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  • 1.
    Bengtsson, Simon
    et al.
    Promiko, Sweden.
    Fujii, Dan
    Stockholm Vatten och Avfall, Sweden.
    Arnell, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Andersson, Sofia
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Held, Henrik
    Veolia, Sweden.
    Gustavsson, David
    Sweden Water Research, Sweden.
    Effektiv luftning: Design, drift, underhåll och upphandling av luftningsutrustning för kommunala avloppsre-ningsverk2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this report, aeration at municipal wastewater treatment plants is described with focus on energy efficiency. Design of aeration systems is described as well as methods for control, operation, follow-up and maintenance with real examples and model simulations. Guidance for procurement of aeration systems is also provided.

  • 2.
    Carnohan, Shane
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Nicolaidis Lindqvist, Andreas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Simons, Andrew
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Wallin, Elin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Hamberg, Lars
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Lindahl, Lina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Minskad belastning på dricksvattenresursen genom industriell-urban vattensymbios2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vattenbrist är en akut global, och i många områden växande, utmaning. Pågående klimatförändringar och växande behov i stora delar av världen förändrar både tillgången och efterfrågan på rent vatten. Europa står inför flera akuta vattenrelaterade utmaningar med betydande säkerhets- och miljömässiga konsekvenser. Perioder av återkommande vattenbrist är en av de främsta utmaningarna som redan har drabbat flertalet europeiska länder, särskilt utsatt är området kring medelhavet. Men, även i Sverige är vattenbrist en utmaning som äventyrar försörjning av både dricksvatten och vatten till industri och jordbruk i flera regioner i de södra och sydöstra delarna av landet. I både Vimmerby och Visby, Kalmar och Gotlands län, ses vattenbrist i dag som den främsta utmaningen för att säkra dricksvattenförsörjningen. Risken för vattenbrist förväntas öka i framtiden för båda dessa städer då pågående klimatförändringar bidrar till ökade säsongsvariationer i både nederbörd och temperatur. Utöver vattenbrist brottas båda städerna dessutom med att upprätthålla en god vattenkvalitet. Avrinning från jordbruket (bekämpningsmedel, gödselmedel, etc.) och föroreningar från urbana hårdgjorda ytor som letar sig ned i grund- och ytvattenkällor utgör en ständig risk för vattenkvaliteten i den samhällsviktiga dricksvattenförsörjningen. För att adressera dessa utmaningar och säkra tillgången till dricksvatten i tillräcklig mängd och av god kvalitet även i framtiden behövs ett övergripande tillvägagångssätt, som omfattar hållbara metoder för hantering av grundvatten, förbättrad övervakning av vattenkvalitet och utveckling av robusta strategier som möjliggör anpassning till att klara av ett föränderligt klimat. I detta projekt har konceptet industriell-urban vattensymbios utforskats som en möjlig lösning för att bidra till säkrad vattentillgång och minskad belastning på lokala dricksvattenresurser, med städerna Visby och Vimmerby som fallstudieobjekt. Vattensymbios är ett systematiskt samarbete där olika aktörer i samhället (industri, kommunala verksamheter, jordbruk, m.fl.) agerar tillsammans för att optimera vattenanvändningen och minska avfallet genom lösningar som faciliterar utbyte och återanvändning av vatten, biprodukter och resurser på ett ömsesidigt fördelaktigt sätt. Till exempel kan renat industriavloppsvatten återanvändas för jordbruksbevattning eller som kylvatten i närliggande industrier, vilket minskar efterfrågan på dricksvatten. Detta tillvägagångssätt främjar ett effektivt resursutnyttjande som minimerar vattenslöseri och minskar systemets totala miljöpåverkan. Projektets övergripande syfte har varit att utreda hur en industriell-urban vattensymbios skulle kunna utformas i Visby och Vimmerby för att minska belastningen på lokala vattenresurser genom nyttjandet av mjölkkondensat från Arla Foods AB’s som en möjlig vattenkälla. Utöver detta har projektet syftat till att utveckla och tillämpa en arbetsprocess för uppbyggnaden av lokala vattensymbiosinitiativ genom strukturerade intressentinvolverande metoder. I ett samarbete mellan lokala VA-bolag, kommunala och privata verksamheter och vattenanvändare, och forskare från RISE har en nulägesbedömning av vattentillgång, vattenbehov, vattenbalansmodellering och en kartläggning av vattenflöden tillgängliga för en framtida symbios genomförts. Tekniska möjligheter att effektivisera vattenanvändningen genom recirkulering och utbyte av vattenströmmar av varierande kvalitet har undersökts och utvärderats genom en kombination av teknoekonomisk analys och kvalitativ utvärdering tillsammans med medverkande vattenproducenter och verksamheter. Även hinder för implementering av vattensymbioser har undersökts (juridiska, tekniska och affärsmässiga) och förslag på åtgärder för att överbrygga dessa har tagits fram. Resultaten från projektet pekar på tydliga likheter och skillnader mellan de två fallstudieområdena. Bland verksamheter i både Visby och Vimmerby anses intern effektivisering och återanvändning av vatten vara en mer genomförbar lösning än vattensymbios i samverkan med andra verksamheter. Samtidigt ansågs symbioslösningar ha en större besparingspotential och kunna bidra med riskminimerande diversifiering bort från enbart en vattenkälla. För att symbioslösningar skall vara gångbara krävs dock att dessa sker inom ett relativt avgränsat geografiskt område för att minimera kostnader kopplade till transport av vatten mellan aktörer. För att utveckla symbiossamarbeten som fungera långsiktigt är tillit en avgörande aspekt. Även omfattande tillit mellan verksamheter lyftes som en avgörande faktor för ett få till symbioslösningar. Den tekno-ekonomiska bedömningen i projektet genomfördes utifrån perspektivet av ett generellt företag med kommunal dricksvattenförsörjning. För ett sådant företag kommer den ekonomiska bärkraften för vattenbesparande åtgärder att bero på den relativa kostnaden för vattenrening lokalt jämfört med kostnaden för att köpa dricksvatten från kommunen. Effekterna av detta framgår tydligt när man jämför fallen Visby och Vimmerby. I Visby visar resultaten att både intern återanvändning och industriell symbios kan vara ekonomiskt lönsamma lösningar utifrån industrins perspektiv. Rening och recirkulering med hjälp av RO membran och efterföljande polering bedömdes som mest lönsamt (med en återbetalningstid på cirka 3,5 år) av de fem möjliga åtgärder som studerades. Lösningen uppskattades kunna spara motsvarande vattenbehovet hos 500 typhushåll. I Vimmerby verkar ingen av åtgärderna medföra ekonomisk lönsamhet, då kostnaderna för samtliga fall är högre än dagens kostnader för kommunaltdricksvatten. Anledningen till skillnaden i lönsamhet mellan Visby och Vimmerby förklaras huvudsakligen av skillnaden i prissättningsmodell som används i av respektive VA-bolag i de två kommunerna. Utöver prissättningsmodellens roll som möjliggörare eller hinder för vattensymbios så identifierades utveckling av ett system för klassificering av vattenflöden enligt olika kvalitetsklasser, ökad kunskap om olika vattenklassers hållbarhet, och utveckling av lagar & regler för recirkulering och användning av vatten som viktiga områden för att facilitera effektivare vattenanvändning genom symbios. Detta projekt är ett av de första i Sverige med uttalat fokus på industriell-urban vattensymbios. Lärdomar från projektet kommer vara värdefulla för att vidare utreda möjligheten för symbioslösningar i Visby och Vimmerby, men även i andra kommuner runt om i Sverige. Flera frågeställningar kvarstår att undersöka. Till exempel har detta projekt inte studerat hur variationer i vattentillgång och vattenbehov över säsongen, eller dygnet, påverkar de studerade symbioslösningarna. Dessutom behövs mer detaljerade analyser av de hydrologiska förutsättningarna i respektive fall för att säga något om hur de studerade lösningarna kan påverka den lokala vattenbalansen under olika framtidsscenarier. Vidare bör den teknoekonomiska bedömningen som genomförts förstärkas genom att inkludera mer exakta kostnadsuppgifter (till exempel leverantörspriser på utrustning), inverkan av marknadsfluktuationer, och andra osäkerheter.

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  • 3.
    Englund, Maja
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Ljung, Emelie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Pizzul, Leticia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Läkemedel i källsorterade avloppsfraktioner - en kunskapssammanställning2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Systems with different source-separated toilet fractions (blackwater, fecal sludge and urine) can reduce the number of pharmaceuticals to the aquatic environment and at the same time allow circulation of nutrients. However, knowledge of the occurrence of pharmaceutical residues in source-separated toilet fractions is partly insufficient. There is also a lack of knowledge of how the different treatment processes effect the occurrence of pharmaceutical residues and if they are reduced or maintained thru different treatments. Knowledge of their faith in the environment is also limited, in terms of uptake in plants, degradation, transport and spreading.

    The purpose of this project was to gather current knowledge related to pharmaceutical residues in source-separated toilet fractions from both Sweden and internationally, to be able to identify prioritized research areas for the future. The project also aimed to describe how treatment of source-separated toilet fractions affects the levels of pharmaceutical residues in the final product.

    A review of literature was made, focusing on studies and research related to pharmaceutical residues in the different fractions. No analyzes have been carried out within this project. Data on the content of pharmaceutical residues in untreated and treated source-separated toilet fractions was collected from previous studies and summarized. The basis in the different studies varies a lot, which makes it difficult to compare the results of the content and reduction of pharmaceutical residues in the different source-separated toilet fractions.

    Most of the studies that was found treated pharmaceuticals residues in urine. Most of the treatment methods for urine are performed in lab scale while studies on blackwater are made on plants that are in operation today. For fecal sludge, only one study that treats pharmaceuticals residues has been found.

    Different treatment methods work differently on different types of pharmaceutical residues. For urine, there are studies with many different treatment techniques. Of those considered in this study, only ozone and UV-light have a broad effect and reduces most of the pharmaceutical residues that have been analyzed. Three treatment methods have been studied for blackwater. None of the methods reduced all pharmaceutical residues, but treatment with UASB reactor provided a good reduction as most pharmaceutical residues analyzed were reduced to about 60 %. For fecal sludge, most pharmaceutical residues were not affected by either mesophilic or thermophilic digestion.

    Most studies on pharmaceutical residues in the environment focus on aquatic systems and the information on how the pharmaceutical residues behave in the soil is limited - both in terms of degradation and content in growing crops. More research is needed in these areas.

    Pharmaceutical residues in source-separated toilet fractions are a complex area with several gaps of knowledge and more research is needed. Hopefully, this rapport contributes to an overview of some data and treatment processes and brings more knowledge into the area that simplifies decisions and prioritization of future research.

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  • 4.
    Englund, Maja
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Ulinder, Elin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Funktion hos markbaserade reningsanläggningari fält, komplettering2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This project, Function in small on-site soil and infiltration beds for wastewater treatment in field – competition, investigated the status of small on-site soil treatment systems (STS) for wastewater in field. The project is an extension of a former project, “Function in small on-site soil and infiltration beds for wastewater treatment in field” where 101 were inspected. Together with 56 inspections from this project there were a total of 157 filed inspections.

    The purpose of the study was to find out if there were any common problems in STS and to suggest if they could be prevented. This after that several projects pointed out the occurrence of functional problems, such as clogging and decreasing purification in STS. This study is a supplement to the prewires project to make the quantity more statistically safe (larger number of measurements) and more representative regarding the different conditions that may exist in Sweden.

    The result shows that 8% of the STS had very high levels of water (≥ 11 cm) and 9% had very high levels of sludge (≥ 5 cm) in the distribution pipes. There are indications of correlations between very high levels of water in the distribution pipe and high water levels in other parts of the plant, which suggest that the plant is not working as it should. High levels of water can also be connected to functional faults that have arisen from the comments observed in the field and noted in field protocols.  For very high levels of sludge, there are some indications of relationships of various malfunctions, however, these connections are not as clear. Slightly high levels of sludge (2–5 cm) and water (3–11 cm) do not seem to have as strong connection with malfunction.

    The study also indicates that greater water-loading installation, e.g. baths larger than 300 liters or water purification filters that rinse large amounts of water, should not be led to the STS, and that it is important that the plant is built according to the size specified in the permit. The statistical analysis carried out in the study also indicates that the age of the plant can be a "natural" cause for very high water levels.

    According to the SGU database, the groundwater levels during the time of inspections were much below normal or below normal (SGU 2018). Based on given criteria in the project, about 7% of the STS in the study did not meet the requirements of one meter between the distribution pipe and the groundwater. Due to unreliable control points for groundwater it was uncertain whether the requirements were met or not for 53% STS. Without a reliable control point, it is difficult to follow up the distance between the distribution pipe and the current groundwater level.

    It is important to remember that the performed inspections only provide a momentary-view of the STS and not the operation of the STS over time. Following some STS over a longer period would give a better picture of the function over time and a better idea of how sludge and water levels can vary in different parts and with different seasons. There are also no studies on how, for example, different levels of sludge and water in distribution pipes affect the purification process in the STS. This needs to be studied in the future to increase knowledge and provide guidance on what measures can be taken in different types of functional problems.

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  • 5.
    Kazadi Mbamba, Christian
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Arnell, Magnus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Bergvatten, Anders
    Scandinavian Biogas Fuels, Sweden.
    Ejlertsson, Jörgen
    Scandinavian Biogas Fuels, Sweden.
    Jeppsson, Ulf
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Ometto, Francesco
    Scandinavian Biogas Fuels, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Anna
    Scandinavian Biogas Fuels, Sweden.
    Modelling Industrial Symbiosis of Biogas Production and Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plants – Technical Report2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present-day treatment of pulp and paper mill effluents can be significantly improved by incorporating biogas production in the context of industrial symbiosis. In this work a new industrial symbiosis concept is presented, the focus being on modelling it in view of process optimization, design improvement and adoption by the pulp and paper industry. The concept consists of a first stage in which pulp and paper mill effluents are treated by high-rate anaerobic digestion in external circulation sludge bed (ECSB) reactors to produce biogas. In the second stage the removal of organic matter contained in the anaerobic effluent stream occurs through aerobic activated sludge treatment, aiming to achieve maximum sludge production with minimum aeration requirements. This sludge should in the case study then be co-digested with residues from fish farming industry to yield methane for energy production, nutrient-rich reject water that can be recycled to the activated sludge treatment for optimum microbial activities and production of a nutrient-rich soil amendment. The overall research aim was in this project to develop a mathematical model that describes the relevant process units and the dynamics of the different processes involving organic matter removal, biogas production and nutrient release. The plant-wide model used integrated activated sludge and anaerobic models with a physico-chemical modelling framework. Through systematic calibration good general agreement was obtained between the full-scale experimental and simulated results at steady state. Acceptable differences between measured and modelled biogas production (flow rate and methane concentration), nutrients release (N and P) and effluent quality (N, P and COD) of 2-3.2 %, 5.3-7.4 % and 1.4-1.9 %, respectively, were observed throughout the full-scale system. Model-based analysis shows that the model can predict and give insight on dynamic behaviours resulting from deliberate changes but also on disturbances in one of the systems and their subsequent impacts within the integrated plant. Additionally, the model allowed the prediction of nutrients release in anaerobic digestion and subsequent consumption upstream in the high-rate anaerobic system or activated sludge system. Simulations show that there is a need for imposing a basic control and operational strategy for efficient reject water recirculation to optimize the concentrations of N and P in the activated sludge system while also achieving nutrient levels required to meet the effluent discharge permits. Overall, the evaluated plant-wide model can jointly describe the relevant physico-chemical and biological processes and is therefore advocated as a tool for future extension of this type of industrial symbiosis concepts between biogas producers and industries producing large amounts of wastewater rich in organic material. The model can be used for design, multi-criteria performance assessment and optimization of different treatment plants.

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  • 6.
    Kazadi Mbamba, Christian
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Arnell, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Svedin, Christer
    Scandinavian Biogas Fuels, Sweden.
    Ejlertsson, Jörgen
    Scandinavian Biogas Fuels, Sweden.
    Jeppsson, Ulf
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Anna
    Scandinavian Biogas Fuels, Sweden.
    Modelling Industrial Symbiosis of BiogasProduction and Industrial WastewaterTreatment Plants – A Review2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present-day treatment of pulp and paper mill effluents can be significantly improvedby incorporating biogas production in the context of industrial symbiosis. In this work anew industrial symbiosis concept is presented, the focus being on modelling it in view ofprocess optimization, design improvement and adoption by the pulp and paper industry.The concept consists of a first stage in which pulp and paper mills effluents are treatedby high-rate anaerobic digestion in external circulation sludge bed (ECSB) reactors toproduce biogas. In the second stage the removal of organic matter contained in thedigestate stream occurs through aerobic activated sludge treatment, aiming to achievemaximum sludge production with minimum aeration requirements. This sludge shouldin the case study then be co-digested with fish-waste silage to yield methane for energyproduction, nutrients-rich reject water that can be recycled to the activated sludgetreatment for optimum microbial activities and, production of nutrient rich soilamendment. The overall research aim is to develop a mathematical model that describesthe relevant process units and the dynamics of the different processes involving organicmatter removal, biogas production and nutrients release. The review overall finds thatan integrated model is required to simulate this concept and should include recentdevelopments in activated sludge, anaerobic digestion and physico-chemical modelling.

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  • 7.
    Kraupner, Nadine
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hutinel, Marion
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Schumacher, Kilian
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Germany.
    Gray, Declan A
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Genheden, Maja
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Flach, Carl-Fredrik
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Larsson, D G Joakim
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Evidence for selection of multi-resistant E. coli by hospital effluent.2021In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 150, p. 106436-, article id 106436Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a risk that residues of antibiotics and other antimicrobials in hospital and municipal wastewaters could select for resistant bacteria. Still, direct experimental evidence for selection is lacking. Here, we investigated if effluent from a large Swedish hospital, as well as influent and effluent from the connected municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) select for antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli in three controlled experimental setups. Exposure of sterile-filtered hospital effluent to a planktonic mix of 149 different E. coli wastewater isolates showed a strong selection of multi-resistant strains. Accordingly, exposure to a complex wastewater community selected for strains resistant to several antibiotic classes. Exposing individual strains with variable resistance patterns revealed a rapid bactericidal effect of hospital effluent on susceptible, but not multi-resistant E. coli. No selection was observed after exposure to WWTP effluent, while exposure to WWTP influent indicated a small selective effect for ceftazidime and cefadroxil resistant strains, and only in the E. coli mix assay. An analysis of commonly used antibiotics and non-antibiotic pharmaceuticals in combination with growth and resistance pattern of individual E. coli isolates suggested a possible contribution of ciprofloxacin and β-lactams to the selection by hospital effluent. However, more research is needed to clarify the contribution from different selective agents. While this study does not indicate selection by the studied WWTP effluent, there is some indications of selective effects by municipal influent on β-lactam-resistant strains. Such effects may be more pronounced in countries with higher antibiotic use than Sweden. Despite the limited antibiotic use in Sweden, the hospital effluent strongly and consistently selected for multi-resistance, indicating widespread risks. Hence, there is an urgent need for further evaluation of risks for resistance selection in hospital sewers, as well as for strategies to remove selective agents and resistant bacteria.

  • 8.
    Malovanyy, Andriy
    et al.
    IVL, Sweden.
    Johannesdottir, Solveig L
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Schwede, Sebastian
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Ahlgren, Serina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Flodin, Elin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Shanmugam, Kavitha
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Återvinning av näringsämnen från avlopp: En litteraturstudie2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Rapporten beskriver etablerade och nya tekniker för kväveåtervinning ur avloppsvatten, och jämföråtervinningsmetoderna med andra sätt att tillverka kvävegödsel när det gäller klimatpåverkan ochkostnader. Rapporten innehåller också en kort genomgång av möjligheter för återvinning av kalium ochsvavel och en statusuppdatering av metoder för återvinning av fosfor.

  • 9.
    Neth, Maria
    et al.
    Gryaab AB, Sweden; Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Mattsson, Ann
    Gryaab AB, Sweden; Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    I'Ons, David
    Gryaab AB, Sweden.
    Tumlin, Susanne
    Gryaab AB, Sweden; .
    Arnell, Magnus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology. Lund University, Sweden.
    Blom, Lena
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; City of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wilén, Britt-Marie
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Modin, Oskar
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    A collaborative planning process to develop future scenarios for wastewater systems2022In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 316, article id 115202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wastewater infrastructure has a long lifetime and is subject to changing conditions and demands. When plans are made to upgrade or build new infrastructure, transdisciplinary planning processes and a robust analysis of future conditions are needed to make sustainable choices. Here, we provide a stepwise collaborative planning process in which future scenarios are developed together with local stakeholders and expert groups. The process was implemented at one of the largest wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Scandinavia. With a combination of workshops and the use of a web-based digital tool, future scenarios including flows, pollutant loads, and treatment requirements could be created. Furthermore, sustainability prioritizations affecting the WWTP, were identified. The future scenarios developed for the WWTP in the case study, predict stricter and new regulations, constant or lower future loads and ambiguous future flows. The highest ranked sustainability priority was low resource and energy consumption together with low CO2 footprint. The quantified future scenarios developed in the planning process were used as input to a process model to show the consequences they would have on the WWTP in the case study. Applying this collaborative process revealed future scenarios with many, sometimes conflicting, expectations on future WWTPs. It also highlighted needs for improvements of both the collection system and the WWTP. © 2022 The Authors

  • 10.
    Pawar, Sudhanshu S.
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Werker, Alan
    Promiko AB, Sweden.
    Bengtsson, Simon
    Promiko AB, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Maria
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Langeland, Markus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food. SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Persson, Magnus
    Paper Province AB, Sweden.
    Willquist, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources. Fortum Recycling and Waste AB, Sweden.
    MultiBio: Environmental services from a multipurpose biorefinery2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    MultiBio project aimed to establish and demonstrate a novel multipurpose biorefinery cascade concept, producing three renewable biobased products: 1) biohydrogen, 2) biopolymers and 3) protein rich meal ingredients for fish farming. The cascade concept exploits the ability of a bacterium (Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus) to transform nutrients present in low-value waste process waters of the pulp and paper industry, to high-value products hydrogen gas, organic acids and microbial biomass. The organic acid rich effluent will then be managed in an open culture microbial process used to achieve discharge water quality objectives and to produce polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) biopolymers. Moreover, since C. saccharolyticus protein content is more than 63% of cell dry weight, their potential in formulation of fish feed was evaluated. 

    A fiber sludge containing, CTMP residual stream was found to be a possible feedstock for the MultiBio process concept. Due to safety risks the demo-scale experiments of biohydrogen gas technology were moved from Biorefinery demo plant (Örnsköldsvik) of 40 m3 capacity to ATEX classified pilot-scale facility with 0.4 m3 capacity. Hence, bacterial biomass enough for the large-scale fish feed ingredient could not be produced. Lab-scale experiments with Caldicellulosiruptor cells as fish feed ingredient showed promising results as a protein-rich, sustainable fish feed ingredient. In addition, PHA biopolymer also showed favourable results as fish food ingredient for experiments at Gårdsfisk AB. Lab-scale experimental tests showed that the surplus activated sludge from the mills wastewater treatment could currently accumulate PHA to about 20 % of its dry weight. Mass balance evaluations based on realistically achievable expectations indicated a PHA biopolymer production potential of 3 600 tons of PHA per year from available organic residuals and for the two evaluated mills combined. 

    The MultiBio concept has a positive climate impact in comparison with current treatment and moves developments in a positive direction to achieve 7 of the 10 Swedish environmental goals. Through a detailed feasibility analysis, a natural progression in next steps in scenarios were suggested for PHA production. The MultiBio cascade process can be implemented with further necessary development with good business potential and a positive effect on climate change. However, biohydrogen technology needs further developments before this cascade process concept can be implemented. Alternatively, a scenario with only biopolymer technology shows already a significant business potential and even larger positive effect on climate change. A successful next step in demonstration of the PHA biopolymer production scenario may lead to it being implemented within the next few years. Furthermore, MultiBio has attracted a lot of attention regionally and nationally but also internationally with a total of 65 media listings. A licentiate thesis and three university degree projects linked to the project have been completed. Overall, the MultiBio project has successfully achieved its goals and objectives.

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  • 11.
    Saagi, Ramesh
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Arnell, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy. Lund University, Sweden.
    Reyes, Diego
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Sehlén, Robert
    Tekniska Verken i Linköping, Sweden.
    Jeppsson, Ulf
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Modelling heat transfer in sewer systems - towards a city-wide model for heat recovery from wastewater2019In: Proceedings of 10th IWA Symposium on Modelling and Integrated Assessment, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Majority of the energy consumed for urban water services is used to heat tap water. In order to allow for a system-wide evaluation of heat recovery possibilities from wastewater, this paper presents a one-dimensional model that can describe temperature and flow rate variations in a sewer pipe. The model is applied to successfully predict downstream wastewater temperature for sewer stretches in two Swedish cities (Linköping, Malmö). The model can be used to study various heat recovery possibilities from wastewater. It can be easily integrated with models developed to generate flow rate and temperature profiles from households as well as standard activated sludge models for modelling wastewater treatment plants so that a system-wide heat recovery study can be made possible.

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  • 12.
    Werker, Alan
    et al.
    Promiko AB.
    Bengtsson, Simon
    Promiko AB.
    The production of biopolymers for bioplastics using pulp and paper mill wastewater and residual fibre streams2020Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As part of the Multibio project, the potential for production of biobased and biodegradable polymers, from organic residuals in process effluent streams, was evaluated for Stora Enso Skoghalls and Rottneros pulp and paper mills in Värmland, Sweden.   These biopolymers are thermoplastic polyesters made by naturally occurring bacteria and are from the family of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs).  They can be formulated as principal ingredients for plastics, functional chemicals, and composite materials of interest to a diversity of sectors including the pulp and paper industry.  They can also be formulated into fish feed to impart pre/pro-biotic benefits in aquaculture.  Commercial quantities and qualities of PHAs can be produced as a corollary benefit to biological wastewater treatment processes that are used to treat industrial and municipal wastewaters for environmental protection.  The goal of the present study has been to determine the potential quantities of PHA that could be produced as an integral part of the mill residual organics and effluent management.  The aim of this Multibio work package has also been to recommend steps forward.

    It was estimated that Skoghalls and Rottneros mills manage 70 and 15 tons per day of residual organic material on a chemical oxygen demand (COD) basis, and in relation to respective production levels of about 778,000 and 170,000 ton/yr paper and board.  These numbers were calculated from mass balances using historical monitoring information provided by the mills and with measurements made in this study on samples from selected locations of the treatment processes.  The residual COD is comprised of fibre and surplus activated sludge as well as soluble dissolved organic material.  This organic material is a resource to produce a microbial biomass rich in PHA with remaining organic material being used for boiler heat production.   Improved sludge dewatering is expected such that COD used for heat production today could be diverted to PHA without undue loss of heat production capacity in the balance.

    Two process scenarios are presented (Scenario 1 & 2) as a logical progression of risk and development.  PHA production requires that some organic feedstock is first converted into volatile fatty acids (VFAs) through acidogenic fermentation.  If all the residual organic mass is used to produce VFAs (Scenario 1), it was estimated that about 2 000 and 400 tons PHA per year could be produced at Skoghalls and Rottneros mills, respectively.  Production amounts would be increased (Scenario 2) by about 50 % (3 000 and 600 tPHA/yr, respectively) if the residual mass flows of waste activated sludge biomass from the mill aerobic biological wastewater treatment processes could be exploited for a PHA storing potential rather than just being an organic feedstock to yield VFAs.  

    A mill side-line of polymer production anchors in-house supply and experience with PHAs while casting a net for evolving and capturing future interesting materials and business.  Future mill economies may foreseeably require standing on wider business footings including fibre as well as from other cellulose derived biobased revenue generating products and services.  PHAs can naturally also be made using the prime input lumber starting with hemicellulose and cellulose.  Opening a PHA specialty industry first is a way to open the door for discovery that may well motivate directing strategically separated mill upstream organic fractions to successful large commercial revenues from PHAs in the future.  

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  • 13.
    Wärff, Christoffer
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Arnell, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Jeppsson, Ulf
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Sehlén, Robert
    Tekniska Verken i Linköping, Sweden.
    Modelling heat recovery potential from household wastewater2019In: Proceedings of 10th IWA Symposium on Modelling and Integrated Assessment, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a strongly growing interest for wastewater heat recovery (WWHR) in Sweden and elsewhere, but a lack of adequate tools to determine downstream impacts due to the associated temperature drop. The heat recovery potential and associated temperature drop after heat recovery on a building level is modelled for a case study in Linköping, Sweden. The maximum temperature drop reaches 4.2 °C, with an annual recovered heat of 0.65 kWh/person/day. Wastewater temperature out from the heat exchanger was 18.0 °C in winter at the lowest. The drinking water source type can be an important factor when considering wastewater heat recovery.

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