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  • 1. Almström, Peter
    et al.
    Andersson, Carin
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Ericsson Öberg, Anna
    Hammersberg, Peter
    Kurdve, Martin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Landström, Anna
    Shahbazi, Sasha
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Wiktorsson, Magnus
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Windmark, Christina
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Winroth, Mats
    Zackrisson, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF, Energi och miljö.
    Sustainable and Resource Efficient Business Performance Measurement Systems: - The Handbook2017Report (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Amon, Francine
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Assessment of the environmental impact of warehouse fires and fire service response2017In: Fire and Materials 2017: 15th International Conference, London, UK: Interscience Communications, 2017, p. 433-442Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Groth, Cecilia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Spill till guld2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Kurkinen, Eva-Lotta
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Byggnadsfysik och innemiljö.
    Norén, Joakim
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Peñaloza, Diego
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Al-Ayish, Nadia
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    During, Otto
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Energy and climate-efficient construction systems: Environmental assessment of various frame options for buildings in Brf. Viva2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the collaborative forum Positive footprint housing® Riksbyggen is building the Viva residential quarter, which is a sustainability project at the very forefront of what is possible with contemporary construction. The idea is that this residential quarter should be fully sustainable in ecological, economic and social terms. Since 2013, a number of pilot studies have been completed under the auspices of the Viva project framework thanks to financing from the Swedish Energy Agency. The various building frame alternatives that have been evaluated are precast concrete, cast in-situ concrete and solid wood, all proposed by leading commercial suppliers. The report includes a specific requirement for equivalent functions during the use phase of the building, B. An interpretation has been provided that investigates the building engineering aspects in detail, as well as an account of the results based on the social community requirements specified in Viva, durability, fire, noise and energy consumption in the Swedish National Board of Building, Planning and Housing building regulations (BBR), plus Riksbyggen’s own requirements, Sweden Green Building Council’s Environmental Building Gold (Miljöbyggnad Guld) and 100-year life cycle. Given that the alternatives have different long-term characteristics (and also that our knowledge of these characteristics itself varies), these functional requirements have been addressed by setting up different scenarios in accordance with the EPD standard EN 15978. Because Riksbyggen has specified a requirement for a 100-year life cycle, we have also opted for an analysis period of 100 years. The results show no significant differences between concrete and timber structures for the same functions during the life cycle, either for climate or for primary energy. The minor differences reported are accordingly less than the degree of uncertainty involved in the study. The available documentation on the composition of the relevant intumescent paint coating on solid wood frames differs from source to source, so it was not possible to fully allow for the significance of this. The LCA has not included functional changes in the building linked to load-bearing characteristics, noise, moisture, health or other problems that may result in increased maintenance and replacement. The concrete houses have been dimensioned for 100 years, for instance, in accordance with tried and tested standards and experience. The solid wood house is not dimensioned in the same way, and this has led to us having to assume various scenarios.

    The results also show the following:

    • The uncertainties involved in comparing different structures and alternative solutions are very significant. The results are affected by factors such as life cycle, the functional requirements taken into consideration, transportation, design and structural details, etc.

    • Variations in the built items and a considerable degree of uncertainty in the assumptions make it difficult to obtain significant results on comparisons. Only actual construction projects with known specific data, declared from a life cycle perspective that takes into account actual building developer requirements and involving different scenarios (best, documented and worst-case) for the user stage can currently be compared.

    • In the other hand, comparisons restricted to different concrete structures only, or to different timber structures only, ought to involve a lower degree of uncertainty. These would then provide results that are significant as well as improvement requirements that are relevant.

    • There is potential for improving concrete by imposing requirements on the material

    • There is potential for improving solid wood frames by developing and guaranteeing well-documented long-term characteristics for all functional requirements.

    The LCAs were performed as an iterative process where all parties were given the opportunity to submit their viewpoints and suggestions for changes during the course of the work. This helped ensure that all alternatives have been properly thought through.

    Because, during the project, Riksbyggen opted to procure a concrete frame, in the final stage the researchers involved focused on ensuring the procurement process would result in the concrete frame as built meeting the requirements set out above. As things currently stand, the material requirements for the concrete are limited by the production options open to the suppliers, and this is therefore being investigated in the manufacture of precast concrete frames for the Viva cooperative housing association.

  • 5.
    Roos, Sandra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Jönsson, Christina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Hedberg, J
    Kaplin, C
    Odnevall Wallinder, Ingrid
    KTH Royal Institute of Thechnology.
    Integrating real metal runoff data to the life cycle assessment of alloys2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Roos, Sandra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Jönsson, Christina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Posner, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Peters, G
    Simultaneous development of inventory and impact assessment enables chemicals inclusion in textile LCA2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Roos, Sandra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Sandin, Gustav
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Biobaserade material och produkter.
    Zamani, Bahareh
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Peters, Greg
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Clarifying sustainable fashion: Life cycle assessment of the Swedish clothing consumption2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Sandin, Gustav
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Roos, Sandra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Zamani, Bahareh
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Peters, Gregory M.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Using the planetary boundaries for evaluating interventions for impact reduction in the clothing industry2015In: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Life Cycle Management, 2015, p. 608-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Stolen, Reidar
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Stensaas, Reidar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Solcelleteknologi og brannsikkerhet2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of photovoltaic (PV) technology in Norway is increasing. In this study, fire safety challenges of PV technology are studied. Fire ignition, fire spread and fire extinguishing are investigated. The study forms a knowledge base for safeguarding fire safety during assembly, operation and during firefighting efforts, and to form unified and clear regulations. The results show:

    Fire ignition: PV installations contain many electric connections which can be potential ignition sources, as well as a small volume of combustible materials. These provide everything needed to initiate a fire. It is important that all connections in a PV installation are robust and can withstand the stress they are exposed to throughout their lifetime, without causing malfunction that could cause a fire.

    Fire spread: For building attached photovoltaics, there are cavities between the module and the building. If there is a fire in this cavity, the produced heat could be trapped, which could lead to a more rapid and extensive fire spread than if the building surface were uncovered. In large scale tests with PV modules mounted on a roof covering, the fire spread under the whole area covered with modules, but stopped when approaching the edge. This demonstrates the importance of sectioning when mounting PV installations, to avoid fire spread to the whole roof. An option is to use materials with limited combustibility as roof covering below the PV module, to withstand the increased heat exposure from the PV modules. The cavity between module and building could potentially also alter the air flow along the building, which in turn could affect the fire spread.

    Firefighting: Firefighters need information on whether there is a PV installation in the building, and where there are electrical components. During firefighting efforts, the fire service must consider the danger of direct contact, and danger of arcs and other faults that could lead to new ignition points. Fresh water can be used as an extinguishing agent. This must be applied from at least 1 meter distance with spread beam and at least 5 meters distance with a focused beam. PV modules can complicate fire extinguishing as they represent a physical barrier between the fire fighter and the area to extinguish, and by creating areas which should be avoided due to danger of components with voltage. When these points are considered, building attached photovoltaics should not be a problem.

    Further work: For building attached photovoltaics, there is little research on vertical mounting (on facades), and on how changed fire dynamics could affect fire spread and extinguishing. Also, today there is an increasing use of building integrated photovoltaics, which could potentially give many new challenges for fire safety and for regulations, as these are a part of the building and at the same time electrical components. German statistics indicate that there is an increased fire risk for these types of installations, compared to building attached photovoltaics, making this an important focus area for further work.

  • 10. Wänerholm, Martin
    Climate impact of metal-casting2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Swerea SWECAST was commissioned by the Swedish Foundry Association to update the background report for the carbon footprint indicator which was first put forward in 2011.

    The aim of the work was to analyze the emission of CO2 for thirteen foundry producing countries when producing one tonne of cast product.

    The Swedish Environmental Research Institute, IVL, has on Swerea SWECAST mission produced a report with general data on carbon dioxide emissions from electricity consumption from thirteen countries.

    Based on the background data presented by IVL and assumptions, calculations have been made for a number of different metals. The results are an indication that there are climatic differences depending on the country the cast components is manufactured in. In essence, it is the countries' electricity mix that controls the outcome, where Sweden is very well, because electricity from hydro and nuclear power produce low emissions of greenhouse gases in the operating phase.

    A risk with this kind of work is that the result is taken as income for not working with energy efficiency in the Swedish foundries. So should not the results be interpreted. If foundries in other countries or individual foundries are working to streamline its process and the Swedish foundries don’t there is the risk that the Swedish foundries after all end up behind.

  • 11.
    Wänerholm, Martin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea SWECAST.
    Klimatpåverkan av gjutgods2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Swerea SWECAST was commissioned by the Swedish Foundry Association toupdate the background report for the carbon footprint indicator which was first putforward in 2011.The aim of the work was to analyze the emission of CO2 for thirteen foundryproducing countries when producing one tonne of cast product transported to aprospective buyer in Sweden.The Swedish Environmental Research Institute, IVL, has on Swerea SWECASTmission produced a report with general data on carbon dioxide emissions fromelectricity consumption and transport of goods from thirteen countries that have ormay have a significant role in the Swedish castings supply.Based on the background data presented by IVL and assumptions, calculationshave been made for a number of different metals. The results are an indication thatthere are climatic differences depending on the country the cast components ismanufactured in. In essence, it is the countries' electricity mix that controls the Swerea SWECAST AB Rapport nr 2016-003_outcome, where Sweden is very well, because electricity from hydro and nuclearpower produce low emissions of greenhouse gases in the operating phase.A risk with this kind of work is that the result is taken as income for not workingwith energy efficiency in the Swedish foundries. So should not the results beinterpreted. If foundries in other countries or individual foundries are working tostreamline its process and the Swedish foundries don’t there is the risk that theSwedish foundries after all end up behind.

  • 12.
    Xi, Fengming
    et al.
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, China; Shenyang Jianzhu University, China.
    Davis, Steven J.
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, China; University of California, US.
    Ciais, Philippe
    LSCE Climate and Environment Sciences Laboratory, France.
    Crawford-Brown, Douglas
    LSCE Climate and Environment Sciences Laboratory, France.
    Guan, Dabo
    University of Cambridge, UK.
    Pade, Claus
    University of East Anglia, UK.
    Shi, Tiemao
    Danish Technological Institute, Denmark.
    Syddall, Mark
    Shenyang Jianzhu University, China.
    Lv, Jie
    University of Cambridge, UK.
    Ji, Lanzhu
    Shenyang Agricultural University, China.
    Bing, Longfei
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.
    Wang, Jiaoyue
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.
    Wei, Wei
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.
    Yang, Keun-Hyeok
    Kyonggi University, South Korea.
    Lagerblad, Björn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Hållbara byggnadsverk.
    Galan, Isabel
    University of Aberdeen, UK.
    Andrade, Carmen
    Eduardo Torroja Institute for Costruction Sciences, Spain.
    Zhang, Ying
    Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, China.
    Liu, Zhu
    California Institute of Technology Pasadena, US; Harvard University, US.
    Substantial global carbon uptake by cement carbonation2016In: Nature Geoscience, ISSN 1752-0894, E-ISSN 1752-0908, Vol. 9, no 12, p. 880-883Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Calcination of carbonate rocks during the manufacture of cement produced 5% of global CO 2 emissions from all industrial process and fossil-fuel combustion in 2013. Considerable attention has been paid to quantifying these industrial process emissions from cement production, but the natural reversal of the process - carbonation - has received little attention in carbon cycle studies. Here, we use new and existing data on cement materials during cement service life, demolition, and secondary use of concrete waste to estimate regional and global CO 2 uptake between 1930 and 2013 using an analytical model describing carbonation chemistry. We find that carbonation of cement materials over their life cycle represents a large and growing net sink of CO 2, increasing from 0.10 GtC yr â '1 in 1998 to 0.25 GtC yr â '1 in 2013. In total, we estimate that a cumulative amount of 4.5 GtC has been sequestered in carbonating cement materials from 1930 to 2013, offsetting 43% of the CO 2 emissions from production of cement over the same period, not including emissions associated with fossil use during cement production. We conclude that carbonation of cement products represents a substantial carbon sink that is not currently considered in emissions inventories.

  • 13.
    Zackrisson, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF, Energi och miljö.
    Recycling production cable waste: Environmental and economic implications2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main driver for recycling cable wastes is the high value of the conducting metal, while the plastic with its lower value is often neglected. New improved cable plastic recycling routes could provide both economic and environmental incentive to cable producers for moving up the “cable plastic waste ladder”. The improvement potential for the European cable industry as a whole is roughly estimated to avoidance of 30 750 tonnes of CO2eq annually if these new techniques were to be applied to the 5% plastic waste stream from cable production. Cradle-to-gate life cycle assessment of the waste management of the cable scrap is suggested and explained as a method to analyze the pros and cons of different cable scrap recycling options at hand. Economic and environmental data about different recycling processes and other relevant processes and materials are given. Cable producers could use this data and method to assess the way they deal with the cable plastic waste today and compare it with available alternatives and thus illuminate the improvement potential of recycling cable plastic waste both in an environmental and in an economic sense.

    Recycling production cable waste - Environmental and economic implications. (PDF Download Available).

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