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  • 1.
    Casimir, Justin
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Gunnarsson, Carina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Farmers current practices, and their opinion on supplying straw for production of second-generation biofuels in Sweden2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents results from the EU project AGROinLOG (Grant Agreement 727921) and especially focuses on the results from a survey looking at the current practices with straw use in Sweden as well as the farmer’s opinion on supplying straw for the production of second-generation biofuel. The survey was developed as a collaboration between LRF (Federation of Swedish farmers) RISE and Lantmännen.The reader can first read about the context within which the survey was developed and analysed. The questions and the methodology are then presented. The main part of the report presents the questionnaire results before drawing conclusions in line with the project’s objectives.The survey shows that about 60% of the straw from farmers participating in the survey, remains in the field while 40% is harvested mostly for animal production. The county of Skåne, the “ÖSÖ” region (Östergötland, Södermanland, and Örebro counties), the region including Uppsala, Stockholm and Västmanland counties, and the county of Västra Götaland have the largest potential for collection of straw for industrial processes in Sweden. However, farmers from these regions are the most concerned about the decrease of soil quality due to straw removal. The current common practices for straw handling in Sweden, including baling, collection, transport, storage and sale, are highlighted.Some interesting conclusions are drawn concerning the logistics needed for the handling of straw for the biobased industry. Moreover, the answers from the survey give some insights concerning a potential “straw contract” between Lantmännen and the farmers. The report also highlights the aspects to be further researched.More information concerning the Swedish contribution to the AGROinLOG project can be found in the public report AGROinLOG (2020a).

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  • 2.
    Cheregi, Otilia
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Pinder, Matthew I.M.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Shaikh, Kashif Mohd
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Andersson, Mats X.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Engelbrektsson, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Strömberg, Niklas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Ekendahl, Susanne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Kourtchenko, Olga
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Godhe, Anna
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Töpel, Mats
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Spetea, Cornelia
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Transcriptome analysis reveals insights into adaptive responses of two marine microalgae species to Nordic seasons2023In: Algal Research, ISSN 2211-9264, article id 103222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an increasing interest in algae-based biomass produced outdoors in natural and industrial settings for biotechnological applications. To predict the yield and biochemical composition of the biomass, it is important to understand how the transcriptome of species and strains of interest is affected by seasonal changes. Here we studied the effects of Nordic winter and summer on the transcriptome of two phytoplankton species, namely the diatom Skeletonema marinoi (Sm) and the eustigmatophyte Nannochloropsis granulata (Ng), recently identified as potentially important for biomass production on the west coast of Sweden. Cultures were grown in photobioreactors in simulated Nordic summer and winter, and the gene expression in two phases was quantified by Illumina RNA-sequencing. Five paired comparisons were made among the four conditions. Sm was overall more responsive to seasons since 70 % of the total transcriptome (14,783 genes) showed differential expression in at least one comparison as compared to 1.6 % (1403 genes) for Ng. For both species, we observed larger differences between the seasons than between the phases of the same season. In summer phase 1, Sm cells focused on photosynthesis and polysaccharide biosynthesis. Nitrate assimilation and recycling of intracellular nitrogen for protein biosynthesis were more active in summer phase 2 and throughout winter. Lipid catabolism was upregulated in winter relative to summer to supply carbon for respiration. Ng favored lipid accumulation in summer, while in winter activated different lipid remodeling pathways as compared to Sm. To cope with winter, Ng upregulated breakdown and transport of carbohydrates for energy production. Taken together, our transcriptome data reveal insights into adaptive seasonal responses of Sm and Ng important for biotechnological applications on the west coast of Sweden, but more work is required to decipher the molecular mechanisms behind these responses.

  • 3.
    Dahlbom, Sixten
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Anerud, Erik
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Pushp, Mohit
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    A theoretical evaluation of the impact of the type of reaction on heat production and material losses in biomass piles2023In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-heating during storage of biomass in piles causes material losses, leads to emissions to air, and poses a risk of fire. There are different techniques to assess a biomass material's propensity for self-heating, some of these are briefly reviewed. One of these techniques is isothermal calorimetry, which measures thermal power from materials and produces time-resolved curves. A recently developed and published test standard, ISO 20049-1:2020, describes how the self-heating of pelletized biofuels can be determined by means of isothermal calorimetry and how thermal power and the total heat produced during the test should be measured by isothermal calorimetry. This paper supports interpretation of the result obtained by isothermal calorimetry; the mentioned standard provides examples of peak thermal power and total heat but does not provide any assistance on how the result from isothermal measurements should be interpreted or how the result from measurements on different samples could be compared. This paper addresses the impact of different types of reactions, peak thermal power, total heat released (heat of reaction), activation energy, heat conductivity, and pile size on the temperature development in a generic pile of biomass. This paper addresses important parameters when the result from isothermal calorimetry is evaluated. The most important parameter, with respect to temperature development in large piles, was found to be the total heat released. It was also proposed that safe storage times, that is, the time until a run-away of the temperature in the pile, could be ranked based on the time to the peak thermal power.

  • 4.
    Edo, Mar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Nilsson, Jamilla
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Sorting technologies: Case study about a MSW sorting facility in Norway - IVAR2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The IVAR plant combines post-sorting of residual waste with recycling of some of the plastic waste fractions. At the plant five different fraction of plastics, four fractions of paper, bio- waste, glass, and metal packaging are separated. In total 83.2 % by weight of the incoming waste is sent to energy recovery (WtE) and 16.8 wt% is recovered for material recycling. It is estimated that approx. 82 wt% of the plastic in the waste is separated. Today they also have spare capacity to receive more waste for sorting, however the costs are relatively high and the economic incentive from the sales of the sorted materials are not enough. The largest renumeration comes from the Norwegian producer responsibility schemes for sorting plastic, metal packaging and beverage cartons.

    The bottle neck of the recycling industry with the current state of the art is the quality of the plastic waste. Only part of the plastic waste is suitable for recycling (have a market for the recycled material). New solutions for both plastic sorting and recycling is needed to increase the impact and circularity from the recycling. It will be crucial to find solutions for low quality and mixed plastic materials. There also need to be measures put in place to create a market pull for the recycled material.

    While all the recycled material generates positive climate effects, the recycled plastic generates double gains. It reduces the emissions for the production of virgin plastics and at the same time it reduces the direct fossil CO2 emissions generated by the WtE plant. Considering upcoming regulations in Norway, with increased CO2 taxes, the investments for more residual sorting plants in Norway is likely to increase.

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  • 5.
    Edo, Mar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Waste-to-Energy and Social Acceptance: Copenhill Waste-to-Energy plant in Copenhagen2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The construction of the Copenhill Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plant in a residential suburb in Copenhagen redefines the concept of a WtE plant. This is not just because of its location in a residential area and its special architecture, since that had already been achieved by Spittelau WtE plant in Wien (Austria); but rather for providing a multi-functional building with room for social and industrial activities in a sustainable manner and with good utilization of urban space. Copenhill represents an example of integration of WtE plants in an urban area and collaboration with the residents to achieve social acceptance in the activities developed by the waste and energy sector. In other words, Copenhill is the first WtE-plant of a new reinvented concept; there may be lessons in this for planned projects around the world, as a lack of community acceptance is often cited as a factor in unsuccessful proposals.

    Located only 2 km away from the Royal Palace, Copenhill is integrated into urban life with its innovative architectonic design offering a recreational area on the facility rooftop that includes an all year skiing slope, and a champagne bar for those who would like to visit, as well as a climbing wall on the facade.

    From a technical point of view, Copenhill was conceived from the idea of being a WtE plant showcase that Denmark could export to the world. Therefore, it was built using the best available technology to ensure the highest environmental performance and energy efficiency all in all in the safest environment. In addition, the construction site was used for training apprentices in works associated with the construction of WtE plants, providing economic benefit for the community.

    This case study describes technical and economic aspects of the Copenhill plant, and how Amager Resource Center (ARC), owners of Copenhill, and the residents in the city of Copenhagen found the way to share a common area in which everyone could feel safe and contribute to a more sustainable city while being a profitable business.

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  • 6.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway. Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway; Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg, Germany.
    Fighting flameless fires: Initiating and extinguishing self-sustainedsmoldering fires in wood pellets2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Smoldering fires represent domestic, environmental and industrial hazards. This flameless form of combustion is more easily initiated than flaming, and is also more persistent and difficult to extinguish. The growing demand for non-fossil fuels has increased the use of solid biofuels such as biomass. This represents a safety challenge, as biomass self-ignition can cause smoldering fires, flaming fires or explosions.

    Smoldering and extinguishment in granular biomass was studied experimentally. The set-up consisted of a cylindrical fuel container of steel with thermally insulated side walls. The container was closed at the bottom, open at the top and heated from below by a hot surface. Two types of wood pellets were used as fuel, with 0.75-1.5 kg samples.

    Logistic regression was used to determine the transition region between non-smoldering and self-sustained smoldering experiments, and to determine the influence of parameters. Duration of external heating was most important for initiation of smoldering. Sample height was also significant, while the type of wood pellet was near-significant and fuel container height was not.

    The susceptibility of smoldering to changes in air supply was studied. With a small gap at the bottom of the fuel bed, the increased air flow in the same direction as the initial smoldering front (forward air flow) caused a significantly more intense combustion compared to the normal set-up with opposed air flow.

    Heat extraction from the combustion was studied using a water-cooled copper pipe. Challenges with direct fuel-water contact (fuel swelling, water channeling and runoff) were thus avoided. Smoldering was extinguished in 7 of 15 cases where heat extraction was in the same range as the heat production from combustion. This is the first experimental proof-of-concept of cooling as an extinguishment method for smoldering fires.

    Marginal differences in heating and cooling separated smoldering from extinguished cases; the fuel bed was at a heating-cooling balance point. Lower cooling levels did not lead to extinguishment, but cooling caused more predictable smoldering, possibly delaying the most intense combustion. Also observed at the balance point were pulsating temperatures; a form of long-lived (hours), macroscopic synchronization not previously observed in smoldering fires.

    For practical applications, cooling could be feasible for prevention of temperature escalation from self-heating in industrial storage units. This study provides a first step towards improved fuel storage safety for biomass. 

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    Mikalsen_DoctoralThesis_FightingFlamelessFires
  • 7.
    Fjäll, Stephanie
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Olsson, J
    Edström, Mats
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Gunnarsson, Carina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Westlin, Hugo
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Myrbeck, Åsa
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    CASE STUDY ON SUSTAINABLE AND SELF-SUFFINCENT AGRICULTURE: INTEGRATING GRASS BIOREFINERY, ANEROBIC DIGESTION AND HYDROTHERMAL LIQUEFACTION2023In: Proc of EUBCE 2023, ETA-Florence Renewable Energies , 2023, p. 533-539Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The agricultural industry plays a crucial role in transitioning towards a sustainable and fossil-free future. This article explores the potential of biorefineries using biomass from agriculture to reduce emissions and promote self sufficiency. Regarding a concept that integrated anaerobic digestion, grass and legume protein production, and hydrothermal liquefaction. A case study was conducted in the southwestern part of Sweden, involving interviews with a biogas plant and local farmers. The study analyzed the utilization of input goods in agriculture and evaluated the potential of biomass in the area. To assess the potential for farms to become self-sufficient in fuel, protein feed, and plant nutrients. The results show an overall positive outlook of the biorefinery concept. By utilizing 20% of the available biomass in the area can the biorefinery concept annually produce 100 GWh of biogas, 3800 tonnes of grass and legume protein concentrate and 1200 GWh bio-oil. This could theoretically cover 100 % of the need of soy meal, 44% for nitrogen, 50% for phosphorus and 100% for potassium.

  • 8.
    Johansson, Inge
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment.
    Edo Giménez, Mar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Roberts, Daniel
    CSIRO, Australia.
    Hoffman, Beau
    U.S. Department of Energy, USA.
    Becidan, Michael
    SINTEF Energy Research, Norway.
    Ciceri, Giovanni
    RSE Research on Energy Systems, Italy.
    Murphy, Fionnuala
    UCD University College Dublin, Ireland.
    Trois, Cristina
    University of kwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.
    Curran, Thomas P.
    UCD University College Dublin, Ireland.
    Stapf, Dieter
    Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany.
    Material and energy valorization of waste as part of a circular model2023Report (Other academic)
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  • 9.
    Lund, Johanna
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Gunnarsson, Carina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Fischer, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Sundberg, Martin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Tersmeden, Marianne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Outnyttjat ensilage till förnybar energi2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There are large amounts of unutilized silage from agriculture and from municipalities that harvest meadows and grasslands. This biomass is a disposal problem and a cost. At the same time, there are biogas plants which have an increased demand for substrates that do not compete with the production of feed and food. Unutilized silage can be an excellent biogas substrate provided it is effectively pretreated. This study is conducted as a case study of Jordberga Biogas plant in Skåne (in the south of Sweden), although the results of the project are applicable to other regions in Sweden where unutilized silage exists. The project aim was to study a 20 % replacement

    of today’s crop-based substrates in Jordberga biogas plant with unutilized silage from agriculture and municipalities. The project has been conducted by RISE Agrifood and Bioscience in collaboration with the German Biomass Research Center (Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum, DBFZ), Gasum, County Administrative Board of Skåne and Fogda Farm.

    The project was divided into three parts. In the first part the amounts of different types of unutilized silage was estimated, from arable land and forage areas at municipalities and County Administrative Boards, for the area around the Gasum Biogas plant in Jordberga, and for Sweden in total. In a second part the adequate technique for pretreatment was identified and tested in practical trials on different types of unutilized silage. In the third part cost calculations were done for the disintegration of the unutilized silage.

    The study showed that the largest potential for unutilized silage is from forage production. The area of meadows is much less with much lower yield. An assumption was made that 5% of the total amount of unutilized silage bales are available for biogas production. Project calculations showed that 35% of these must be used to substitute 20% of the crop based substrates at Jordberga. Depending on the quality and biogas yield, 12-23 ton DM is needed per day.

    Based on earlier studies and experiences from the project group, three machines were chosen for the practical tests to disintegrate silage bales; Rot Grind, RS CutMaster and I-GRIND. Roto Grind and I-GRIND used hammermill technique whereas RS CutMaster

    used knife rotors for disintegration. All three machines managed to disintegrate silage bales with DM-content varying from 40-70% DM. The particle length after disintegration was analyzed and a visual estimation of the effect on particle structure was made. Particle size after disintegration was the same for Roto Grind and RS CutMaster whereas it was considerable longer for I-GRIND. Disintegration worked better on silage with lower DM content regarding both particle size and structure for all tested machines.

    Based on the test results RS CutMaster had higher total disintegration costs compared with Roto Grind and I-GRIND. The differences in costs was mainly due to lower measured capacity of RS CutMaster, and higher depreciation and maintenance costs of both RS CutMaster and I-GRIND. To lower the costs to same level as Roto Grind and I-GRIND, RS CutMaster would need approximately 40% higher capacity than measured in the tests.

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  • 10.
    Niklasson, Fredrik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Gustavsson, Lennart
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Ryde, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Johansson, Mathias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Persson, Henrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Schüßler, Ingmar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Branschgemensam forskning för småskaliga biobränslepannor inför ekodesign2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    New domestic biofuel boilers must meet the Ecodesign Directive by 2020. In a market survey from 2014, none of 11 tested pellet boilers did meet all requirements, clearly indicating a developmental need. In the present project boiler manufacturers and research institutes have collaborated in response to the combustion engineering challenges.

    For pellet boilers, the biggest challenge with the Ecodesign Directive is that performance is largely calculated from partial load operation (low load). Previously, performance has only been determined at nominal load and the design has been optimized accordingly. In this project, tests have been run with two modern pellet boilers that have different types of pellet burner: one with horizontal burner tube and one with an underfeed burner cup. The results show that sufficient combustion performance could be maintained at partial load with both burner types. However, the tube burner exhibited significantly lower emissions at partial loads, probably due to the combustion zone in this burner being protected from heat radiation exchange with cooling boiler walls. A rather extensive work was laid down to provide the cup burner with a protective collar that would protect the combustion zone. However, it did not result in any significant improvement, probably because the supply of secondary air did not become optimal. A more extensive work is required to develop an optimal burner design of this type.

    For wood log boilers, it is a challenge to comply with the NOx requirements of the Ecodesign Directive of 200 mg / Nm³. A variety of temperature measurements in a wood log boiler resulted in the exclusion of thermal NOx formation. The boiler was fitted with a flue gas recirculation system, but it did not reduce the NOx emission. Then different varieties of wood fuels were tested. The NOx emission could be reduced to meet the requirement using barked birch wood. Chemical analyzes showed that the birch bark contained 0.49% nitrogen compared to 0.09% in the stock. Spruce logs also gave low NOx emissions, but that fuel resulted in increased CO and OGC emissions. For wood log boilers to meet the requirements for CO, OGC and dust, optimization is required under the wood's final combustion phase. At this stage, emissions are at its highest, due to the decreasing heat output while the airflow tends to cool down the flue gas faster than the combustible gases burn out. The optical particle measurement showed a clear correlation between dust and CO in the flue gas. If the boiler meets the CO limit, there are good chances that the requirement for particles also will be met.

    The efficiency specified in the Ecodesign Directive is calculated based on the fuel's higher heating value. In addition, some loss factors are subtracted. This implies that the boiler must not have unnecessarily large heat losses or excessive electricity consumption to meet the requirements. Measurements showed that the biggest loss occurs with the heat in the flue gas. The second largest loss is heat from the boiler body. For the efficiency, the importance of a well-insulated boiler body increases in the case of partial loads. The two pellet boilers used in the project were well suited to meet the eco-directive directive's efficiency requirements.

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  • 11.
    Pawar, Sudhanshu
    RISE.
    Biological Hydrogen Production from Lignocellulosic Biomass2016In: Enriched Methane: The First Step Towards the Hydrogen Economy / [ed] Marcello De Falco, Angelo Basile, Springer, 2016Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Pawar, Sudhanshu S.
    et al.
    RISE. Lund University, Sweden.
    Vongkumpeang, Thitiwut
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Grey, Carl
    Lund University, Sweden.
    van Niel, Ed W. J.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Biofilm formation by designed co-cultures of Caldicellulosiruptor species as a means to improve hydrogen productivity2015In: Biotechnology for Biofuels, ISSN 1754-6834, E-ISSN 1754-6834, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Caldicellulosiruptor species have gained a reputation as being among the best microorganisms to produce hydrogen (H2) due to possession of a combination of appropriate features. However, due to their low volumetric H2 productivities (Q H2), Caldicellulosiruptor species cannot be considered for any viable biohydrogen production process yet. In this study, we evaluate biofilm forming potential of pure and co-cultures of Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus and Caldicellulosiruptor owensensis in continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTR) and up-flow anaerobic (UA) reactors. We also evaluate biofilms as a means to retain biomass in the reactor and its influence on Q H2. Moreover, we explore the factors influencing the formation of biofilm. Results: Co-cultures of C. saccharolyticus and C. owensensis form substantially more biofilm than formed by C. owensensis alone. Biofilms improved substrate conversion in both of the reactor systems, but improved the Q H2 only in the UA reactor. When grown in the presence of each other's culture supernatant, both C. saccharolyticus and C. owensensis were positively influenced on their individual growth and H2 production. Unlike the CSTR, UA reactors allowed retention of C. saccharolyticus and C. owensensis when subjected to very high substrate loading rates. In the UA reactor, maximum Q H2 (approximately 20 mmol∈·∈L-1∈ ·∈h-1) was obtained only with granular sludge as the carrier material. In the CSTR, stirring negatively affected biofilm formation. Whereas, a clear correlation was observed between elevated (>40 μM) intracellular levels of the secondary messenger bis-(3′-5′)-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) and biofilm formation. Conclusions: In co-cultures C. saccharolyticus fortified the trade of biofilm formation by C. owensensis, which was mediated by elevated levels of c-di-GMP in C. owensensis. These biofilms were effective in retaining biomass of both species in the reactor and improving Q H2 in a UA reactor using granular sludge as the carrier material. This concept forms a basis for further optimizing the Q H2 at laboratory scale and beyond. © 2015 Pawar et al.; licensee BioMed Central.

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  • 13.
    Petersson, Jeanette
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, ETC Energy Technology Center.
    Pyrolysoljeproduktion i BOBIC:s värdekedja: en inledande förstudie2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Förhoppningar finns om att processer, som omvandlar skogsbaserade restprodukter från den skogliga värdekedjan till flytande drivmedel, ska kunna utgöra ett betydande bidrag till omställningen från fossilt till förnybart. Bland dessa processer finns produktion av biobaserad pyrolysolja som en potentiell kommersialiseringsmöjlighet. Detta projekt syftar till att utvärdera kommersialiseringsmöjligheten för pyrolysoljeproduktion inom BOBIC:s skogliga värdekedja, som återfinns i Norrbottens län, samt de fyra nordligaste kommunerna i Västerbottens län. Slutsatserna från projektet kan sammanfattas i 5 huvudsakliga punkter. - Pyrolysoljeproduktion i vår förstudie bygger på att som råvara nyttja olika typer av sidoströmmar; sågspån från sågverken, sållspån från bruken samt grot1.o Tillgången på råvara i regionen, i form av sågspån, begränsas till stor del av den stora pelletsproduktionen vid kusten. Ändras marknaden för pellets och det sker produktionsneddragningar, kan stora mängder sågspån göras tillgänglig.o För att ha tillräckligt mycket råvara för en pyrolysoljeanläggning måste sågspånet idag kompletteras med grot, antingen som råvara direkt i pyrolysanläggningen eller för att byta ut kvarvarande sågspån som eldas på sågverken med annat bränsle, så att sågspånet kan bli råvara för pyrolysolja. Det finns för närvarande inget uttag av grot i regionen, utan den marknaden måste byggas upp igen efter en tid av obefintligt uttag för att en pyrolysoljeanläggning skall vara möjlig.- Integration med antingen ett kraftvärmeverk eller ett massabruk är nödvändig för att den ekonomiska kalkylen för pyrolysoljeproduktion skall gå ihop. Detta sänker såväl driftkostnaden som kapitalkostnaden.- Med dagens förutsättningar kan pyrolysolja produceras till en kostnad på mellan 560 kr/MWh och 949 kr/MWh. Den stora skillnaden i produktionskostnaden ligger framför allt i bidrag till investering, råvarupriser och pyrolysoljeutbyte. Dessa siffror har en uppskattad osäkerhetsfaktor på ca 25%.- De stora industrierna som idag använder sig av eldningsolja, slipper i många fall betala energi- och koldioxidskatt på den, eftersom de jobbar med en kemisk process. Om detta ändras kommer pyrolysolja kunna vara mer konkurrenskraftig mot fossila alternativ på marknaden för eldningsoljor.- Vid försäljning av pyrolysoljan till raffinaderier, för uppgradering till biodrivmedel, kommer oljan få ett högre marknadsvärde på omkring 5000 – 6000 kr/ton. Dock ställer raffinaderierna större krav på produkten än om den skulle användas som eldningsolja. Den ska vara i princip helt askfri, samt ha en syrehalt på maximalt ~15 %.

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  • 14.
    Roberts, Daniel
    et al.
    CSIRO, Australia.
    Edo, Mar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Johansson, Inge
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment.
    Hoffman, Beau
    USDoE, USA.
    Becidan, Michael
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Ciceri, Giovanni
    RSE.
    Murphy, Fionnuala
    UCD, Ireland.
    Trois, Cristina
    University of kwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.
    Curran, Thomas P.
    UCD, Ireland.
    Material and Energy Valorisation of Waste in a Circular Economy2022Report (Other academic)
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  • 15.
    Sandström, Linda
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Johansson, Ann-Christine
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Wiinikka, Henrik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Öhrman, Olov G. W.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Marklund, Magnus
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energy Technology Center.
    Pyrolysis of Nordic biomass types in a cyclone pilot plant — Mass balances and yields2016In: Fuel processing technology, ISSN 0378-3820, E-ISSN 1873-7188, Vol. 152, p. 274-284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fast pyrolysis of biomass results in a renewable product usually denoted pyrolysis oil or bio-oil, which has been suggested to be used as a direct substitute for fuel oil or as a feedstock for production of transportation fuels and/or chemicals. In the present work, fast pyrolysis of stem wood (originated from pine and spruce), willow, reed canary grass, brown forest residue and bark has been performed in a pilot scale cyclone reactor. The experiments were based on a biomass feeding rate of 20 kg/h at three different reactor temperatures. At the reference condition, pyrolysis of stem wood, willow, reed canary grass, and forest residue resulted in organic liquid yields in the range of 41 to 45% w/w, while pyrolysis of bark resulted in lower organic liquid yields. Two fractions of pyrolysis oil were obtained, denoted as the condensed and the aerosol fraction. Most of the water soluble molecules were collected in the condensed fraction, whereas the yield of water insoluble, heavy lignin molecules was higher in the aerosol fraction. Based on the results of the present work, willow, reed canary grass and forest residue are considered as promising raw materials for production of pyrolysis oil in a cyclone reactor.

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  • 16.
    Shahrivar, Mohammad
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Saeed, Muhammad Nauman
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Surywanshi, Gajanan Dattarao
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Mattisson, Tobias
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Soleimanisalim, Amir H
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Improving bio aviation fuel yield from biogenic carbon sources through electrolysis assisted chemical looping gasification2023In: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 348, article id 128525Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The second-generation bio aviation fuel production via Chemical Looping Gasification (CLG) of biomass combined with downstream Fischer-Tropsch synthesis is a possible way to decarbonize the aviation sector. Although CLG has a higher syngas yield and conversion efficiency compared to the conventional gasification processes, the fraction of biogenic carbon which is converted to biofuel is still low (around 28%). To increase carbon utilization and biofuel yield, incorporation of two types of electrolyzers, Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) and Molten Carbonate Electrolysis Cell (MCEC), for syngas conditioning has been investigated. Full chain process models have been developed using an experimentally validated CLG model in Aspen Plus for Iron sand as an oxygen carrier. Techno-economic parameters were calculated and compared for different cases. The results show that syngas conditioning with sustainable hydrogen from PEM and MCEC electrolyzers results in up to 11.5% higher conversion efficiency and up to 8.1 % higher biogenic carbon efficiencies in comparison to the syngas conditioning with water gas shift reactor. The study shows that the lowest carbon capture rates are found in the configurations with the highest biogenic carbon efficiency which means up to 14% more carbon ends up in FT crude compared to the case with conventional WGS conditioning. Techno-economic analysis indicates that syngas conditioning using PEM and MCEC electrolyzers would result in an increase of the annual profit by a factor of 1.4 and 1.7, respectively, when compared to using only WGS reactors. 

  • 17.
    Willén, Agnes
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik. SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Rodhe, Lena
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Pell, Mikael
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Håkan
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Nitrous oxide and methane emissions during storage of dewatered digested sewage sludge2016In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 184, no 3, p. 560-568Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the effect on greenhouse gas emissions during storage of digested sewage sludge by using a cover during storage or applying sanitisation measures such as thermophilic digestion or ammonia addition. In a pilot-scale storage facility, nitrous oxide and methane emissions were measured on average twice monthly for a year, using a closed chamber technique. The thermophilically digested sewage sludge (TC) had the highest cumulative emissions of nitrous oxide (1.30% of initial total N) followed by mesophilically digested sewage sludge stored without a cover (M) (0.34%) and mesophilically digested sewage sludge stored with a cover (MC) (0.19%). The mesophilically digested sewage sludge sanitised with ammonia and stored with a cover (MAC) showed negligible cumulative emissions of nitrous oxide. Emissions of methane were much lower from TC and MAC than from M and MC. These results indicate that sanitisation by ammonia treatment eliminates the production of nitrous oxide and reduces methane emissions from stored sewage sludge, and that thermophilic digestion has the potential to reduce the production of methane during storage compared with mesophilic digestion. The results also indicate a tendency for lower emissions of nitrous oxide and higher emissions of methane from covered sewage sludge compared with non-covered.

  • 18.
    Yang, Hanmin
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Cui, Yuxiao
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Han, Tong
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Sandström, Linda
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Jönsson, Pär
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Yang, Weihong
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    High-purity syngas production by cascaded catalytic reforming of biomass pyrolysis vapors2022In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 322, article id 119501Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel pyrolysis followed by in-line cascaded catalytic reforming process without additional steam was developed to produce high-purity syngas from woody biomass. The key to the proposed process is the construction of a cascaded biochar + NiAl2O4 catalytic reforming process in which biochar acts as a pre-reforming catalyst, and NiAl2O4 acts as a primary reforming catalyst. The large oxygenates in the pyro-vapors are deeply cracked in the biochar layer due to the increased residence time in the hot-biochar bed. The remaining small molecules are then reformed with the autogenerated steam from pyrolysis catalyzed by the reduced Ni0 species in the NiAl2O4 catalyst (NiAlO). The results showed that the yield of syngas for the optimized process was 71.28 wt% (including 44.44 mg-H2/g-biomass and 536.48 mg-CO/g-biomass), and the CO2 yield of the process was only 3 kg-CO2/kg-hydrogen. High-purity syngas with 89.47 vol% of (H2 + CO) was obtained, and the gas energy conversion efficiency (GECE) of the process reached 75.65%. The study shows that in the cascaded catalytic reforming process, cracking of the large oxygenates and reforming of the small molecules are promoted sequentially in separated biochar + NiAlO catalyst layers, which maximizes the syngas production and improves the activity and stability of the Ni-based catalyst. © 2022 The Author(s)

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