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  • 1.
    Ahrné, Lilia
    et al.
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Frias, J
    Oliveira, F.A.R.
    Singh, R.P.
    Modelling textural changes of vegetables during acidification under isothermal and non-isothermal conditions2001In: Acta Horticulturae, ISSN 0567-7572, Vol. 566, p. 323-328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Acidification can be used to improve the quality of canned vegetables because it can decrease thermal processing requirements. Moreover, there is some evidence that acidified vegetables retain a better texture than non-acidified ones. Optimisation of the acidification processes requires the knowledge of the relationship between texture and thermal process at low/moderate temperature. The main objective of this work was the modelling of textural changes of vegetables during acidification under isothermal conditions, and the application of the model to predict textural changes in non-isothermal processes. Turnip was the vegetable used in the experiments. The effect of pre-treatments (blanching, freezing/thawing, calcium addition and vacuum infusion of water before acidification) on the kinetics of textural changes during acidification was also studied. Turnips were acidified in acetic acid under isothermal (20, 50, 70, 80, 90 and 100°C) and non-isothermal conditions (20 to 90°C). Texture was modelled by a two subtract first order kinetic model, assuming an Arrhenius-type dependence of the rate constants on temperature. The model parameters were estimated by nonlinear regression. At temperatures lower then 70°C no significant changes in texture were detected. At higher temperatures the model showed a good fit to the data for all the conditions tested. Acidification decreased the percentage of heat labile substrate from 96% to 62%, thus improving firmness retention. The parameters of the kinetic model estimated under isothermal conditions provided an adequate prediction of texture changes under non-isothermal conditions. The methodology developed in this work can be further applied to model the textural changes of vegetables during other thermal processes, such as drying, blanching, and frying.

  • 2.
    Ahrné, Lilia
    et al.
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Gonzalez-Martinez, G
    Sjoholm, I
    Nilsson, Katarina
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Improvement of texture by modifying processing conditions2003In: Acta Horticulturae, ISSN 0567-7572, Vol. 604, p. 277-283Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fruit and vegetable processors, faced with the challenge of gaining and maintaining a healthy position in the competitive fruit and vegetable sector, are optimising traditional processes towards product quality. Using frozen potatoes as a case study, the aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of improving the texture of potatoes by modifying the processing conditions. The texture of processed frozen potatoes is the result of the integral effect of the unit operations applied through the production chain. Production of frozen potatoes includes a blanching, a freezing, thawing/cooking step before being served. In this study, blanching temperatures from 70 to 97 °C up to 10 minutes were tested and combined with freezing by two freezing methods, impingement and air-blast freezing. The texture was measured after cooking of frozen potatoes in boiling water. Besides texture, water holding capacity, microstructural evaluation and pectinmethylesterase (PME) activity were determined. Blanching of potatoes prior to freezing can both improve water holding capacity and texture of potatoes, but this effect depends on the freezing rate and blanching temperature. Potatoes frozen with fastest freezing method are firmer and hold more water than the ones frozen by air-blast freezing. Blanching at 70 °C can lead to potatoes that after cooking retain a firmer texture, compared with blanching at 90 °C. The duration of the blanching treatment has also an important effect on texture changes. The studies of PME activity showed a good correlation between texture and PME for blanching at 90 °C, but for blanching at 70°C and longer times, the development of texture does not seem to be solely related to PME activity. Microstructural studies showed that the differences in texture are due to differences in the degree of starch gelatinisation and integrity of the cellular structure.

  • 3.
    Allison, R.S.
    et al.
    York University, Canada.
    Brunnstrom, Kjell
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.
    Chandler, D.M.
    Shizuoka University, Japan.
    Colett, H.
    Intel Corp, USA.
    Corriveau, P.
    Intel Corp, USA.
    Daly, S.
    Dolby Laboratories Inc, USA.
    Goel, J.
    Qualcomm Technologies, USA.
    Long, J.Y.
    Intel Corp, USA.
    Wilcox, L.M.
    York University, Canada.
    Yaacob, Y.
    Shizuoka University, Japan.
    Yang, S. N.
    Pacific University, USA.
    Zhang, Y.
    Xi’an Jiaotong University, China.
    Perspectives on the definition of visually lossless quality for mobile and large format displays2018In: Journal of Electronic Imaging, ISSN 10179909, Vol. 27, no 5, article id 053035Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Advances in imaging and display engineering have given rise to new and improved image and videoapplications that aim to maximize visual quality under given resource constraints (e.g., power, bandwidth).Because the human visual system is an imperfect sensor, the images/videos can be represented in a mathematicallylossy fashion but with enough fidelity that the losses are visually imperceptible—commonly termed“visually lossless.” Although a great deal of research has focused on gaining a better understanding ofthe limits of human vision when viewing natural images/video, a universally or even largely accepted definitionof visually lossless remains elusive. Differences in testing methodologies, research objectives, and targetapplications have led to multiple ad-hoc definitions that are often difficult to compare to or otherwise employ inother settings. We present a compendium of technical experiments relating to both vision science and visualquality testing that together explore the research and business perspectives of visually lossless image quality,as well as review recent scientific advances. Together, the studies presented in this paper suggest that a singledefinition of visually lossless quality might not be appropriate; rather, a better goal would be to establish varyinglevels of visually lossless quality that can be quantified in terms of the testing paradigm.

  • 4.
    Anderson, Johan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Persson, Henry
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Larsson, Ida
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Assessment of Self-Heating in Wood Pellets by FE Modelling2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The self-heating process in a laboratory scale experiment has been modelled using the Comsol Multiphysics software. In the simulations the gas flow and air movement in the volume and heat diffusion in the bulk were taken into account however only one reaction in the pellets bulk is considered. The input data is found from measurements of the reaction chemistry and the heat transfer properties. It is found that all relevant physics is needed in order to obtain reasonable predictions in particular the heat transfer between the bulk and the gas is important but also condensation and evaporation of moisture.   

  • 5.
    Arvidson, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport.
    An evaluation of residential sprinklers and water mist nozzles in a residential area fire scenario2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Commercial residential sprinklers are usually fitted with 3 mm glass bulbs having a nominal operating temperature of 68°C or a high-sensitivity solder link, usually with a nominal temperature rating of 74°C. Previous work show that there is a significant potential for improving sprinkler response times in a residential room fire scenario by using glass bulbs with a lower Response Time Index (RTI) and lower operating temperature than commonly used. The objective of this study was to investigate any improved performance due to earlier activation of residential sprinklers. A series of fire tests was conducted inside a test compartment sized 3.66 m by 3.66 m. The fire test source consisted of either a simulated or authentic upholstered chair. For the majority of the tests, the flow rate of the residential sprinkler was 30.3 liter/min (corresponding to the minimum design density 2.05 mm/min as per the recommendations in NFPA 13D and 13R). Additional tests were conducted at 60.6 liter/min (the minimum design density 4.1 mm/min as per NFPA 13). Tests were also conducted with commercial low- and high-pressure water mist nozzles and a stand-alone high-pressure water mist system.

    The results show that earlier activation of residential sprinklers had a small effect on its performance, especially for the authentic upholstered chair scenario, when flowing 30.3 liter/min. The rather small effect is probably due to that the discharge density was too low to provide fire suppression. When the flow rate was increased to 60.6 liter/min, the performance was considerably improved as compared to the flow of 30.3 liter/min. Any improvement in performance of earlier activation was, however, not investigated for the 60.6 liter/min flow rate.

    The flow rates of the commercial low- and high-pressure water mist water mist nozzles ranged from 17.2 liter/min to 36.7 liter/min. Roughly, it could be concluded that the performance of the water mist nozzles were comparable or better than the residential sprinkler at approximately half the water flow rate for the tested fire scenarios.

    The stand-alone high-pressure water mist system had a flow rate of 8.2 liter/min. The performance was comparable to that of the other water mist nozzles in the study The performance was comparable to that of the other water mist nozzles in the study, despite a considerably earlier activation. However, the results indicate that the performance was relatively much influenced whether the simulated upholstered chair was orientated with its front towards the test compartment or with its front towards the back wall (poorer performance). This would suggest that the position of the fire test relative to the position of the unit is a crucial factor and underlines the importance of a thoughtful positioning in practical applications.

  • 6.
    Arvidson, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Brandförsök med boendesprinkler och vattendimma2017Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 7.
    Arvidson, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Response Times Of Sprinkler Glass Bulbs In A Residential Room Fire2017In: International Fire Protection, no 71Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The response time of fire sprinklers is essential for their performance, especially in applications where life safety protection is desired. The earlier the sprinkler activates, the smaller the size of the fire. The aim of this study was to determine the response time – and the corresponding heat release rate – of different sprinkler glass bulbs in a residential room fire scenario.

  • 8.
    Arvidson, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Val av släcksystem: Värdering av brandscenarier, skyddsmål och släcksystem2017Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 9.
    Arvidson, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport.
    Vylund, Lotta
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport.
    Water distribution tests using Extended Coverage sprinklers for the Muskö Tunnel2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the tests was to determine the water distribution characteristics using different water pressures and sprinkler spacing of two selected Extended Coverage sprinklers. The sprinklers may be used for the protection of the Muskö tunnel and the test set‑up simulated a freight truck trailer positioned inside the tunnel.

    Adequate sprinkler coverage would require that sprinklers are positioned close to the peak of the ceiling. A relatively short vertical distance from the sprinklers and the ceiling is also essential for proper thermal activation. These requirements are best met by the use of upright sprinklers. Two extended coverage upright sprinklers with a K‑factor of 363 (metric) and 202 was selected for the tests.

    For the extended coverage upright K363 sprinkler (Tyco model EC‑25), a sprinkler spacing of 4.0 m is recommended, in order to account for the fact that full coverage of the freight truck trailer was not achieved at the tested 4.2 m spacing. A density of 10 mm/min requires an operating pressure of around 0.7 bar at this particular spacing.

    The tested extended coverage upright K202 sprinkler (Tyco model EC‑14) provided a wider water discharge pattern, with a proper water distribution on the top of a freight truck trailer positioned offset in the tunnel at sprinkler spacing up to 5.0 m. For an actual installation, a K202 sprinkler designed for a density of 10 mm/min require an operating pressure of around 3.6 bar at this particular spacing.

  • 10.
    Barba, Francisco
    et al.
    University of Valencia, Spain.
    Ahrné, Lilia
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Xanthakis, Epameinondas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Landerslev, Martin G.
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Orlien, Vibeke
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Chapter 2. Innovative technologies2017In: Innovative Technologies for Food Preservation: Inactivation of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms / [ed] Francisco J. Barba; Mohamed Koubaa; Vibeke Orlien; Anderson Sant´Ana, Elsevier, 2017, p. 25-Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Bengtzon, Annika
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Ageing and changes in the chemical senses related to food perception : a literature review2002Report (Other academic)
  • 12. Berglund, M.
    et al.
    Harlin, Ulrika
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Gustavsson, M
    Säfsten, K.
    Development activities in product introductions: – a cross functional approach2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Berglund, Martina
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Harlin, Ulrika
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Boundary crossing in product introductions considering humans, technology and organization2014In: Proceedings of ODAM NES 2014 / [ed] O. Broberg, N. Fallentin, P. Hasle, P.L. Jensen, A. Kabel, M.E. Larsen, T. Weller, 2014, p. 349-354Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the paper is to analyze how a product introduction involving Swedish-Chinese collaboration was influenced by human, technological and organizational aspects. The study showed that technical challenges concerned the infrastructure for communication and quality issues; organizational challenges concerned the new project model and updating drawing versions; and human related challenges included cultural differences and communication. The product introduction was highly challenging by crossing earlier boundaries in the human, technical, and organizational subsystems. Strong work demands were placed on the individuals while offering great opportunities for individual learning. Concurrent development of a new project model resulted in organizational learning.

  • 14.
    Berglund, Richard
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Laring, J
    Nonås, Kathe
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Proposition for a Method to Engage Employees in Lean-inspired organizations in a Scandinavian Context2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Bergsten, Tobias
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Eklund, Gunnar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Comparison between GaAs and graphene QHR standards for resistance realisation at SP2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report the first precision QHR measurements at SP using a graphene chip. We compare the results of a resistance calibration using GaAs based chips with the results using a graphene chip. The results agree within a few parts in 109 for calibrations of 100 Ω and 10 kΩ resistors. Consistency checks indicate that the uncertainty is lower with the graphene chip, and the noise level is slightly lower. The measurements with the graphene chip were performed exclusively at 4.2 K, which simplifies the calibration procedure considerably compared with GaAs chips.

  • 16.
    Birkie, Seyoum Eshetu
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Kurdve, Martin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Bellgran, Monica
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Korhonen, Jouni
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Implementation challenges affecting the environmental improvement performance in pharmaceutical production: Results of a green kaizen pilot2018In: IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology, ISSN 1868-4238, Vol. 535, p. 58-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on working findings in an action research-based project, implementing a green kaizen pilot in a European pharmaceutical manufacturing company. The aim of the study is to investigate how continuous improvement initiatives with focus on environment originally developed for the automotive manufacturing industry could apply to the pharmaceutical industry. It also aspires to understand the enabling and hindering issues are for such implementation. There are considerable similarities of implementing lean in general in the two sectors, however, some key differences and challenges were apparent when implementing this specific green kaizen method called Green Performance Map. An implication for pharma practitioners implementing the green kaizen method concerns how to improve working procedures and production equipment to become more environmentally friendly amid high regulatory demands on process quality. Implementation challenges are discussed in terms of fidelity, locus and extensiveness of lean practices implementation. © 2018, IFIP International Federation for Information Processing.

  • 17.
    Björkdahl, Joakim
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Fallahi, Sara
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Holmén, Magnus
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Organizing for parallel business models in established firms2018In: Academy of Management Proceedings, 2018, Vol. 1Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prior business model innovation research has paid little attention to the various choices and decisions of organizing for parallel business models. This paper explores how established firms organize for new business models that are to be run in parallel with their primary business model. Empirically we study how Skanska and IKEA, two multinational corporations developed new business models by industrializing construction. Neither full separation nor full integration was a panacea for how to organize a new business model running in parallel with the primary because the firms were unable to determine what to organizationally integrate or separate prior to implementation of the new business model. The paper argues that firms are unlikely to know how to organize for parallel business models before they know how the new business model will operate.

  • 18.
    Borch, Elisabeth
    et al.
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Arinder, Pernilla
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Bacteriological safety issues in red meat and ready-to-eat meat products, as well as control measures2002In: Meat Science, ISSN 0309-1740, E-ISSN 1873-4138, Vol. 62, no 3, p. 381-390Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of Eschericha coli O157, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella typhimurium DT104 as meat-borne pathogens is well established. Pathogenic bacteria such as Aeromonas spp., Arcobacter spp., psychrotrophic Bacillus cereus, Campylobacter spp., Clostridium botulinum and non-invasive Listeria monocytogenes can be regarded as rookies, but not yet firmly associated with today's production of red meat and meat products. The development of PCR and other DNA-based techniques will shed new light on so called emerging pathogens. Important safety issues in meat production, such as insufficient cleaning and disinfection (including the stable/lairage, processing environment), carcass decontamination and chilling, and cross contamination are discussed. Furthermore, probability modelling of survival and growth is identified as an important way to achieve a better understanding of how to deal with the complexity of further processing, including heat treatment and storage. © 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 19.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Engineering methods for structural fire design of wood buildings: Structural integrity during a full natural fire2018Report (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Just, Alar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Andersson, Petra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Östman, Birgit
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Mitigation of fire damages in multi-storey timber buildings: Statistical analysis and guidelines for design2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of multi-storey timber buildings has increased during the last twenty years. Recent well-known fires in London, Dubai and Brazil, although not in timber buildings, have increased concerns regarding large fire spread and high damage fires. As timber is a combustible material, concerns have been expressed regarding property safety and it has been questioned whether fire damage is more significant in buildings with timber as the main structural material than in other types of buildings. This report includes a statistical study of data of fires in multi-storey timber buildings in New Zealand and an analysis of high damage fires that occurred in multi-storey timber buildings in the USA. The data from New Zealand showed no significant difference between share of fires that had flame damage out of the compartment of origin in (a) multi-storey timber buildings that were constructed in or later than 1992 and (b) other types of multi-storey buildings that were constructed in or later than 1992. Fires in multi-storey timber buildings that were constructed before 1992 spread more frequently to neighbouring compartments than fires in other multi-storey timber buildings constructed before 1992. Data of high damage fires occurring in multi-storey timber buildings in the USA indicated that outdoor fire spread is the most common cause for large fire spread. Additionally, the data indicates that high water damage is most often caused by fire service interference and is significantly less often related to sprinkler activation.

    Based on the analysis of fire spread of high damage fires in the USA, guidelines are given in the report to limit (1) outdoor fire spread, (2) fire spread through cavities, and (3) fire spread directly from a fire compartment to a neighbouring fire compartment. A number of these guidelines were evaluated using a fire test of a two-storey timber structure.

  • 21.
    Bruch, Jessica
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Rösiö, Carin
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Kurdve, Martin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Bengtsson, Marcus
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Utveckling av Robust Produktionsutrustning: En guide för god samverkan mellan beställare och leverantör2016Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Av dagens globala och allt hårdare konkurrens följer korta marknadsfönster och krav på snabb volym- uppgång i produktion. Det innebär i sin tur ökade krav på snabb och effektiv utveckling av produktions- utrustning som säkerställer hög prestanda direkt vid produktionsstart. Robust produktionsutrustning med hög produktionseffektivitet och minskade kostnader för drift och underhåll är därför en av de viktigaste faktorerna för stark konkurrenskraft och hög lönsamhet för svenska industriföretag. God samverkan mellan beställare och leverantör är nyckeln till framgång i denna typ av investerings- projekt. Denna handbok presenterar därför en modell som kan användas av tillverkande företag som vill utveckla robust produktionsutrustning. Modellen och övriga rekommendationer i handboken fokuserar på projekt som ska genomföras i stark samverkan och riktar sig till både beställaren och leverantören. Den har utvecklats i forskningsprojektet ”EQUIP – kund- och leverantörsintegration i utformning av produktionsutrustning” som finansierats av KK-stiftelsen under 2013-2016. Modellen består av sju utvecklingsfaser som är baser- ade på produktionsutrustnings livscykel: Fas 1 – Förstudie Fas 2 – Konceptstudie Fas 3 – Upphandling Fas 4 – Detaljerad utformning Fas 5 – Uppbyggnad Fas 6 – Installation och driftsättning Fas 7 – Produktion I varje fas presenteras kritiska aktivitetssteg och rekommendationer för hur ansvaret för dessa bör fördelas inom och emellan deltagande parter. Modellen använder ett livscykelperspektiv för utvecklingsprojekt för att underlätta samverkan samt tydligare visualisera sambandet mellan aktiviteter och deras påverkan på projektets framgång. Inom ramen för ett investeringsprojekt finns stor potential att utveckla hållbara produktionslösningar. Därför presenterar denna handbok även sju guider som kan stödja er i att ta fram produktionsutrustning som är säker, lean och hållbar under hela utrustningens livscykel. Huvudsyftet med handboken är att underlätta samverkan under hela investeringsprojektet på ett sätt som gagnar båda parter och bidrar till varaktiga relationer. Forskningsprojektets resultat visar att det finns ett stort intresse för främjad samverkan från både beställ- are och leverantör. Därför behövs stöd, verktyg och beredskap från båda parter för att våga investera tid och resurser på samverkan redan från början, i de tidiga faserna av ett nytt utvecklingsprojekt. Det är då potentialen att lägga grunden till långsiktig samverkan och utforma bästa möjliga produktionsutrustning på kortast möjliga tid är som störst.

  • 22.
    Brunnstrom, Kjell
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo. Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Barkowsky, Marcus
    University of Applied Sciences, Germany.
    Statistical quality of experience analysis: on planning the sample size and statistical significance testing2018In: Journal of Electronic Imaging (JEI), ISSN 1017-9909, E-ISSN 1560-229X, Vol. 27, no 5, article id 053013Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes how an experimenter can balance errors in subjective video quality tests betweenthe statistical power of finding an effect if it is there and not claiming that an effect is there if the effect is not there,i.e., balancing Type I and Type II errors. The risk of committing Type I errors increases with the number ofcomparisons that are performed in statistical tests. We will show that when controlling for this and at thesame time keeping the power of the experiment at a reasonably high level, it is unlikely that the number oftest subjects that are normally used and recommended by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU),i.e., 15 is sufficient but the number used by the Video Quality Experts Group (VQEG), i.e., 24 is more likelyto be sufficient. Examples will also be given for the influence of Type I error on the statistical significance ofcomparing objective metrics by correlation. We also present a comparison between parametric and nonparametricstatistics. The comparison targets the question whether we would reach different conclusions on the statisticaldifference between the video quality ratings of different video clips in a subjective test, based on thecomparison between the student T-test and the Mann–Whitney U-test. We found that there was hardly a differencewhen few comparisons are compensated for, i.e., then almost the same conclusions are reached. Whenthe number of comparisons is increased, then larger and larger differences between the two methods arerevealed. In these cases, the parametric T-test gives clearly more significant cases, than the nonparametrictest, which makes it more important to investigate whether the assumptions are met for performing a certaintest.

  • 23.
    Brunnstrom, Kjell
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo. Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Dima, Elijs
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Sjöström, Mårten
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Qureshi, Tahir
    HIAB, Sweden.
    Johanson, Mathias
    Alkit Communications AB, Sweden.
    Quality of Experience of hand controller latency in a Virtual Reality simulator2019In: Human Vision and Electronic Imaging 2019 / [ed] Damon Chandler, Mark McCourt and Jeffrey Mulligan, 2019, article id 3068450Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we investigate a VR simulator of a forestry crane used for loading logs onto a truck, mainly looking at Quality of Experience (QoE) aspects that may be relevant for task completion, but also whether there are any discomfort related symptoms experienced during task execution. A QoE test has been designed to capture both the general subjective experience of using the simulator and to study task performance. Moreover, a specific focus has been to study the effects of latency on the subjective experience, with regards to delays in the crane control interface. A formal subjective study has been performed where we have added controlled delays to the hand controller (joystick) signals. The added delays ranged from 0 ms to 800 ms. We found no significant effects of delays on the task performance on any scales up to 200 ms. A significant negative effect was found for 800 ms added delay. The Symptoms reported in the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ) was significantly higher for all the symptom groups, but a majority of the participants reported only slight symptoms. Two out of thirty test persons stopped the test before finishing due to their symptoms.

  • 24. Dalvi-Isfahan, M.
    et al.
    Hamdami, N.
    Le-Bail, A.
    Xanthakis, E.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    The principles of high voltage electric field and its application in food processing: A review2016In: Food Research International, ISSN 0963-9969, E-ISSN 1873-7145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Food processing is a major part of the modern global industry and it will certainly be an important sector of the industry in the future. Several processes for different purposes are involved in food processing aiming at the development of new products by combining and/or transforming raw materials, to the extension of food shelf-life, recovery, exploitation and further use of valuable compounds and many others. During the last century several new food processes have arisen and most of the traditional ones have evolved. The future food factory will require innovative approaches food processing which can combine increased sustainability, efficiency and quality. Herein, the objective of this review is to explore the multiple applications of high voltage electric field (HVEF) and its potentials within the food industry. These applications include processes such as drying, refrigeration, freezing, thawing, extending food shelf- life, and extraction of biocompounds. In addition, the principles, mechanism of action and influence of specific parameters have been discussed comprehensively. © 2016.

  • 25.
    Dalvi-Isfahan, Mohsen
    et al.
    Isfahan University of Technology, Iran.
    Hamdami, Nasser
    Isfahan University of Technology, Iran.
    Le-Bail, Alain
    GEPEA UMR CNRS 6144, France.
    Xanthakis, Epameinondas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    The principles of high voltage electric field and its application in foodprocessing: A review2016In: Food Research International, Vol. 89, p. 48-62Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Food processing is a major part of the modern global industry and it will certainly be an important sector of the industry in the future. Several processes for different purposes are involved in food processing aiming at the development of new products by combining and/or transforming raw materials, to the extension of food shelf-life, recovery, exploitation and further use of valuable compounds and many others. During the last century several new food processes have arisen and most of the traditional ones have evolved. The future food factory will require innovative approaches food processing which can combine increased sustainability, efficiency and quality. Herein, the objective of this review is to explore the multiple applications of high voltage electric field (HVEF) and its potentials within the food industry. These applications include processes such as drying, refrigeration, freezing, thawing, extending food shelf- life, and extraction of biocompounds. In addition, the principles, mechanism of action and influence of specific parameters have been discussed comprehensively.

  • 26.
    de Goey, Heleen
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Hilletofth, Per
    Högskolan i Jönköping.
    Larsson, Erik
    Högskolan i Jönköping.
    Design-driven innovation: A literature review2016In: Exploring design-driven innovation: A study on value creation by SMEs in the Swedish wood products industry, p. 246-282Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Design-driven innovation focuses on innovating product meanings. This concept has been studied since the early 2000s from a variety of perspectives, and in different contexts. This paper presents a review of published research. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive understanding on the contribution of design-driven innovation to value creation. In a systematic literature review, 57 papers and book chapters on this subject were identified and analyzed. The facets of design-driven innovation which contribute to value creation were identified through an iterative coding process. The value of design-driven innovation is created by including a focus on the intangible values of products. Five facets of design-driven innovation which contribute to value creation have been identified: (1) understanding new product meanings; (2) required knowledge; (3) actors and collaborations; (4) capabilities; and, (5) process. These facets, and the connections between them, are presented in a theoretical framework. This paper contributes to theory by presenting the theoretical framework that provides an overview of available knowledge and that creates a context for future research. The main practical implication is that the five facets are connected and reinforce each other. Therefore, companies need to approach design-driven innovation from a holistic perspective.

  • 27.
    Ebenhag, Sven-Christian
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Hedekvist, Per Olof
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Liström, Stefan
    Bergroth, Magnus
    Time and Frequency Dissemination in an All-optical Coherent Fiber Communication Network2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A nationwide fiber optic communication network utilizing state-of-the-art technologies with data modulation both in the polarization and in multi-level amplitude and phase is being deployed in Sweden. The network is operated by the Swedish University computer Network, and connects all universities and several research facilities in the country through redundant connections. Since there is a limited amount of clients connected to the network, each client will be assigned a personal wavelength. With a network that is all-optical through an advanced utilization of dynamically reconfigurable optical add and drop multiplexers, each wavelength can theoretically be connected to any other client within the network, enabling broadcasting on allocated wavelengths. The coherent modulation formats also enables signal recovery through electronic digital signal processing after detection, and no optical dispersion compensation is thereby installed. This new network scheme enables a brand new implementation of frequency and time dissemination in the network. The omission of dispersion compensation fibers enhances the symmetry in duplex fiber pair transmission. These optical add-drop installations allow for future efficient frequency and time signal broadcasting from reference nodes operated by distributors such as SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden to users connected to the network.

  • 28.
    Edelbro, Catrin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden .
    Hulthén, Erik
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Clausen, Elisabeth
    Technical University of Clausthal, Germany.
    Tanner, David
    University of Limerick, Ireland.
    Herrera Herbert, Juan
    Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain.
    Jonsson, Kristina
    LKAB, Sweden.
    Bealieu, Stephan
    RUSAL Aughinish Alumina, Ireland.
    Kamp, Aldert
    Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Försth, Michael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    European Initiative on CDIO in Raw Material Programmes2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One of five Knowledge and Innovation Communities (KICs), was launched in Europe in 2014 and has its focus on exploration, extraction, mineral processing, metallurgy, recycling and material substitution of raw materials. To reach the vision, where the European Union’s industrial strength is based on a cost-efficient, secure, sustainable supply and use of raw materials, a new generation of skilled people entering industry, universities and research needs to be developed. Today’s technical MSc graduates in raw materials and especially primary resources (i.e. exploration, extraction, mining and mineral processing and metallurgy) best suits large companies where they often act as specialists and experts. For small to medium enterprises as well as for our future engineers other skills than technical are necessary. As a part of the KIC Raw Materials, the education project “The implementation of CDIO in raw material programmes” started in 2016. The project focuses, during 2016-2017, on (WP1) faculty- and (WP2) pilot case development. There are no academic institutes in Europe that have yet applied CDIO for primary resource related MSc programmes. This paper describes an education project within the KIC Raw material and presents key outputs with implementing CDIO in mining and metallurgy related programmes.

  • 29. Eduardo, M.
    et al.
    Svanberg, U.
    Ahrné, L.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Effect of hydrocolloids and emulsifiers on the shelf-life of composite cassava-maize-wheat bread after storage2016In: Food Science & Nutrition, E-ISSN 2048-7177, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 636-644Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydrocolloids and/or emulsifiers on the shelf-life of composite cassava-maize-wheat (ratio 40:10:50) reference bread during storage. Added hydrocolloids were carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and high methoxyl pectin (HM pectin) at a 3% level (w/w) and/or the emulsifiers diacetyl tartaric acid esters of monoglycerides (DATEM), lecithin (LC), and monoglycerides (MG) at a 0.3% level (w/w). After 4 days of storage, composite breads with MG had comparatively lower crumb moisture while crumb density was similar in all breads. The reference bread crumb firmness was 33.4 N, which was reduced with an addition of DATEM (23.0 N), MG (29.8 N), CMC (24.6 N) or HM pectin (22.4 N). However, the CMC/DATEM, CMC/LC, and HM pectin/DATEM combinations further reduced crumb firmness to <20.0 N. The melting peak temperature was increased from 52 C to between 53.0 C and 57.0 C with added hydrocolloids and/or emulsifiers. The melting enthalpy of the retrograded amylopectin was lower in composite bread with hydrocolloids and emulsifiers, 6.7–11.0 J/g compared to 20.0 J/g for the reference bread. These results show that emulsifiers in combination with hydrocolloids can improve the quality and extend the shelf-life of composite cassava-maize-wheat breads. © 2015 The Authors. Food Science & Nutrition published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  • 30.
    Eidissen Jensen, Ulla
    et al.
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway. Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway .
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    The effect of fire retardants on smouldering fires in loose fill wood fibre building insulation2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Building insulation products produced from renewable biomass is becoming increasingly common in buildings due to environmental lifecycle requirements. Biomass insulation products are combustible and can contribute to fires through flaming and smouldering combustion. Incidents have been reported where insufficient spacing between combustible insulation and heat-producing electrical appliances has led to smouldering and subsequent development of flaming fires. Insulation materials often contain fire retardants, though their performance with regard to smouldering fire is not well understood. [1, 2] This study investigates the temperature exposure needed to initiate self-sustaining smouldering fires in loose fill wood fibre building insulation, focusing on the effect of fire retardant content and fibre size. The study is a part of the EMRIS (Emerging Risks from Smoldering Fires) project. The test set-up is shown in Fig 1a [3]. The tested material was 100 grams, 34 kg/m3 spruce wood fibre loose-fill insulation with 4 and 9 % added ammonium polyphosphate fire retardant. Tests with short, fine fibres (Fig 1b) were compared to testst with long, thin fibres. The sample was heated from below until a given temperature was obtained 20 mm above the heater. Temperature and mass loss measurements as well as visual observations of the residue after test (Fig 1c) were used to characterize the onset of self-sustained smouldering. An iterative process was used, with 5 to 8 tests per product. It was found that a high level (9 %) of fire retardant gave an onset of smoldering at lower temperatures (225 °C) compared to a low level (4 %) of fire retardant (290 °C). The lower onset temperature indicates that the insulation with the highest fire retardant content is more prone to smouldering, which is contradictory to the expected performance of the fire retardant. For the same fire retardant content, the onset of self-sustained smouldering combustion was obtained at lower temperatures in insulation materials with smaller fiber sizes than in insulation with larger fiber size (225 vs 280 °C). This study is indicative, the absolute temperatures relate to the given test set-up. Further studies should include a range of fire retardant types and content, to obtain knowledge on their effect on smouldering fires.

  • 31.
    Engesbak, Vetle
    et al.
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology.
    Gåsvaer, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF. Mälardalen University.
    Ingvaldsen, Jonas A
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology.
    Nonås, Kathe
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Ringen, Geir
    SINTEF Raufoss Manufacturing.
    Widfeldt, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Management of processinnovation beyond continuous improvement: towards a researchagenda2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Fallahi, Sara
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    In Search of a Route Map: Exploring Business Model Innovation Processes in Established Firms2018In: Academy of Management Proceedings, 2018, Vol. 1Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the millennium, discussion of business models as important vehicles and sources of innovation has increased. This paper explores the process of business model innovation in seven established firms from various industries. The findings provide evidence that business model innovation can follow a purposeful, or an unintentional and emerging process. Purposeful business model innovation occurs under conditions of perceived threats and is characterized by greater uncertainty, and the parallel design and implementation of several new business model elements that are organized in a separate business. The analyses reveal also that when embarking on the emerging process, the intention of managers was not necessarily to renew the firm's business model but rather to work on the design and development of a new value proposition. However, the complementarities among business model elements directed their attention to the changes required in other business model elements which ultimately resulted in a new business model as the process outcome. The main contribution of this paper is therefore to business model research by providing an explanatory, rather than prescriptive, approach to the process of business model innovation.

  • 33.
    Fasth Berglund, Åsa
    et al.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Harlin, Ulrika
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF. Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Mattsson, Sandra
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Groth, Cecilia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Åkerman, Magnus
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Gullander, Per
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Creatinga structured MEETing arena for knowledge-sharing2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to describe how to create and structure a meeting arena bycombining organisation structure and information structure; this will be used in orderto create an innovative and creative arena for knowledge sharing and problemsolving within the company. The model is exemplified by four industrial casestudies.Results reveal that most of the companies do not have any standards forinformation- or knowledge sharing, most improvement potentials are seen instructuring and storing the right information (IS), aiming from tacit towards explicitknowledge (OS) and this could be done by structuring the questions in the OS-M-ISmodel and by creating innovative and creative meeting arenas.

  • 34. Fitzpatrick, J.J.
    et al.
    Ahrné, Lilia
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Food powder handling and processing: Industry problems, knowledge barriers and research opportunities2005In: Chemical Engineering and Processing, ISSN 0255-2701, E-ISSN 1873-3204, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 209-214Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway. Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway; Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg, Germany.
    Fighting flameless fires: Initiating and extinguishing self-sustainedsmoldering fires in wood pellets2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Smoldering fires represent domestic, environmental and industrial hazards. This flameless form of combustion is more easily initiated than flaming, and is also more persistent and difficult to extinguish. The growing demand for non-fossil fuels has increased the use of solid biofuels such as biomass. This represents a safety challenge, as biomass self-ignition can cause smoldering fires, flaming fires or explosions.

    Smoldering and extinguishment in granular biomass was studied experimentally. The set-up consisted of a cylindrical fuel container of steel with thermally insulated side walls. The container was closed at the bottom, open at the top and heated from below by a hot surface. Two types of wood pellets were used as fuel, with 0.75-1.5 kg samples.

    Logistic regression was used to determine the transition region between non-smoldering and self-sustained smoldering experiments, and to determine the influence of parameters. Duration of external heating was most important for initiation of smoldering. Sample height was also significant, while the type of wood pellet was near-significant and fuel container height was not.

    The susceptibility of smoldering to changes in air supply was studied. With a small gap at the bottom of the fuel bed, the increased air flow in the same direction as the initial smoldering front (forward air flow) caused a significantly more intense combustion compared to the normal set-up with opposed air flow.

    Heat extraction from the combustion was studied using a water-cooled copper pipe. Challenges with direct fuel-water contact (fuel swelling, water channeling and runoff) were thus avoided. Smoldering was extinguished in 7 of 15 cases where heat extraction was in the same range as the heat production from combustion. This is the first experimental proof-of-concept of cooling as an extinguishment method for smoldering fires.

    Marginal differences in heating and cooling separated smoldering from extinguished cases; the fuel bed was at a heating-cooling balance point. Lower cooling levels did not lead to extinguishment, but cooling caused more predictable smoldering, possibly delaying the most intense combustion. Also observed at the balance point were pulsating temperatures; a form of long-lived (hours), macroscopic synchronization not previously observed in smoldering fires.

    For practical applications, cooling could be feasible for prevention of temperature escalation from self-heating in industrial storage units. This study provides a first step towards improved fuel storage safety for biomass. 

  • 36.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Studie av synlighet til høytmonterte markeringsskilt i brannrøyk2015Report (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway. Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway; Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg, Germany.
    Hagen, Bjarne C.
    Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Frette, Vidar
    Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Synchronized smoldering combustion2018In: Europhysics letters, ISSN 0295-5075, E-ISSN 1286-4854, Vol. 121, no 5, p. 50002-p1-50002-p2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Synchronized, pulsating temperatures are observed experimentally in smoldering fires.The entire sample volume (1.8 l) participates in the pulsations (pulse period 2–4 h). The synchronylasts up to 25 h and is followed by a spontaneous transition to either disordered combustion orself-extinguishment. The synchronization is obtained when the fuel bed is cooled to the brink ofextinguishment. Calculations for adiabatic conditions, including heat generation from combustion(nonlinear in temperature) and heat storage in sample (linear in temperature), predict divergingsample temperature. Experimentally, heat losses to surroundings (linear in temperature) preventtemperatures to increase without bounds and lead to pulsations.

  • 38.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway. Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Hagen, Bjarne Christian
    Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Emerging Risks from Smoldering Fires: Results from the EMRIS project2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Smoldering fires represent a severe, but often overlooked danger to society. Smoldering causes major economic losses for industrial facilities with production, transport and storage of biomass and biofuels worldwide. The smoke from post-flaming residual burning on the forest floor and in peatlands represents a major contributor to greenhouse gas emissions. [1]To prevent initiation of smoldering, and facilitate safe, efficient and complete extinguishment, a better fundamental understanding of smoldering is key. This is the aim of the research project EMRIS (Emerging Risks from Smoldering Fires). The consortium consists of 6 research institutes and universities in 5 countries, coordinated by Western Norway University of Applied Sciences in Haugesund, Norway. EMRIS started in 2015 and is now in its final stage. We will here present some points of interest from the project.Materials in the study include wood pellets, other biopellets, cotton, waste (wood chips), coal, wood fiber insulation and various pyrolysis products. Both experimental and modeling work has been done.Experimental work in small-scale has studied the sensitivity of smoldering ignition to a range of parameters [2], the impact of changes in air flow on the combustion [3], the effect of fire retardant content and fiber size [4], the transition from smoldering to flaming fire [5,6], early detection of smoldering [7]and heat extraction from the fuel bed with successfulextinguishment [8,9]. In medium scale experiments, initiationand propagation of reaction fronts have been studied [10]. TheEMRIS team also studies how particulate matter fromsmoldering fires can affect large scale phenomena, such ascloud formations, climate and public health.A cellular automaton model has been found to give a realistic representation of smoldering spread [11]. The method is based on a network of cells that mimic processes taking place in the material, which is easier to program and requires less computing power than traditional tools.The EMRIS project therefore represents progress within many different aspects of fire safety science. A continuation of the project is very much of interest, we welcome interested parties to discuss with us.

  • 39.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway. Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Hagen, Bjarne Christian
    Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Frette, Vidar
    Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Extinguishing smoldering fires in wood pellets through cooling2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Extinguishing smoldering fires is a severe challenge for fire brigades, and has proven to be difficult even on the lab scale. In this study, the influence of a closed water cooling loop located within the fuel bed was investigated experimentally. Increasing the cooling led to a system less prone to intense combustion at an early stage, and eventually to complete extinguishment of self-sustained smoldering fires. Extinguishment was obtained in half of the cases with maximum cooling. Extinguishment occurred soon after smoldering had been established, giving a significant reduction in fuel consumption compared to the self-sustained smoldering fires that continued to complete burn-out.

  • 40.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway. Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Hagen, Bjarne Christian
    Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Frette, Vidar
    Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Smoldering combustion- from pulsations to extinguishment2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Smoldering is known as a slow, but unpredictable form of combustion. In this study we have looked at how smoldering is affected by water cooling of the fuel bed without direct contact between fuel and water flow. The study is a part of the EMRIS project, and its findings have possible implications for preventing and suppressing fires in industrial storage units.

  • 41. Forsman, M.
    et al.
    Bernmark, E.
    Nilsson, B.
    Pousette, S.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Mathiassen, S.E.
    Participative development of packages in the food industry: Evaluation of ergonomics and productivity by objective measurements2012In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, no SUPPL.1, p. 1751-1755Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 42. Gadde, Lars-Erik
    et al.
    Amani, Pegah
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Environment.
    Food supply in a network context: An alternative framing and managerial consequences in efforts to prevent food waste2016In: British Food Journal, ISSN 0007-070X, E-ISSN 1758-4108, Vol. 118, no 6, p. 1407-1421Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose– The purpose of this paper is to present a “network” framing of food supply arrangements. Such frameworks have been asked for in previous research as supplements to prevailing supply chain conceptualizations.Design/methodology/approach– The framework builds on industrial network theory. According to this approach, business reality is analyzed in three inter-related dimensions: the activities undertaken, the resources used for this undertaking, and the actors controlling resources and activities. For each dimension, relevant concepts are derived for analysis of the features of food supply and food waste.Findings– The network framing was useful for analyzing the prerequisites and consequences for two approaches to reduce food waste: one based on extension of shelf-life, the other relying on enhanced responsiveness in the supply arrangement. The framework was then used for suggesting managerial actions to reduce food waste through increasing activity coordination, resource combining, and actor interaction with consideration of potential consequences of such actions.Practical implications– Managerial issues in food supply are discussed with regard to the role of activity coordination, the role of resource combining, and the role of actor interaction in efforts to prevent food waste.Originality/value– The paper suggests a novel approach for analyzing food supply networks with particular focus on food waste reduction. Such framings are applied in other supply systems, and requested by food supply researchers.

  • 43.
    Grahn, Sten
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Disappearing jobs, due to automationor business failures – Ensuring desirable outcomes through value cocreation: Co-creation betweenbetween Academia and Industry –CAI´152015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Grahn, Sten
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Lagerholm, Barbro
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Tjänstefiering i tillverkande företag2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hårdare konkurrens, alltmer omfattande miljökrav och allt snabbare teknisk utveckling innebär stora utmaningar och driver företag att söka nya sätt att göra affärer och skapa värde för befintliga och nya kunder. Nya konsumentbeteenden som t ex delningsekonomi (sharing economy) och teknologisk utveckling inom exempelvis digitalisering, additiv tillverkning och förnyelsebar energiproduktion skapar också möjligheter till nya affärer och ökad hållbarhet. Med dessa scenarier på väg att förverkligas kommer det inte att räcka för kommersiella aktörer att bli bättre. De måste ha ett mer radikalt förhållningssätt till sin verksamhet och fråga sig vad som är teoretiskt möjligt när det gäller kostnadseffektivitet och resurssnålhet. Ett naturligt steg är att fokusera på att addera olika former av tjänster till sina varor, som till exempel reservdelar, underhåll och servicekontrakt. Varorna blir plattformar för tjänster som skapar nytta och ökat kundvärde – kallas ofta för tjänstefiering. Det kan också innebära att man förflyttar sig närmare slutkunden i värdekedjan. Men framför allt krävs det att man anammar ett nytt sätt att tänka, en tjänstelogik. Värdelogik/tjänstelogik är ett synsätt där man tar utgångspunkt från värdet kunden försöker skapa för sin kund. Där värde i användning är det centrala till skillnad från varulogik där transaktion av varor i sig är det centrala. Att tjänstefiera ett varufokuserat/tillverkande företag, innebär både möjligheter och utmaningar som bör identifieras, bedömas och hanteras. Att ha tydliga mål och en strategi för sin tjänstefiering är centralt. Övergång från försäljning av varor till försäljning av värde är ett stort steg eftersom det innebär en förändring i verksamheter som rör företagets kärn-verksamhet. Varor som är företagets inkomstkällor blir plötsligt kostnadsposter om kunderna betalar för levererat värde istället för varorna. Detta får radikala konsekvenser för organisation och produktutveckling. Utmaningarna till trots har övergången till värdeförsäljning dock visat sig fungera mycket väl vid ett flertal tillfällen och stora effektiviseringsvinster kan göras när det lyckas. Idag ses tjänstefiering mer som en kontinuerlig process för att skapa en portfölj med erbjudanden med den balans mellan varor, tjänster och affärsmodeller, som på bästa sätt stödjer kundernas värdeskapande processer. Varufokus överges för kundvärdefokus.

  • 45.
    Granlund, Anna
    et al.
    Mälardalen University.
    Wiktorsson, Magnus
    Mälardalen University.
    Grahn, Sten
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Friedler, Niklas
    Mälardalen University.
    Lean automation development: applying lean principles to the automation development process2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    By a broad empirical study it is indicated that automation development show potential of improvement. In the paper, 13 lean product development principles are contrasted to the automation development process and it is suggested why and how these principles can facilitate, support and improve the automation development process. The paper summarises a description of what characterises a lean automation development process and what consequences it entails. Main differences compared to current practice are also identified. The incentives for, and expected effects of, applying the identified lean principles to the automation development process are discussed. Lean automation development: applying lean principles to the automation development process. 

  • 46.
    Gullander, Per
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Fast- Berglund, Åsa
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Harlin, Ulrika
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Mattsson, Sandra
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Groth, Cecilia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Åkerman, Magnus
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Stahre, Johan
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    The innovative glue between the organization system and information system2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Gustafsson, G.
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Raudberget, D.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Ström, Mikael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Unveiling Fundamental Relationships in Industrial Product Development2016In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 50, p. 204-209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Identification and clarification of relationships between product properties is fundamentally important in industrial product development. The process is however frequently perceived difficult. The presented research aims at clarifying if a visual tool can provide help in this work. The tool is a combination of previously known techniques and has so far been implemented at two product developing companies. Results and reactions from the tests are hitherto positive and the conclusion is therefore that this extended casual diagram can be a useful addition to the product developer’s toolbox.

  • 48.
    Gåsvaer, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Fundin, Anders
    Mälardalen University.
    Johansson, Peter E.
    Mälardalen University.
    Langbeck, Björn
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Production system development through exploration: challenges and implications2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Gåsvaer, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    von Axelson, Jens
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Towards a methodology for Kaikaku realization2011In: Proceedings of the 4th International Swedish Production Symposium, SPS11, / [ed] Jan-Eric Ståhl, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In today's globally competitive market where the speed of change is increasing it is of great importance that manufacturing companies are striving to achieve improvements in their production systems resulting in competitive edge. One way of doing this is to strive for radical change by becoming more innovative. Today however, there's a lack of modern methods guiding companies to be not only innovative and creative in their production development process, but also increasingly more innovative while using it. Hence, the objective of this paper is to present and discuss a preliminary first draft of a Kaikaku realization method, primarily based upon Concept Modelling and research within the domains of Operations Management and Strategy, Innovation theory and Change theory. The result is a sequential work process that provides guidance from an initial “current state” of production to a more desirable “future state” based upon an aggressive target that is set in line with the production strategy. Finally, future research is discussed, implying that more research should be subjected to the actual work process as well as the main support provided in the process - aggressive target setting and facilitation of innovative thinking.

  • 50. Hagfeldt, A.
    et al.
    Cappel, U. B.
    Boschloo, G.
    Sun, L.
    Kloo, L.
    Pettersson, Henrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Gibson, E. A.
    Dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical cells2017Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Production cost per peak watt of solar electricity produced is critical to various PV technologies and second-generation thin-film solar cells. The dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC), a molecular solar cell technology, has the potential to significantly lower production costs below previous PV technologies. DSC research groups have been established around the world. Integration into different products opens up new commercial opportunities for niche applications with large flexibilities in product shape, color, and transparency. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.

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