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  • 1.
    Ahrné, Lilia
    et al.
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Frias, J
    Oliveira, F.A.R.
    Singh, R.P.
    Modelling textural changes of vegetables during acidification under isothermal and non-isothermal conditions2001In: Acta Horticulturae, ISSN 0567-7572, Vol. 566, p. 323-328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Acidification can be used to improve the quality of canned vegetables because it can decrease thermal processing requirements. Moreover, there is some evidence that acidified vegetables retain a better texture than non-acidified ones. Optimisation of the acidification processes requires the knowledge of the relationship between texture and thermal process at low/moderate temperature. The main objective of this work was the modelling of textural changes of vegetables during acidification under isothermal conditions, and the application of the model to predict textural changes in non-isothermal processes. Turnip was the vegetable used in the experiments. The effect of pre-treatments (blanching, freezing/thawing, calcium addition and vacuum infusion of water before acidification) on the kinetics of textural changes during acidification was also studied. Turnips were acidified in acetic acid under isothermal (20, 50, 70, 80, 90 and 100°C) and non-isothermal conditions (20 to 90°C). Texture was modelled by a two subtract first order kinetic model, assuming an Arrhenius-type dependence of the rate constants on temperature. The model parameters were estimated by nonlinear regression. At temperatures lower then 70°C no significant changes in texture were detected. At higher temperatures the model showed a good fit to the data for all the conditions tested. Acidification decreased the percentage of heat labile substrate from 96% to 62%, thus improving firmness retention. The parameters of the kinetic model estimated under isothermal conditions provided an adequate prediction of texture changes under non-isothermal conditions. The methodology developed in this work can be further applied to model the textural changes of vegetables during other thermal processes, such as drying, blanching, and frying.

  • 2.
    Ahrné, Lilia
    et al.
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Gonzalez-Martinez, G
    Sjoholm, I
    Nilsson, Katarina
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Improvement of texture by modifying processing conditions2003In: Acta Horticulturae, ISSN 0567-7572, Vol. 604, p. 277-283Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fruit and vegetable processors, faced with the challenge of gaining and maintaining a healthy position in the competitive fruit and vegetable sector, are optimising traditional processes towards product quality. Using frozen potatoes as a case study, the aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of improving the texture of potatoes by modifying the processing conditions. The texture of processed frozen potatoes is the result of the integral effect of the unit operations applied through the production chain. Production of frozen potatoes includes a blanching, a freezing, thawing/cooking step before being served. In this study, blanching temperatures from 70 to 97 °C up to 10 minutes were tested and combined with freezing by two freezing methods, impingement and air-blast freezing. The texture was measured after cooking of frozen potatoes in boiling water. Besides texture, water holding capacity, microstructural evaluation and pectinmethylesterase (PME) activity were determined. Blanching of potatoes prior to freezing can both improve water holding capacity and texture of potatoes, but this effect depends on the freezing rate and blanching temperature. Potatoes frozen with fastest freezing method are firmer and hold more water than the ones frozen by air-blast freezing. Blanching at 70 °C can lead to potatoes that after cooking retain a firmer texture, compared with blanching at 90 °C. The duration of the blanching treatment has also an important effect on texture changes. The studies of PME activity showed a good correlation between texture and PME for blanching at 90 °C, but for blanching at 70°C and longer times, the development of texture does not seem to be solely related to PME activity. Microstructural studies showed that the differences in texture are due to differences in the degree of starch gelatinisation and integrity of the cellular structure.

  • 3.
    Barba, Francisco
    et al.
    University of Valencia, Spain.
    Ahrné, Lilia
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Xanthakis, Epameinondas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Landerslev, Martin G.
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Orlien, Vibeke
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Chapter 2. Innovative technologies2017In: Innovative Technologies for Food Preservation: Inactivation of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms / [ed] Francisco J. Barba; Mohamed Koubaa; Vibeke Orlien; Anderson Sant´Ana, Elsevier, 2017, p. 25-Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Bengtzon, Annika
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Ageing and changes in the chemical senses related to food perception : a literature review2002Report (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Borch, Elisabeth
    et al.
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Arinder, Pernilla
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Bacteriological safety issues in red meat and ready-to-eat meat products, as well as control measures2002In: Meat Science, ISSN 0309-1740, E-ISSN 1873-4138, Vol. 62, no 3, p. 381-390Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of Eschericha coli O157, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella typhimurium DT104 as meat-borne pathogens is well established. Pathogenic bacteria such as Aeromonas spp., Arcobacter spp., psychrotrophic Bacillus cereus, Campylobacter spp., Clostridium botulinum and non-invasive Listeria monocytogenes can be regarded as rookies, but not yet firmly associated with today's production of red meat and meat products. The development of PCR and other DNA-based techniques will shed new light on so called emerging pathogens. Important safety issues in meat production, such as insufficient cleaning and disinfection (including the stable/lairage, processing environment), carcass decontamination and chilling, and cross contamination are discussed. Furthermore, probability modelling of survival and growth is identified as an important way to achieve a better understanding of how to deal with the complexity of further processing, including heat treatment and storage. © 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 6.
    Dalvi-Isfahan, Mohsen
    et al.
    Isfahan University of Technology, Iran.
    Hamdami, Nasser
    Isfahan University of Technology, Iran.
    Le-Bail, Alain
    CNRS, France; University of Nantes, France.
    Xanthakis, Epameinondas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    The principles of high voltage electric field and its application in food processing: A review2016In: Food Research International, ISSN 0963-9969, E-ISSN 1873-7145, Vol. 89, p. 48-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Food processing is a major part of the modern global industry and it will certainly be an important sector of the industry in the future. Several processes for different purposes are involved in food processing aiming at the development of new products by combining and/or transforming raw materials, to the extension of food shelf-life, recovery, exploitation and further use of valuable compounds and many others. During the last century several new food processes have arisen and most of the traditional ones have evolved. The future food factory will require innovative approaches food processing which can combine increased sustainability, efficiency and quality. Herein, the objective of this review is to explore the multiple applications of high voltage electric field (HVEF) and its potentials within the food industry. These applications include processes such as drying, refrigeration, freezing, thawing, extending food shelf- life, and extraction of biocompounds. In addition, the principles, mechanism of action and influence of specific parameters have been discussed comprehensively.

  • 7.
    Eduardo, Maria
    et al.
    Eduardo Mondlane University, Mozambique; Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Svanberg, Ulf
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ahrné, Lilia
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Effect of hydrocolloids and emulsifiers on the shelf-life of composite cassava-maize-wheat bread after storage2016In: Food Science & Nutrition, E-ISSN 2048-7177, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 636-644Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydrocolloids and/or emulsifiers on the shelf-life of composite cassava-maize-wheat (ratio 40:10:50) reference bread during storage. Added hydrocolloids were carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and high methoxyl pectin (HM pectin) at a 3% level (w/w) and/or the emulsifiers diacetyl tartaric acid esters of monoglycerides (DATEM), lecithin (LC), and monoglycerides (MG) at a 0.3% level (w/w). After 4 days of storage, composite breads with MG had comparatively lower crumb moisture while crumb density was similar in all breads. The reference bread crumb firmness was 33.4 N, which was reduced with an addition of DATEM (23.0 N), MG (29.8 N), CMC (24.6 N) or HM pectin (22.4 N). However, the CMC/DATEM, CMC/LC, and HM pectin/DATEM combinations further reduced crumb firmness to <20.0 N. The melting peak temperature was increased from 52 C to between 53.0 C and 57.0 C with added hydrocolloids and/or emulsifiers. The melting enthalpy of the retrograded amylopectin was lower in composite bread with hydrocolloids and emulsifiers, 6.7–11.0 J/g compared to 20.0 J/g for the reference bread. These results show that emulsifiers in combination with hydrocolloids can improve the quality and extend the shelf-life of composite cassava-maize-wheat breads.

  • 8. Fitzpatrick, J.J.
    et al.
    Ahrné, Lilia
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Food powder handling and processing: Industry problems, knowledge barriers and research opportunities2005In: Chemical Engineering and Processing, ISSN 0255-2701, E-ISSN 1873-3204, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 209-214Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9. Forsman, M.
    et al.
    Bernmark, E.
    Nilsson, B.
    Pousette, S.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Mathiassen, S.E.
    Participative development of packages in the food industry: Evaluation of ergonomics and productivity by objective measurements2012In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, no SUPPL.1, p. 1751-1755Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Gadde, Lars-Erik
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Amani, Pegah
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Environment.
    Food supply in a network context: An alternative framing and managerial consequences in efforts to prevent food waste2016In: British Food Journal, ISSN 0007-070X, E-ISSN 1758-4108, Vol. 118, no 6, p. 1407-1421Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present a “network” framing of food supply arrangements. Such frameworks have been asked for in previous research as supplements to prevailing supply chain conceptualizations.

    Design/methodology/approach – The framework builds on industrial network theory. According to this approach, business reality is analyzed in three inter-related dimensions: the activities undertaken, the resources used for this undertaking, and the actors controlling resources and activities. For each dimension, relevant concepts are derived for analysis of the features of food supply and food waste.

    Findings – The network framing was useful for analyzing the prerequisites and consequences for two approaches to reduce food waste: one based on extension of shelf-life, the other relying on enhanced responsiveness in the supply arrangement. The framework was then used for suggesting managerial actions to reduce food waste through increasing activity coordination, resource combining, and actor interaction with consideration of potential consequences of such actions.

    Practical implications – Managerial issues in food supply are discussed with regard to the role of activity coordination, the role of resource combining, and the role of actor interaction in efforts to prevent food waste.

    Originality/value – The paper suggests a novel approach for analyzing food supply networks with particular focus on food waste reduction. Such framings are applied in other supply systems, and requested by food supply researchers.

  • 11.
    Homer, Stephen
    et al.
    CSIRO Food and Nutrition, Australia..
    Dunstan, D E
    University of Melbourne, Australia..
    Lundin, Leif
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    The role of pH in microstructural assembly2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Proteins are important biopolymers that can contribute significantly to food structure. Controlling the manner in which they aggregate and form matrices within food systems is fundamental to sensory attributes and can have an impact on digestive properties. This work investigated the structuring behaviour whey protein isolate (WPI) over the entire acidic pH range from pH 1.0-6.8. WPI is a commercially available mixture of several proteins. β-lactoglobulin is most abundant and tends to dominate the functionality. Some important aspects are the clarity of protein solutions in beverages, the temperature of denaturation, the aggregation characteristics and consequently the gel forming properties. pH is a key factor which affects all of these properties and there remains aspects worthy of further investigation. In this presentation, the role of pH in denaturation, aggregation and structuring will be discussed in detail along with the trends observed. Some previously unknown aspects surrounding the behaviour of whey proteins at specific pH points and their applicability to commercial products will be highlighted

  • 12.
    Homer, Stephen
    et al.
    CSIRO Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Australia.
    Lundin, Leif
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Dunstan, Dave E.
    University of Melbourne, Australia.
    Modifying the microstructure and mechanical properties of whey protein isolate gels using large deformation oscillatory strain2016In: Food Hydrocolloids, ISSN 0268-005X, E-ISSN 1873-7137, Vol. 61, p. 672-677Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of oscillatory shear during heat-induced gelation of whey protein isolate has been investigated. For each gel sample, a single oscillating strain was applied during the gelation process from within the range of 0-1.0. A strain sweep was then used to evaluate the linear viscoelastic region as well as the fracturing properties of each gel. The application of strains lower than ∼0.01 during gelation did not affect the storage modulus while larger strains resulted in lower storage moduli in the linear viscoelastic region. Furthermore, gels produced under small (<0.01) strain amplitudes showed a single fracture point, while gels produced under high (>0.01) amplitude strain were characterised by a two-step fracture pattern. Between the fracture steps, strain hardening behaviour was observed. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to identify structural differences between the gels. Greater inhomogeneity was found in gels produced under large amplitude compared to small amplitude strain. It is suggested that localised redistribution of aggregates due to shear during gelation increases the average pore size and possibly creates two distinct types of aggregate structure with differing moduli. The combined effect of heating rate and oscillatory strain was also investigated. We postulate that the mechanism underlying our observations is generic to many gel systems.

  • 13.
    Hussein, J. B.
    et al.
    Modibbo Adama University of Technology Yola, Nigeria.
    Sanusi, M. S.
    University of Ibadan, Nigeria.
    Filli, Kalep
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Structure Design. Modibbo Adama University of Technology Yola, Nigeria.
    Evaluation of drying methods on the content of some bio-actives (lycopene, β-carotene and ascorbic acid) of tomato slices2016In: African Journal of Food Science, ISSN 1996-0794, E-ISSN 1996-0794, Vol. 10, no 12, p. 359-367Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersycum L.) is one of the most important vegetables worldwide. As it is a relatively short duration crop and gives a high yield, it is economically attractive. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of drying method on the quality of the dried tomatoes based on three parameters viz; lycopene, ß-carotene and ascorbic acid contents. Thirty-six kilograms of tomatoes were sorted, cleaned, blanched and divided into three equal portions of 12 kg each. The tomatoes were sliced into 4, 6 and 8 mm, then sun, solar and hybrid dried, respectively. The value of lycopene content obtained for sun dried tomatoes ranged from 23.89 to 18.77 mg/100 g, solar dried ranged from 24.51 to 22.56 mg/100 g and hybrid dried ranged from 25.12 to 24.65 mg/100 g. The average value of β-carotene content obtained for sun dried tomatoes ranged from 4.12 to 3.72 mg/100 g, solar dried ranged from 4.94 to 4.25 mg/100 g and hybrid dried ranged from 4.98 to 4.65 mg/100 g. The values of ascorbic acid obtained for sun dried tomatoes ranged from 17.04 to 5.60 mg/100 g, solar dried ranged from 23.73 to 13.37 mg/100 g and hybrid dried ranged from 29.20 to 24.82 mg/100 g. Hybrid dried tomatoes slice showed higher retention of lycopene, ß-Carotene and ascorbic acid than both the solar and open sun dried methods.

  • 14. Jacobsson, A
    et al.
    Nielsen, Tim
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Sjoholm, I
    Influence of packaging material and storage temperature on the texture, colour, and weight of broccoli2003In: Acta Horticulturae, ISSN 0567-7572, Vol. 600, p. 323-326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sophisticated packaging solutions can be used in order to preserve vegetables during storage and transport. Polymeric films with selective barriers matching the respiration of the produce, thereby creating an ideal atmosphere inside the package, are available on the market. Fresh broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica 'Monterey') heads were packed in 4 different commercially available polymeric films, and stored at 4 and 10°C respectively. During storage the weight, colour, chlorophyll content and texture were monitored. The investigated polymer materials were oriented polypropylene (OPP), polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and two types of polyethylene (PE) packagings. The choice of packaging material had an impact on the measured quality parameters of broccoli. Storage in OPP resulted in the longest storage life. Broccoli stored in PVC film deteriorated faster than broccoli packaged in the other materials. It was also observed that the influence of the type of packaging material was more important at the higher temperature. The implications of this work for the packaging and storage of fresh broccoli will be discussed.

  • 15. Jacobsson, A
    et al.
    Nielsen, Tim
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Wendin, Karin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Sjoholm, I
    The effect of packaging material on the sensory properties of broccoli2003In: Acta Horticulturae, ISSN 0567-7572, Vol. 599, p. 91-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Three different commercially available polymeric films were studied to determine their effect on the sensory properties of fresh broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. Italica cv. 'Marathon'). The polymer materials investigated were oriented polypropylene (OPP), polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and one low density polyethylene (LDPE) which contained an ethylene absorber. The fresh broccoli was packaged and stored for one week at 10°C or 3 days at 4°C followed by 4 days at 10°C. The oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations inside the packages were monitored during storage. After storage the broccoli was evaluated according to sensory analyses, i.e. triangle test and quantitative descriptive analysis, by an analytical panel. The panel judged the broccoli according to smell, taste, texture and appearance. The triangle test showed significant differences between the smell of the broccoli samples, stored in the different packaging materials, when cooked. However, no differences between the raw broccoli, stored in the different packaging materials could be detected. The quantitative descriptive analysis showed that the following attributes; fresh smell and taste, chewing resistance, and crispness, differed significantly between the packaged broccoli when cooked. The appearance was shown to be the sensory property of broccoli most affected by the storage conditions, i.e. packaging material used and storage temperature. The results indicated the importance of the packaging material for maintaining the broccoli quality. However, one packaging material that was able to maintain all the studied sensory properties could not be identified. Copyright © ISHS 2003.

  • 16.
    Jha, Piyush Kumar
    et al.
    ONIRIS, France; UMR GEPEA, France.
    Xanthakis, Epameinondas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Chevallier, Sylvie
    ONIRIS, France; UMR GEPEA, France.
    Jury, Vanessa
    ONIRIS, France; UMR GEPEA, France.
    Le-Bail, Alain
    ONIRIS, France; UMR GEPEA, France.
    Assessment of freeze damage in fruits and vegetables2019In: Food Research International, ISSN 0963-9969, E-ISSN 1873-7145, Vol. 121, p. 479-496Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Freezing is an efficient and widely used method of food preservation. However, it can also cause irreversible damages at cellular level which in turn degrade the overall quality of the frozen food products. Therefore, qualitative and quantitative methods and technologies that will be able to evaluate with accuracy the freeze damage are of great importance. This review paper provides a comprehensive study of the methods that have been used to evaluate the freeze damage in fruits and vegetables. Further than the principles and the applications of those methods, the advantages and the limitations are also being discussed. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd

  • 17.
    Jha, Piyush Kumar
    et al.
    ONIRIS-GEPEA (UMR CNRS 6144), France.
    Xanthakis, Epameinondas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Jury, Vanessa
    ONIRIS-GEPEA (UMR CNRS 6144), France.
    Le-Bail, Alain
    ONIRIS-GEPEA (UMR CNRS 6144), France.
    An Overview on Magnetic Field and Electric Field interactions with Ice crystalization; Application in case of frozen food2017In: Crystals, Vol. 7, no 10, article id 299Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ice nucleation is a stochastic process and it is very difficult to be controlled. Freezing technologies and more specifically crystallisation assisted by magnetic, electric and electromagnetic fields have the capability to interact with nucleation. Static magnetic field (SMF) may affect matter crystallisation; however, this is still under debate in the literature. Static electric field (SEF) has a significant effect on crystallisation; this has been evidenced experimentally and confirmed by the theory. Oscillating magnetic field induces an oscillating electric field and is also expected to interact with water crystallisation. Oscillating electromagnetic fields interact with water, perturb and even disrupt hydrogen bonds, which in turn are thought to increase the degree of supercooling and to generate numerous fine ice crystals. Based on the literature, it seems that the frequency has an influence on the above-mentioned phenomena. This review article summarizes the fundamentals of freezing under magnetic, electric and electromagnetic fields, as well as their applicability and potentials within the food industry.

  • 18.
    Jonsson, Lena
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Thermal degradation of carotenes and influence on their physiological functions1991In: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, ISSN 0065-2598, E-ISSN 2214-8019, Vol. 289, p. 75-82Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19. Kent, M
    et al.
    Knochel, R
    Daschner, F
    Schimmer, O
    Oehlenschlager, J
    Barr, Ulla-Karin
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Intangible but not intractable: The prediction of fish 'quality' variables using dielectric spectroscopy2007In: Measurement science and technology, ISSN 0957-0233, E-ISSN 1361-6501, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 1029-1037Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many fields the concept and measurement of quality is of prime importance. The fish industry is no exception to this and many sensory approaches have been devised to quantify this rather intangible property. The EU 5th framework project 'SEQUID' has concentrated on the measurement of the dielectric properties of fish tissue as a function of time both in frozen and chilled storage. The many deteriorative biochemical and microbiological processes that take place during the gradual spoilage of such materials have a subtle influence on the dielectric properties across the spectrum but notably in the microwave frequency region. In this region the complex interactions of water, solutes and structure-forming proteins are systematically changed by death and decay. Chilling or freezing may slow these processes but such preservation techniques do not halt them entirely. The SEQUID project has shown that it is possible, using a combination of time domain reflectometry and multivariate analysis, to predict certain quality-related variables, both sensory and biochemical, with comparable accuracy to existing methods. These results are presented in this paper. © 2007 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  • 20.
    Langton, Maud
    et al.
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Åström, Annika
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Hermansson, Ann-Marie
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Texture as a reflection of microstructure1996In: Food Quality and Preference, ISSN 0950-3293, E-ISSN 1873-6343, Vol. 7, no 42067, p. 185-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The perception of texture has been correlated to the micro-structure of particulate whey protein gels. A full, two-level, factorial experimental design was used in which the processing conditions, pH, heating rate and addition of salt were used as design factors. The texture of the gels was analyzed by a sensory panel, and the microstructure was analysed by light and electron microscopy. The microstructure was quantified by using different types of image analysis. In this study of particulate whey protein gels, the test principles of analysing texture were divided into two groups: destructive tests and non-destructive tests. The micro-structural parameters can also be divided into two groups: overall network dimensions (pore size and particle size) and strand characteristics. The texture as measured with destructive methods was sensitive to overall network dimensions, whereas texture as measured with non-destructive methods was sensitive to the strand characteristics of particulate protein gels.

  • 21.
    Mattsson, Berit
    et al.
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Wallen, E
    Environmental Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of organic potatoes2003In: Acta Horticulturae, ISSN 0567-7572, Vol. 619, p. 427-435Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An LCA of organic potatoes cultivated in southern Sweden was carried out to gain more knowledge about the environmental impact and resource use along the food chain. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a method for analysis and assessment of the potential environmental impact caused by products (ISO 14040). Included in the study were the production of inputs to agriculture, agricultural production, sorting and packaging, distribution and the household phase. The use of energy, water and other resources were also included as well as basic environmental impact categories such as global warming, acidification, eutrophication, toxicity, ozone depletion and photo-oxidant formation. A major finding was that the agricultural production accounted for almost all the emissions contributing to eutrophication and acidification. Other findings were that agricultural production, production of packaging materials and the household phase were the main contributors to global warming, while the energy use was rather evenly distributed among the life cycle stages. The primary improvement options identified in the study were to reduce nitrogen emissions contributing to acidification and eutrophication and to reduce potato losses due to poor quality. The organic potato yields are generally very low, typically about 60% of the conventional levels. Increased yields would be beneficial from an environmental point of view.

  • 22.
    Ohlsson, Thomas
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Food waste management by life cycle assessment of the food chain2004In: Journal of Food Science, ISSN 0022-1147, E-ISSN 1750-3841, Vol. 69, no 3, p. CRH107-CRH109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the past, environmental activities in the food industry used to be focused on meeting the requirements set by authorities on waste and sewage disposal and, more recently, regarding emissions to air. Today environmental issues are considered an essential part of the corporate image in progressive food industries. To avoid sub-optimization, food waste management should involve assessing the environmental impact of the whole food chain. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is an ISO-standardized method to assess the environmental impact of a food product. It evaluates the resources used to perform the different activities through the chain of production from raw material to the user step. It also summarizes the emission/waste to air, water, and land from the same activities throughout the chain. These emissions are then related to the major environmental concerns such as eutrophication, acidification, and ecotoxicity, the factors most relevant for the food sector. The food industry uses the LCAs to identify the steps in the food chain that have the largest impact on the environment in order to target the improvement efforts. It is then used to choose among alternatives in the selection of raw materials, packaging material, and other inputs as well as waste management strategies. A large number of food production chains have been assessed by LCAs over the years. This will be exemplified by a comparison of the environmental impact of ecologically grown raw materials to those conventionally grown. Today LCA is often integrated into process and product development, for example, in a project for reduction of water usage and waste valorization in a diversified dairy.

  • 23.
    Ohlsson, Thomas
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Overcoming barriers to globalization: A European prospective2004In: Journal of Food Science, ISSN 0022-1147, E-ISSN 1750-3841, Vol. 69, no 5, p. R151-R152Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Ovaska, Sami-Seppo
    et al.
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland.
    Hiltunen, Salla
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland.
    Ernstsson, Marie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Schuster, Erich
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Structure Design.
    Altskär, Annika
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Structure Design.
    Backfolk, Kaj
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland.
    Characterization of rapeseed oil/coconut oil mixtures and their penetration into hydroxypropylated-starch-based barrier coatings containing an oleophilic mineral2016In: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 101, p. 569-576Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A study was conducted that demonstrated that the blending of edible oils leads to changes in surface tension, thermal properties, viscosity, and oil penetration times through a barrier-coated paperboard. The results emphasize the significance of testing the oil and grease resistance (OGR) oil blends in order-to verify the suitability of the packaging material for real-life end-use applications. The results of the OGR determinations suggest that hydroxypropylated-starch-based composite coatings containing an oleophilic high aspect ratio mineral can be tailored for food shaving different fatty acid compositions by varying the pigmentation level. Compared to standard OGR tests, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM)-based techniques make it possible to evaluate the oil penetration time and its diffusion behavior very accurately, both inside the coating layer and in the bulk matrix. It was found that, at room temperature, coconut oil tends to crystallize inside the substrate, inducing swelling of the coating layer, which probably has an influence on the physicomechanical properties of the packaging material.

  • 25. Peacock, N
    et al.
    De Camillis, C
    Pennington, D
    Aichinger, H
    Parenti, A
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Towards a harmonised framework methodology for the environmental assessment of food and drink products2011In: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 189-197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction "Food and drink" products are the basis of life. However, it is recognised that their supply also contributes to the environmental impacts associated with production and consumption. Recently, an increasing number of food chain partners and public authorities have introduced a widening range of initiatives to provide information about the environmental performance of food and drink products. These initiatives show a high degree of diversity in terms of their chosen scope, assessment methodologies and means of communication, which has the potential to confuse or even mislead consumers and other stakeholders. In this context, the European Food Sustainable Consumption and Production (SCP) Round Table was launched by food supply chain partners and the European Commission with the vision of promoting a science-based, coherent approach to sustainable consumption and production in the European food sector. Objectives This article presents this European initiative by introducing its Guiding Principles and summarizing the proceedings of the scientific workshop held in Ispra on 14-15 June 2010. The aim of the workshop was to identify scientific inputs for developing the harmonised framework methodology for assessing the environmental issues of food and drink products. In this context, the main purpose was to provide a common understanding of what is involved in reliable and robust environmental assessments of the food chain, current limitations, and how to go from detailed assessments to more focused criteria, guidance and tools. Conclusion The current experiences presented in the workshop demonstrate that much advancement has already been made towards the measurement and management of the environmental performance of food and drink products. Detailed methodologies and tools are already being used by various players. According to the workshop speakers, the definition of methodological choices concerning the functional unit, systemboundaries, cut-off criteria, allocation rules and environmental impact categories are some of the key issues to be fixed in the harmonised framework methodology. The Round Table process has the potential to make a substantial contribution to the sustainable consumption and production of food and drink products. This model might be proposed and reiterated for other sectors as well. © Springer-Verlag 2011.

  • 26.
    Raaholt, Birgitta
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Isaksson, Sven
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Hamberg, Lars
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Fhager, Andreas
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hamnerius, Yngve
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Continuous tubular microwave heating of homogeneous foods: evaluation of heating uniformity2016In: The Journal of microwave power and electromagnetic energy, ISSN 0832-7823, Vol. 50, no 1, p. 43-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A pilot-scale process for continuous in-flow microwave processing of foods, designed and implemented at SP Food and Bioscience, was evaluated for heat treatment of a homogeneous model food for high-temperature short-time (HTST) conditions, at constant total input microwave power, at 2450 MHz. The microwave system has three consecutive cavities, one excited by the TM020 microwave mode that heats primarily in the tube centre, and two TM120 mode cavities that heat primarily in the tube periphery. The temperature uniformity of the homogeneous model food after microwave heating is here evaluated in terms of spatial distribution, for different set-ups of input microwave power in each cavity and for different order of the placement of the cavities, while maintaining the total input microwave power. The microwave heating uniformity is evaluated, based on measured and calculated radial temperature profiles. Combined TM020 and TM120 heating was found to result in more uniform heating by means of spatial temperature uniformity over the tube cross section. Furthermore, appropriately selected microwave power distribution between the centre and periphery heating cavities results in a stable heating profile in the studied food, that differs only about 10 °C or less between highest and lowest average values directly after microwave heating.

  • 27. Risman, Per O.
    et al.
    Raaholt, Birgitta
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Retro-modelling of a dual resonant applicator and accurate dielectric properties of liquid water from -20 °c to +100 °c2007In: Measurement science and technology, ISSN 0957-0233, E-ISSN 1361-6501, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 959-966Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A critical analysis is made of literature reports on the dielectric properties of pure water from liquid water supercooled at -20 °C, to +100 °C, in principle in the frequency range 0 to 3 GHz. Measurements using complete multi-step numerical modelling of a dual resonant cavity at about 920 MHz and 2230 MHz are presented. The measured data at about +20 °C are used as reference for the calculation of data at other temperatures. Due to the high resolution and considerations of various error sources, the resulting accuracy becomes high and allows the construction of improved empirical formulae for the Debye relaxation behaviour. © 2007 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  • 28.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Anteson, F
    Davis, Jenny
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Sjoden, P.-O.
    Home transport and wastage: Environmentally relevant household activities in the life cycle of food2005In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 34, no 42099, p. 371-375Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In environmental systems analysis of food production systems, the consumer phase (home transport, cooking, storing, and wastage) is an important contributor to the total life-cycle environmental impact. However, households are the least investigated part of the food chain. Information gathering about households involves difficulties; the number of households is large, and food-related activities are embedded in other household activities. In cooperation between researchers from environmental systems analysis and consumer research, Swedish households were surveyed by questionnaire, diary, and interviews. Data on home transport of food and wastage were collected. The average weekly driving distance was 28 to 63 km per household, depending on how trips made in conjunction with other errands are allocated. The wastage of prepared food ranged between 0 and 34% for different food categories, and wastage from storing between 0 and 164% (more food was discarded, e.g. by cleaning out a cupboard, than consumed). In both cases dairy products scored highest. © Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences 2005.

  • 29.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Mattsson, Berit
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Nybrant, T
    Ohlsson, Tomas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Industrial processing versus home cooking: An environmental comparison between three ways to prepare a meal2005In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 34, no 42099, p. 414-421Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today there is a strong trend in Sweden for industrially processed meals to replace homemade meals. In the public debate this is often claimed to increase the environmental impact from foods. In the study presented in this article, we used life-cycle assessment to quantify the environmental impact of three meals: homemade, semiprepared, and ready-to-eat. The differences in environmental impact between the meals were small; the ready-to-eat meal used the most energy, whereas the homemade meal had higher emissions causing eutrophication and global warming. The dominating contributor to the environmental impact was agriculture, accounting for 30% of the impact related to energy and 95% of that related to eutrophication. Industry, packaging, and consumer home transport and food preparation also contributed significantly. Important factors were raw material use, energy efficiency in industry and households, packaging, and residue treatment. To decrease the overall environmental impact of food consumption, improvements in agriculture are very important, together with raw-material use within industry and households. © Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences 2005.

  • 30. Stern, S
    et al.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Gunnarsson, S
    Oborn, I
    Kumm, K.-I.
    Nybrant, T
    Sustainable development of food production: A case study on scenarios for pig production2005In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 34, no 42099, p. 402-407Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To study future, sustainable production systems, a stepwise method was used to create three future scenarios for pig production based on different sustainability goals. The first scenario focused on animal welfare and the natural behavior of the animals. The second targeted low impacts on the environment and the efficient use of natural resources. The third scenario aimed at product quality and safety. Each scenario fulfilled different aspects of sustainability, but there were goal conflicts because no scenario fulfilled all sustainability goals. The scenarios were then parameterized. The environmental impact was calculated using the life-cycle assessment (LCA) methodology, and the economic cost was calculated from the same data set. The cost per kilo of pork was highest for the animal welfare scenario and similar for the other two scenarios. The environmental scenario had the lowest environmental impact, and the product-quality scenario the highest. The results are discussed based on different future priorities. © Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences 2005.

  • 31. Van Hark, S.D.
    et al.
    Härröd, Magnus
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Fixed-bed hydrogenation at supercritical conditions to form fatty alcohols: The dramatic effects caused by phase transitions in the reactor2001In: Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, ISSN 8885885, Vol. 40, no 23, p. 5052-5057Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural fatty alcohols are one of the major oleochemicals and can be produced by catalytic hydrogenation of fatty acid methyl esters. In the commercial multiphase process, the hydrogen availability to the solid catalyst limits the reaction rate. By adding propane to the reaction mixture, we can utilize the unique properties of supercritical fluids, properties between those of gases and liquids. Using propane, a substantially homogeneous supercritical phase is created, whereby hydrogen has complete access to the solid catalyst. At high substrate concentrations, a rapid fall of the reaction rate was observed, and the benefits of the propane addition were completely lost. This fall depends on a split of the supercritical reaction mixture into two phases (a substrate-rich and a hydrogen-rich phase). If this phase split occurred using small catalyst particles (?32 ?m), the pressure drop over the catalyst bed increased sharply because the formed liquid droplets blocked the void space in the porous catalyst bed. These two phenomena were used to deduce the product and substrate solubility in the reaction mixture. The product showed the most unfavorable solubility which increased with higher pressure. Under our process conditions (150 bar, 280 °C, and 11 mol % hydrogen), a single phase was observed up to 2 mol % (i.e., 15% by mass) product. Besides the minimum pressure in the catalyst bed, substrate transport limitation could be shown to be an important factor in process optimization. Therefore, egg-shell catalysts or fine catalyst particles (100-300 ?m) should preferably be used in the continuous supercritical reactors.

  • 32.
    Wendin, Karin
    et al.
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Langton, Maud
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Caous, L
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Hall, Gunnar
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Dynamic analyses of sensory and microstructural properties of cream cheese2000In: Food Chemistry, ISSN 0308-8146, E-ISSN 1873-7072, Vol. 71, no 3, p. 363-378Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flavour and texture in cream cheese depend on the microstructure. The objective of this work was to study the influence of fat content, salt content and homogenisation pressure on the microstructure and sensory properties of cream cheese. Twelve types of cream cheese were produced according to a full-factorial design, whereby the fat content was set at three levels, the salt content at two levels and the homogenisation pressure at two levels. The cheeses were analysed by a sensory panel, using both quantitative descriptive profiling and time intensity (TI) evaluation, and by using a confocal laser scanning microscope, CLSM, whereby the microstructure of the cheeses was analysed. All the design parameters had a significant influence on the flavour and texture, although fat had the largest effect. Interaction effects between the design parameters were also found to influence the character of cream cheese. The results showed that it is possible to create a cream cheese with lower fat content and with sensory attributes similar to the attributes in cream cheese with high fat content, by modification of production parameters. Copyright (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  • 33.
    Wiklund, Johan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    The Nordic Rheology Society Conference 20072007In: Applied Rheology, ISSN 1430-6395, E-ISSN 1617-8106, Vol. 17, no 5, p. 301-302Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Wiklund, Johan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    The Nordic Rheology Society Conference 20082009In: Applied Rheology, ISSN 1430-6395, E-ISSN 1617-8106, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 121-122Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Xanthakis, Epameinondas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Valdramidis, Vasilis
    University of Malta, Malta.
    Impact of heating operations on the microbial ecology of foods2017In: Quantitative Microbiology in Food Processing: Modeling the Microbial Ecology / [ed] Anderson de Souza Sant'Ana, John Wiley & Sons, 2017, p. 117-141Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are several drawbacks of heat processes as their application may also lead to nutritional and quality deterioration of the food product. The chapter presents basic information regarding the heating processes and unit operations and covers the impact of these operations on food-borne microorganisms. It describes the main cooking methods, such as grilling, broiling, and roasting. Quantitative methodologies are the main tools to describe the impact of a process as well as the storage conditions post-processing on the food stability. In order to assess the efficacy of a specific processing technology, the estimation of the time to achieve a certain number of log reductions can be applied. The most common process in the food industry is the thermal process. The chapter reviews a number of different thermal processes and outlines critical issues in relation to their efficacy and to their impact on the microbial inactivation

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