) profit — profit formula and cost structure, and (4) structures, processes, and capabilities. This paper also shows how the adaptation process is conditioned by the venture's stock and flow of resources. Bringing a resource perspective into the process of business model adaptation implies practical implications for new ventures that are developing and adapting their business models to strategically co‐develop their offering with their resources such that they match required adaptations. 

  • 9.
    Edelbro, Catrin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden .
    Hulthén, Erik
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Clausen, Elisabeth
    Technical University of Clausthal, Germany.
    Tanner, David
    University of Limerick, Ireland.
    Herrera Herbert, Juan
    Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain.
    Jonsson, Kristina
    LKAB, Sweden.
    Bealieu, Stephan
    RUSAL Aughinish Alumina, Ireland.
    Kamp, Aldert
    Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Försth, Michael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    European Initiative on CDIO in Raw Material Programmes2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One of five Knowledge and Innovation Communities (KICs), was launched in Europe in 2014 and has its focus on exploration, extraction, mineral processing, metallurgy, recycling and material substitution of raw materials. To reach the vision, where the European Union’s industrial strength is based on a cost-efficient, secure, sustainable supply and use of raw materials, a new generation of skilled people entering industry, universities and research needs to be developed. Today’s technical MSc graduates in raw materials and especially primary resources (i.e. exploration, extraction, mining and mineral processing and metallurgy) best suits large companies where they often act as specialists and experts. For small to medium enterprises as well as for our future engineers other skills than technical are necessary. As a part of the KIC Raw Materials, the education project “The implementation of CDIO in raw material programmes” started in 2016. The project focuses, during 2016-2017, on (WP1) faculty- and (WP2) pilot case development. There are no academic institutes in Europe that have yet applied CDIO for primary resource related MSc programmes. This paper describes an education project within the KIC Raw material and presents key outputs with implementing CDIO in mining and metallurgy related programmes.

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  • 10.
    Edo Giménez, Mar
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Jensen, Carl
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Johansson, Inge
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Rapp, Magnus
    Ragn-Sells Recycling AB, Sweden.
    Radlert, Åke
    Swerock AB, Sweden.
    Sahlin, Jenny
    PROFU, Sweden.
    Weiss, Monika
    SRV återvinning AB, Sweden.
    Manual för plockanalyser av brännbart bygg- och rivningsavfall2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This manual provides instructions on how to perform sorting analyses of combustible construction and demolition waste studied in the project Framtidens avfallsbränsle – Uppströmsarbete och kvalitet.The sorting strategy described in this manual recommends sorting out the content of the waste sample based on its composition (referred to as main fractions) and functionality (referred to as subfractions). In this way, four material fractions are identified and sorted out (i.e. plastic, paper, wood and “others combustible and non-combustible materials”), and up to 48 different subfraction (i.e. plastic pipes, wooden furniture, packaging paper, cables, metal pieces etc.).It is important to mention that the subfractions listed in this report are indicative: not all of the subfractions listed are always found in the combustible construction and demolition waste. Additions or substitutions may be necessary to ensure the best outcomes from the sorting analyses depending on the aim and goals of the project.The way the waste sample is handled before a sorting analysis is performed is essential. For that reason, this manual also includes instructions about sample collection, identification and storage once the sample is received at the sorting waste plants; as well as brief recommendations about how to perform a pre-sorting of those materials with a potential for recycling and waste which can be easily removed.

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  • 11.
    Fallahi, Sara
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    In Search of a Route Map: Exploring Business Model Innovation Processes in Established Firms2018In: Academy of Management Proceedings, 2018, Vol. 1Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the millennium, discussion of business models as important vehicles and sources of innovation has increased. This paper explores the process of business model innovation in seven established firms from various industries. The findings provide evidence that business model innovation can follow a purposeful, or an unintentional and emerging process. Purposeful business model innovation occurs under conditions of perceived threats and is characterized by greater uncertainty, and the parallel design and implementation of several new business model elements that are organized in a separate business. The analyses reveal also that when embarking on the emerging process, the intention of managers was not necessarily to renew the firm's business model but rather to work on the design and development of a new value proposition. However, the complementarities among business model elements directed their attention to the changes required in other business model elements which ultimately resulted in a new business model as the process outcome. The main contribution of this paper is therefore to business model research by providing an explanatory, rather than prescriptive, approach to the process of business model innovation.

  • 12.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway. Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway; Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg, Germany.
    Fighting flameless fires: Initiating and extinguishing self-sustainedsmoldering fires in wood pellets2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Smoldering fires represent domestic, environmental and industrial hazards. This flameless form of combustion is more easily initiated than flaming, and is also more persistent and difficult to extinguish. The growing demand for non-fossil fuels has increased the use of solid biofuels such as biomass. This represents a safety challenge, as biomass self-ignition can cause smoldering fires, flaming fires or explosions.

    Smoldering and extinguishment in granular biomass was studied experimentally. The set-up consisted of a cylindrical fuel container of steel with thermally insulated side walls. The container was closed at the bottom, open at the top and heated from below by a hot surface. Two types of wood pellets were used as fuel, with 0.75-1.5 kg samples.

    Logistic regression was used to determine the transition region between non-smoldering and self-sustained smoldering experiments, and to determine the influence of parameters. Duration of external heating was most important for initiation of smoldering. Sample height was also significant, while the type of wood pellet was near-significant and fuel container height was not.

    The susceptibility of smoldering to changes in air supply was studied. With a small gap at the bottom of the fuel bed, the increased air flow in the same direction as the initial smoldering front (forward air flow) caused a significantly more intense combustion compared to the normal set-up with opposed air flow.

    Heat extraction from the combustion was studied using a water-cooled copper pipe. Challenges with direct fuel-water contact (fuel swelling, water channeling and runoff) were thus avoided. Smoldering was extinguished in 7 of 15 cases where heat extraction was in the same range as the heat production from combustion. This is the first experimental proof-of-concept of cooling as an extinguishment method for smoldering fires.

    Marginal differences in heating and cooling separated smoldering from extinguished cases; the fuel bed was at a heating-cooling balance point. Lower cooling levels did not lead to extinguishment, but cooling caused more predictable smoldering, possibly delaying the most intense combustion. Also observed at the balance point were pulsating temperatures; a form of long-lived (hours), macroscopic synchronization not previously observed in smoldering fires.

    For practical applications, cooling could be feasible for prevention of temperature escalation from self-heating in industrial storage units. This study provides a first step towards improved fuel storage safety for biomass. 

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    Mikalsen_DoctoralThesis_FightingFlamelessFires
  • 13.
    Huffmeier, Johannes
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Bram, Staffan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Human Impact on Safety of Shipping2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Humans, especially the crews have an important role in the safe operation of ships. The crews, given the right circumstances are able to safely maneuver, navigate, maintain and operate the vessel. The crews are dependent on many factors that enable this work, from the design of the vessel and work place, the procedures, processes given by the ship management and the business approach the ship owner applies to the vessel.

    The traffic to and from Åland is an advanced transport system that enables safe ferry services in shipping fairways with narrow passages, meeting and crossing traffic as well as winter navigation - a shipping system combining people and technology to create safe transport.

    The introduction of more automation requires a systems perspective and will not be a straight forward development. Total autonomy as proposed by some technology developers is often neglecting the functions and roles that humans have on maritime safety and the business case for increased automation neglects the full contribution of humans onboard. Total autonomy will therefore require high-end products that are built on standardized complex systems. Controlling and monitoring these systems will set new requirements on operators to uphold situated understanding in these complex systems.

    Many aspects will be affected by increased automation towards smart shipping - regulations, organization, workplace, working methods, HMI, roles and skills. To cope with the foreseen changes it is important to develop further training, skills, experience, openness in the organization and familiarization giving the future crews the right pre-conditions to succeed in the future, as well as mindful design and integration of newly automated systems

    In the future, the ISM code will likely have to change to improve the interaction between land organisations and crews in order to facilitate better integration of split responsibilities and split physical locations by the management system which in the long run allows for an increased land-based monitoring and control

    of vessels’ systems and move certain tasks to shore to lower workload onboard, which should be one of the main drivers for automation.

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  • 14. Jensen, Sara
    et al.
    Lidbom, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment.
    Tiljander, Pia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment.
    Utvärdering av innpvativ värmeväxlare i kyldisk: för effektivare energianvändning i butiker2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, a new innovative type of air-to-liquid heat exchanger, called HEALEX (which stands for High Efficiency Air to Liquid Heat Exchanger), has been tested and demonstrated in an open display cabinet at a supermarket. HEALEX is adapted for obtaining good heat transfer performance even at a laminar flow regime on the liquid side, which is often the case in indirect cooling systems in supermarkets. The heat exchanger consists of parallel plates, with liquid in every second passage and air in the other passages. The purpose of the demonstration was to show the potential of increasing the energy efficiency by replacing the conventional cooling coils by HEALEX. On the long term, the purpose of the project was to raise the interest and acceptance for this type of heat exchanger, and through raised acceptance increase the amount of energy efficient heat exchangers in supermarkets, which in turn would result in energy savings.

    One of the objectives of the project was to confirm results from a previous study where tests had been performed in a laboratory. The results from the laboratory tests showed that the same cooling capacity and average temperature of the “food packages” could be obtained with around 6 K higher inlet temperature of the liquid, -7°C with the traditional coil and ‑1°C with HEALEX.

    The project was not intended to directly compare the performance of the original heat exchanger and the one of HEALEX regarding efficiency. A field study is not well suited for direct comparisons of different heat exchanger performances, since there are too many hard-to-control variables (ambient climate, customer behavior etc.) that affect the performance of the cooling system. Studies for direct and exact comparisons should always be carried out in a laboratory, where parameters that affect the result can be controlled.

    The first tests were made with the original heat exchanger placed in the bottom of the display cabinet, and thereafter the heat exchanger was replaced with HEALEX. The data collected in the project were air- and liquid temperatures before and after the heat exchangers, air temperatures and humidities in the display cabinet, liquid and air pressure drop and liquid volume flow. Temperature and humidity of the ambient air is also measured.

    The results from this study show that there is a potential of energy savings by using HEALEX in display cabinets at supermarkets instead of conventional cooling coils. The inlet temperature of the secondary refrigerant could be raised 6°C after the installation of HEALEX and almost the same cooling capacity and average temperature in the display cabinet as for the original heat exchanger could be obtained. These results confirm to a large extent the results from the laboratory tests.

    The results from this study also indicate that the need for defrosting will occur much more seldom for HEALEX compared to a conventional cooling coil. Defrosting was initiated by time control at 6.00 am and at 7.00 pm. Since the pressure drop is constant during the measurement period it is likely that there is no frosting and thereby no need for defrosting. In order to find out if defrosting is needed or not, the it would have been necessary to increase the intervals between the defrosts, which was not possible in this study.

    Earlier studies have shown that COP increase with approximately 2.5% per oC increased liquid temperature. Thereby an increase of the liquid temperature with 6oC implies energy savings of about 15% for the compressor drive energy.

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  • 15.
    Johnson, Peter
    et al.
    Arup, Australia.
    Beyler, Craig
    Jensen Hughes, USA.
    Croce, Paul
    FM Global, USA.
    Dubay, Chris
    National Fire Protection Association, USA.
    McNamee, Margaret
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Very Early Smoke Detection Apparatus(VESDA), David Packham, John Petersen,Martin Cole: 2017 DiNenno Prize2017In: Fire Science Reviews, Vol. 6, no 5Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 2017 Phillip J. DiNenno Prize was awarded to the innovators of the VESDA smoke detection system. The initialtechnology was invented and patented byDavid PackhamandLen Gibson, who worked withJohn Petersenonprototype development, field trials, and applications engineering.Dr. Martin Colewas responsible for the successfulcommercial development and many further patented technical developments. The VESDA technology and its pre-eminent role in the introduction of aspirated smoke detection (ASD) internationally has led to a major global impacton public safety.The recipients of the 2017 Philip J. DiNenno Prize areDavid Packham,John Petersen,andDr. Martin Cole.Amplecommendation is given to their deceased co-inventor and passionate advocateLen Gibson.Otherimportantcontributions are noted, including technical and other staff from IEI, CSIRO, SSL and Telecom Australia.

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  • 16.
    Leisner, Peter
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Electronics. Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Zanella, C.
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Belov, I.
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Edström, Curt
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Sandulache, G.
    Happy Plating, Austria.
    Hansal, W. E. G.
    Happy Plating, Austria.
    Control of silver throwing power by pulse reverse electroplating2017In: Transactions of the Institute of Metal Finishing, ISSN 0020-2967, E-ISSN 1745-9192, Vol. 95, no 1, p. 25-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of electroplating parameters on throwing power (TP) is studied in additive-free silver cyanide solutions under direct current and pulse reverse electroplating conditions. It is found that the best TP is obtained when no agitation of the electrolyte is applied. The most important parameters for controlling the TP are the cathodic current density, the anodic to cathodic charge ratio, and the ratio between the anodic and cathodic current densities. Guidelines for process optimisation are given.

  • 17.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Ingason, HaukurRISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Proceedings from the Eighth International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security, Borås, Sweden, March 14-16, 20182018Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report includes the Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security (ISTSS) held in Borås, Sweden, 14-16th of March, 2018. The Proceedings include 41 papers given by session speakers and 16 extended abstracts presenting posters exhibited at the Symposium. The papers were presented in 12 different sessions. Among them are Fire Safety Engineering: Cases & Incidents, Fire Safety Engineering: The Aims, Fire Detection, Explosions, Risk Analysis, Fire Safety Engineering: Case studies, Ventilation, Fire Safety Engineering: State of the Art, Fire Dynamics, Fixed Fire Fighting Systems (FFFS) and Evacuation and Human Behavior.

    Each day was opened by invited Keynote Speakers (in total six) addressing broad topics of pressing interest. The Keynote Speakers, selected as leaders in their field, consisted of Hans Brun, the Swedish Defence University, Dr Iain Bowman, Mott MacDonald, Canada, Dr Ying Zhen Li, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Dr Johan Lundin, WSP, Sweden, Allan Skovlund, Greater Copenhagen Fire Department, Denmark and Prof David Purser, Hartford Environmental Research, UK. We are grateful that the keynote speakers were able to share their knowledge and expertise with the participants of the symposium.

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  • 18.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Persson, Henry
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Hedenstedt, Anders
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Jones, Frida
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Davidsson, Kent
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Johansson, Inge
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Boström, Sara
    Sweco, Sweden.
    Rekommendation för proaktivt brandskyddsarbete2019Report (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Persson, Henry
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Trella, Fredrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Interactive.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Boström, Sara
    Sweco, Sweden.
    Bergérus Rensvik, Åsa
    Sweco, Sweden.
    Brandsäkerhet vid lagring av avfallsbränslen2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med detta projekt har varit att ge ökad kunskap kring olika förekommande brandrisker och råd om hur dessa kan reduceras med olika åtgärder, primärt baserat på praktiska erfarenheter från genomfört säkerhetsarbete samt uppkomna bränder ute i olika anläggningar. Målet är att de samlade kunskaperna och erfarenheterna kan komma till nytta för hela branschen, övriga berörda intressenter och myndigheter och på sikt ligga till grund för t.ex. framtida branschrekommendationer.

    Projektet kan delas in metodmässigt i; statistik, workshoppar samt analys av anläggningsspecifik information.

    Analysen av insatsstatistik från Myndigheten för samhällsskydd och beredskap (MSB) pekar på att det inträffar i storleksordningen 60–70 bränder årligen i avfallsanläggningar och att brandorsaken i de flesta fall är självantändning eller okänd anledning. Tittar man på "brand ej i byggnad" med relevanta bränder för avfallsanläggningar så ser man en svagt ökande trend i antal bränder 2012–2015. 

    De vanligaste materialfraktionerna som enligt statistik från MSB är kopplade till bränder i avfallsanläggningar är sopor, kompost, fluff, papper, trädgårdsavfall, däckgranulat, annat, skrot, återvinningscontainrar. Även en del av flisbränderna kan vara relaterade till RT-trä.

    Från avfallsindustrins sida ansågs bark, returträ, flisat material och GROT (grenar och toppar) kunna ge problem med självuppvärmning. Även krossning av avfall angavs som ett generellt problem av flera deltagare.

    Många incidenter och bränder anses bero på felsorterat eller feldeklarerat avfall och kontrollen av inkommande gods är därför väldigt viktig. Det är också viktigt att kommunicera uppströms i leveranskedjan för att öka chanserna att komma tillrätta med problemen. Många deltagare identifierade batterier (speciellt litiumbatterier) som ett växande problem.

    Hanteringen av förorenat släckvatten varierar mycket. Man påpekar att samma krav över hela landet vore bra. Man önskar tydligare riktlinjer för släckvattenanalyser, kunskap om vad vattnet kan innehålla och information om reningsmetoder för släckvatten.

    Det påpekas att det finns många standarder och normer att förhålla sig till så det vore därför bra att ha en lägsta nivå av krav som bestäms i samarbete med branschen som man kan förhålla sig till och någon form av vägledning från myndigheterna för göra hanteringen mer lik över riket.

    Diskussionerna under workshopparna och tillsammans med projektets referensgrupp har lett fram till 33 rekommendationer uppdelade på olika områden. För varje rekommendation ges i rapporten ytterligare förklaringar. Dessa rekommendationer kan ligga till grund för framtida riktlinjer.

  • 20.
    Mattsson, Sandra
    RISE, Sweden.
    Forming a cognitive automation strategy for Operator 4.0 in complex assembly2020In: Computers & Industrial Engineering, Vol. 139, no 105360Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to today’s technological advances in the area of Industry 4.0, having a strategy for cognitive automation solutions is crucial. Operator 4.0, will have handle and manage different work tasks ranging from learning new tasks to solving difficult problems and initiate changes. To support the operator moving between these tasks a specific strategy for the design of cognitive automation solutions is needed. The suggested strategy has three steps: (1) select assembly modes, (2) choose level of cognitive automation carrier and (3) suggest cognitive automation content. It is important that the operator is part of the design and that the solution supports movement between the modes learning, operational and disruptive modes. The strategy could support manufacturing companies meeting challenges regarding social sustainability e.g. stress, attractive workplaces and demography changes as well as system transparency and complexity.

  • 21.
    Mattsson, Sandra
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Using the compleXity index for improvement work: investigating utilisation in an automotive company2020In: International Journal of Manufacturing Research, Vol. 15, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    CompleXity index (CXI) is a method that measures perceived production complexity. CXI was applied in the assembly and material-handling department at a manufacturer in the automotive industry, followed by workshops. The aim of the article was, based on the results, to investigate if CXI could be used to capture and transmit a current situation and be used by the operators and managers for improvement work. A high CXI level was measured for most of the production areas. The areas were mainly perceived as complex due to work variance and station design. The workshops revealed that the operators felt identified with the results and thought the method could be used to discuss their situation in detail.

  • 22.
    Mirata, Murat
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Peter
    Sotenäs kommun, Sweden.
    Harris, Steve
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Martin, Michael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Fornell, Rickard
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Hackl, Roman
    Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, Sweden.
    Källqvist, Tobias
    Hifab, Sweden.
    Dalväg, Emma
    Hifab, Sweden.
    Broberg, Sarah
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    International and Swedish State of Play in Industrial Symbiosis: A review with proposals to scale up industrial symbiosis in Sweden2018Report (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Nilsson Tengelin, Maria
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Källberg, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Effects of non-visual optical flicker in an office with two different light sources.2017In: PROCEEDINGS of the Conference on "Smarter Lighting for Better Life"at the CIE Midterm Meeting 2017., 2017, p. 451-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    LED lighting solutions sometimes give rise to optical flicker. In most cases, the temporal modulations are too fast to be perceived directly, but may still be noticed through stroboscopic effects. We report on an investigation on how people experience the lighting in an office where two LED lamps are modulated separately with different frequencies. The test subjects performed tasks for evaluation of perception, attention and reaction time. The subjects are found to be affected by the modulated light as the reaction times are shorter and the attention test scores are higher in modulated lighting compared to constant lighting. Furthermore, the study confirms that the stroboscopic effect depends on the nature of the tasks and that it is more easily perceived at lower frequencies but noticed up to at least 400 Hz.

  • 24.
    Nordløkken, Per Gunnar
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Sesseng, Christian
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Wormdahl, Espen D.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Energibesparende bygg og brannsikkerhet2015Report (Other academic)
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  • 25.
    Sesseng, Christian
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Røykvarslere for bruk i bolig: Kartlegging av forskningsfront2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [no]

    I byggeforskrift av 1985 ble det innført krav til røykvarslere i nye boliger. I Forskrift om brannforebyggende tiltak og brannsyn (FOBTOB) av 1990, ble det i tillegg innført krav om røykvarslere i eksisterende boliger.

     Et litteraturstudium har blitt gjennomført for å kartlegge teknologistatus for røykvarslere i boliger. Det er lagt vekt på hvilken forskning og utvikling som er gjort med tanke på røykvarslere for boliger siden år 2000. Hvilke deteksjonsprinsipper kan benyttes, og kan ny teknologi gjøre detektorene bedre?

    Rapporten oppsummerer litteraturstudiet, innenfor forskjellige fokusområder, og gir i tillegg forslag til videre forskning på temaet.

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  • 26.
    Stolen, Reidar
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Stensaas, Reidar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Solcelleteknologi og brannsikkerhet2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of photovoltaic (PV) technology in Norway is increasing. In this study, fire safety challenges of PV technology are studied. Fire ignition, fire spread and fire extinguishing are investigated. The study forms a knowledge base for safeguarding fire safety during assembly, operation and during firefighting efforts, and to form unified and clear regulations. The results show:

    Fire ignition: PV installations contain many electric connections which can be potential ignition sources, as well as a small volume of combustible materials. These provide everything needed to initiate a fire. It is important that all connections in a PV installation are robust and can withstand the stress they are exposed to throughout their lifetime, without causing malfunction that could cause a fire.

    Fire spread: For building attached photovoltaics, there are cavities between the module and the building. If there is a fire in this cavity, the produced heat could be trapped, which could lead to a more rapid and extensive fire spread than if the building surface were uncovered. In large scale tests with PV modules mounted on a roof covering, the fire spread under the whole area covered with modules, but stopped when approaching the edge. This demonstrates the importance of sectioning when mounting PV installations, to avoid fire spread to the whole roof. An option is to use materials with limited combustibility as roof covering below the PV module, to withstand the increased heat exposure from the PV modules. The cavity between module and building could potentially also alter the air flow along the building, which in turn could affect the fire spread.

    Firefighting: Firefighters need information on whether there is a PV installation in the building, and where there are electrical components. During firefighting efforts, the fire service must consider the danger of direct contact, and danger of arcs and other faults that could lead to new ignition points. Fresh water can be used as an extinguishing agent. This must be applied from at least 1 meter distance with spread beam and at least 5 meters distance with a focused beam. PV modules can complicate fire extinguishing as they represent a physical barrier between the fire fighter and the area to extinguish, and by creating areas which should be avoided due to danger of components with voltage. When these points are considered, building attached photovoltaics should not be a problem.

    Further work: For building attached photovoltaics, there is little research on vertical mounting (on facades), and on how changed fire dynamics could affect fire spread and extinguishing. Also, today there is an increasing use of building integrated photovoltaics, which could potentially give many new challenges for fire safety and for regulations, as these are a part of the building and at the same time electrical components. German statistics indicate that there is an increased fire risk for these types of installations, compared to building attached photovoltaics, making this an important focus area for further work.

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  • 27.
    Vermina Lundström, Frida
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Andersson, Petra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Faktorer som påverkar en bostadsbrands storlek – analys av försäkringsbolagens data2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Every year, the insurance sector reports 23 000 fire incidents in Sweden. Of these, the fire rescue service are called into 6 000. Since there is little knowledge on the fires that the fire rescue service is not involved in, incident data from insurance companies has been analyzed.

    One limitation to the results in this report is that the insurance sector’s definition of fire is broad; e.g. short-circuit is regarded a fire incident.

    Still, the data complies with the statistics from the fire rescue service: Kitchen fires and fire in electric equipment are the most common sources of fire in residential buildings.

    The cost (property damage) of a fire is also presented. It is seen that the most common fires sources commonly lead to a relatively low economical loss.

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  • 28.
    Yao, Yongzheng
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Fire Behaviors and smoke transportation law of tunnel fires under confined portal boundaries2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An increasing number of tunnels have been built around the world. They play an important role to relieve traffic congestions and facilitate goods transportation. However, in the event of a fire in tunnels, the consequences can be serious due to its narrow-long structure. The previous studies about tunnel fire dynamics and mitigation measures are mostly based on good ventilation conditions in tunnels, such as longitudinal ventilation and natural ventilation with the premise that a tunnel has two open portals. However, the studies about the characteristics of tunnel fires under confined portal boundaries with complete or incomplete sealing at both portals are rare. Typical fire scenarios can appear in a subway train, a building corridor, an underground utility tunnel, a mining tunnel, a tunnel during construction and the application of sealing tunnel portals for fighting large tunnel fires and so on. The knowledge of tunnel fire dynamics for tunnels under good ventilation conditions is probably not applicable to the scenarios of tunnel fires under confined portal boundaries. Conducting the studies of tunnel fires under confined portal boundaries is of great significance for better understanding the characteristics of this type of tunnel fires and developing tunnel fire mitigation measures. Therefore, by combining model-scale tunnel experiments and theoretical analyses, this thesis studies the fire behaviors and smoke transportation law of tunnel fires under confined portal boundaries. The main research contents include:

    1.Scaling effects of mass loss rate per unit area (MLRPUA) for well-ventilated pool fires are studied by summarizing large amounts of experimental data from the literature together with theoretical analyses. As a further extension of tunnel fire similarity theory, it provides the basis and reference for later model/medium-scale tunnel experiments. Results show that when a small-scale pool fire (D<1 m) occurs in the open, increasing wind velocity tends to increase the MLRPUA, especially for pools with D<0.2 m. This is because the ventilation significantly increases the conductive and convective heat feedbacks (leading role). But when small-scale pool fires occurs in tunnels with a short distance between the pool surface and ceiling (Hef/D<3), the radiative heat feedback from the tunnel ceiling is probably dominating, leading to a much higher MLRPUA than that in the free burn. When subjected to longitudinal flows, the MLRPUA decreases due to the reduced radiation effect from the ceiling. With the increase of pool diameter, the influence of wind on the MLRPUA decreases gradually, no matter whether the pool occurs in the open or in a tunnel. Finally, when the pool diameter exceeds 1 m, the radiation from flame itself is probably predominant. The MLRPUA is not significantly affected by increasing wind velocity and most likely fluctuates within 30% for a wide range of wind velocities based on the test data collected.

    2.The flame behaviors and the maximum gas temperature rise beneath the ceiling in an enclosed tunnel are studied using a model-scale tunnel. Results show that when a fire (small fire) is not located at the tunnel center, the flame inclines towards the closer tunnel end due to the asymmetric flow field on both sides of the flame. The flame inclination angle keeps increasing when the fire is moving away from the tunnel center. Furthermore, when a fire is in Region I (0< ≤0.64), the maximum gas temperature rise decreases with the increasing dimensionless fire distance due to the increasing flame inclination angle. When a fire is in Region II (0.64< <1), the maximum gas temperature rise increases with the increasing dimensionless fire distance due to the heat feedback of returned hot smoke bounced from the end wall. By introducing a concept of equivalent ventilation velocity based on the flame inclination mechanism, a prediction model of maximum gas temperature rise beneath the ceiling in Region I is developed. Beyond that, an extra correction factor is proposed to the improved model in Region II with a consideration of heat feedback of returned hot smoke bounced from the end wall. Besides, further dimensional analysis indicates that the normalized maximum gas temperature rise follows an exponential attenuation law with the dimensionless fire distance.

    3.The coupling control effects of sealing ratio and initial sealing time on the fire development (large fire) are studied using a model-scale tunnel. Results show that sealing tunnel portals can decrease the mass loss rate of fuel and gas temperature inside the tunnel, no matter whether the sealing is complete or incomplete. The earlier the initial sealing time is, the better the fire can be controlled. For the incomplete sealing, when the sealing is implemented during the violent burning stage, the sealing not only does not limit the fire growth but also exacerbates the tunnel fire, producing an extremely high CO concentration at tunnel portals and a longer ceiling flame jet. This will result in a huge threat to the rescue service at tunnel portals. Besides, if the tunnel portals are sealed incompletely, it will leave a small area for the exchange of smoke and air. The smoke will not continue to spread horizontally after leaving the tunnel portals under the action of inertial forces. In order to maintain the combustion of fuel, the fresh air from external environment flows into the tunnel vigorously and quickly from the gap and then uplifts the smoke out of the tunnel portals, which is also an important phenomenon for firefighters and needs to draw their attentions.

    4.The critical conditions for the occurrence of under-ventilated tunnel fires and the combustion mechanisms under confined portal boundaries are studied by using both model-scale and medium-scale tunnels. Results show that the critical equivalence ratio for the occurrence of under-ventilated tunnel fires is within 0.53 - 0.6, which is less than the theoretical value of 1. This is related to the occurrence of vitiation, consequently reducing the level of oxygen around the flame by diluting the O2 concentration. The low ventilation rate and vitiation result in a low O2 volume fraction around the flame, and then the MLRPUA starts to decrease and at the same time the air mass flow into the tunnel becomes almost constant. Also, an oscillating MLRPUA and lifted flame are observed in the model-scale tests. Consequently, the ventilation rate approaches and even reaches the amount required for complete combustion of vaporized fuel. This means that the insufficient combustion in early under-ventilated tunnel fires has converted to sufficient combustion (from the perspective of the change of equivalence ratio, the fire has converted from under-ventilated to well-ventilated). As a result, no significant increase in CO production in under-ventilated fires is observed in both test series.

    5.The critical conditions for the occurrence of self-extinguishment and influencing factors in under-ventilated tunnel fires are studied in a model-scale tunnel during construction. The tunnel consists of an inclined access tunnel and a horizontal main tunnel. Results show that when a fire is in the horizontal main tunnel, the critical equivalence ratio for self-extinguishment is within 0.28 - 1.38 for the propane gas burner and 1.11 - 3.6 for the fibre board soaked with heptane. The difference is related to the burning behavior of the different fuels used. Moreover, the critical O2 volume fraction is about within 12 - 15% when the fires self-extinguish. When a fire is at the closed end of the horizontal main tunnel, the stratification of smoke is destroyed after hitting the closed end, and then the smoke seems to spread over the entire cross section of the tunnel. The smoke spread velocity is proportional to the ventilation rate. However, when a fire occurs at the closed end of the inclined access tunnel, the fire does not self-extinguish, even when the ventilation rate is 0 m3/s. The corresponding smoke spread velocity is higher than that in the horizontal main tunnel. This is probably related to the increasing component of buoyancy in the longitudinal direction in the inclined access tunnel. Besides, no insignificant vitiation behind the fire is found. These two characteristics in the inclined access tunnel increase the temperature of smoke flowing out of the tunnel portal and in turn promote the natural ventilation and increase the O2 volume fraction.

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