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  • 1.
    Amon, Francine
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Dahlbom, Sixten
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Challenges to transparency involving intellectual property and privacy concerns in life cycle assessment/costing: A case study of new flame retarded polymers2021In: Cleaner Environmental Systems, ISSN 2666-7894, Vol. 3, article id 100045Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work explores the challenges of using life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle cost (LCC) analysis to provide easily accessible decision support for early product development in cases where intellectual property (IP) and privacy issues require special consideration. Innovation research projects with partners representing different links along the value chain are potential examples of such cases. A case study in which spreadsheet-based cradle to compounder's gate LCA and LCC screening tools were created for candidate flame retarded polymer formulations exemplifies the need for better solutions to overcome problems associated with lack of transparency due to IP/privacy concerns. These problems affect data quality, scaling up processes, and uncertainty of the results. The consortium in this case study had a common overall goal, although each of the partners had a unique perspective on the polymer development process and different IP/privacy needs. The measures used to overcome the challenges include aggregation, normalisation, and omission of costs and impacts common to all candidate compounds. The resulting LCA and LCC screening tools represent a compromise between providing the requested information at the level of detail required by the partners and reporting results that are as accurate and useful as possible. The findings are: in cases where absolute secrecy must be maintained, no one can learn which materials and processes provide the optimal results; appointing a trusted third party to handle sensitive inventory data can cause increased uncertainty of the results due to lack of peer review; the results of the work cannot be built upon by subsequent research.

  • 2.
    Björkman, Max Bekken
    et al.
    Chalmers Industriteknik, Sweden.
    Heyne, Stefan
    Chalmers Industriteknik, Sweden.
    Hammar, Maria
    Chalmers Industriteknik, Sweden.
    Egilsson, Nils Ólafur
    Chalmers Industriteknik, Sweden.
    Mellquist, Ann-Charlotte
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Vendt, Marcus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Karlberg, Marie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Förstudie om resurskartläggning i företag: Att förstå och förändra för en ökad fysisk resurseffektivitet2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna förstudie har syftat till att undersöka potentialen med fysisk resurskartläggning (RKL) inom företag. RKL kan dels höja den interna kunskapen om företagets resursanvändning, dels stödja extern kommunikation av företagets materialeffektivitet, samt fungera som ett underlag för policymakers som vill utreda styrmedel kopplade till resursanvändning.

    Initiativet till förstudien är delvis sprungen ur tanken att delar av det som idag görs inom energikartläggning (EKL) också skulle kunna appliceras på kartläggning av fysiska resursströmmar. I förstudien har därför EKL summerats översiktligt tillsammans med tidigare utvärderingar av EKL. Rapporten lyfter även fram viktiga lärdomar från EKL som kan användas i resurskartläggningssammahang.

    En viktig del av förstudien har bestått i att utforska vad ett koncept som RKL kan inkludera för att uppnå ökad resurseffektivitet. Begreppet RKL kan delas in i två huvudsakliga delar: Förstå och Förändra. Generellt handlar det om att först kartlägga fysiska resursflöden, och därefter agera på resultaten för att nå konkret handling och förändring. Förstudien ger förslag på ett antal befintliga metoder som kan användas för inledande kartläggning, exempelvis materialflödesanalys (MFA) och livscykelanalys (LCA). Kopplat till detta har förstudien undersökt verktyg och indikatorer för att mäta cirkularitet som företag kan använda för att skapa sig en bild av hur cirkulär företagets verksamhet, produkter och tjänster är.

    För att få en bättre förståelse för hur företag och aktörer i Sverige ser på en mer detaljerad kartläggning av fysiska resursflöden i sina verksamheter, genomfördes femton intervjuer och en enkätstudie. Den enskilt största nyttan som de intervjuade personerna uttryckte med RKL var att kunna visualisera och synliggöra fysiska resurser och hur de flödar genom verksamheten. Via kommande lagkrav inom EU i form av CSRD (Corporate Sustainability Reporting Directive) och ESRS (European Sustainability Reporting Standards) skruvas kraven på företags hållbarhetsredovisning upp. Detta nya regelverk kräver bland annat redovisning av in- och utflöden av fysiska resurser, samt att företagen ska kunna visa på mål, strategier och planer för hur resursflödena kan effektiviseras.

    De nya EU-kraven kommer troligen vara en av de starkaste drivkrafterna för företag att utföra RKL, i tillägg till externa krav från kunder och samarbetsparter. I rapporten har översiktliga processer skisserats som stöd för genomförande av RKL med hjälp av befintliga metoder och verktyg. RKL i företag är ett brett begrepp och därför kan RKL utföras på olika sätt beroende på syftet med kartläggningen och typ av företag.

    En slutsats från projektet är att det inte är nödvändigt eller lämpligt med en RKL-lagstiftning på samma sätt som dagens lagstiftning för EKL. Detta beror på att RKL innebär en större komplexitet än EKL och är svår att generalisera för alla företag. Den generella metodiken kan dock utformas på liknande sätt för RKL som för EKL, och stöden gällande nätverkande och lathundar skulle kunna erbjudas på liknande sätt för RKL som för EKL för att stötta företag i att uppfylla kommande krav.

    I det fortsatta arbetet med resurskartläggningar i företag är det viktigt att beakta: (1) Fokusera på att använda redan existerande metoder, verktyg och indikatorer för att mäta resurser och cirkularitet; (2) Samarbeta med organisationer som tillhandahåller och utvecklar metoder, verktyg och indikatorer för en ökad cirkularitet för att tillsammans med dem öka kunskapen och förståelsen hos företag; (3) Utveckla den skisserade RKLprocessen, så att den bättre kan visa vilka typer av metoder och indikatorer som passar särskilt bra för olika syften; (4) Testa och utveckla processerna och guiderna tillsammans med ett antal pilotföretag; (5) Integrera RKL-processen och guiden med pågående utveckling av standarder för rapportering inom EU och ISO-samarbetet.

  • 3.
    Bok, Gunilla
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Brander, Linus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Johansson, Pernilla
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Nya möjligheter att minska mängden deponerat gipsavfall från bygg- och ombyggnadsprojekt2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Plasterboard is a common building material used in several parts of a building. In the case of retrofitting and demolition a part of the waste consists of components combined with the plasterboards, for example, frame work timber.

    In the case of new construction and retrofitting, construction waste is produced from clean plasterboard boards, either as cut off pieces or as unused whole boards. This waste can be used as raw material to produce new plasterboards. Manufacturers want to use gypsum from wasted boards to decrease the use of primary gypsum from mining and the quality requirements are relatively easy to achieve.

    In this project it has been found that the major construction companies already handle gypsum from new construction separately. This waste fraction could already be used in the production of new boards. Gypsum from retrofitting is usually assembled with other building materials and require more extensive efforts to achieve necessary purity to be used in the productions of new boards. Today, plasterboard waste is deposited or used to improve soil and/or sludge. In order to increase the recycling of plasterboards new inventory routines of rebuilding and demolition projects need to be elaborated. New tools and methods for dismantling plasterboard need to be development to achieve safe working environment and environmentally and economically sustainable recycling.

    Preparation plants producing raw material from plasterboard waste are already in operation. Today the waste mainly is wastage from the production stage. In order to increase the recycling of plasterboards from the construction- and demolition branch new logistic systems need to be developed, for example by creating collection points for gypsum board waste and / or developing new transport vehicles and systems. Prerequisites of changing the system of piece work in the construction industry need to be investigated with the intension to create a more sustainable building industry.

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  • 4.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Session and committe: Informing and stimulating green lifestyle choices2023Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Session (accepted): In order to reach sustainability goals in the future, green and social living must be considered. The interface between production and consumption set the frame for future sustainable lifestyles, including sharing consumption of transport and space in buildings, or the need of a circular production for clothing and electronics. Sustainable lifestyles imply a change of action. It implies new ways of consumption, including behavior change and nudging, as well as new ways of production, including business modeling and service design. This session encourages using visual examples and digital aids to present new ways of consumption and production for future sustainable lifestyles. We will discuss future lifestyles including their environmental and social effects from a life cycle perspective. Session (policy, reguklartion, targets) and scientific commitee (LCM 2023):

  • 5.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Social LCA for Buildings and Cities2022Conference paper (Other academic)
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  • 6.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Löwgren, Annika
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Tjänstedesign, aktörsanalys och energisystem2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The collection and recycling of packaging and life cycle analyses has traditionally been developed from a technical perspective, excluding the actors in the chain. However, how recycling should take place depends on who you ask and whether you look at the issue from an energy, material, legal or user-based perspective. The purpose of the research project TJÅRVEN is to create scalable solutions that change the behaviour of recycling stations and increase knowledge about behaviours and recycling within an energy context. There are three concrete objectives within the project. 1. Practical objectives: (1) Reduce wrong sorting, (2) Sort more (3) Reduced cleaning needs. 2. Development goals: Method development combine service design and actor LCA. 3. Knowledge objectives: Literature in social factors and actor LCA. Conclusions for the different milestones: Practical goals: A radical system change could result in a 30% behavioural change and reduced energy and climate impact. A small change will only lead to a 10% behavioural change and reduced energy and climate impact. Development goals: The combined method provides added value by combining the qualitative design method with quantitative figures. It provides a better anchoring and understanding for users i.e. households, which cannot be obtained by individual methods. Knowledge objectives: A literature study within state-of-the-art in ways to encourage proper recycling has been carried out within the first phase of the project. The literature study can be found in a parallel RISE report. Recommendations (for each operator and the entire system): Recommendations (cities and transport companies): It can be profitable to compare different cities e.g. choice of station affect transport, type of vehicle /fuel affect energy and climate impact. Recommendations (cleaning companies): Each station does not need to be cleaned as often as is done now because it does not affect household. Recommendation (household): Distance of station affect the choice of transport. Rinsing with hot water affects, as well as more sorting reduces the incineration. Recommendations (whole system): The biggest impact has households due to sorting and residual management, which results in 10-30% reduced energy and climate impact. Future studies: For the development of a future packaging collection, the integration of households and cities is needed. This is to avoid sub-optimizations in energy systems. There is a need for cooperation with cities that want to develop a better collection system. There is a need for the development of information and stations. There is a need for further development of implemented interventions and further development of more radical interventions i.e. services closer to households.

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  • 7.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Wickman, Clara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Börjesson, Emma
    Malmö Stad, Sweden.
    Pedersen, Lisa
    Malmö Stad, Sweden.
    Tunlid, Johanna
    Malmö stad, Sweden.
    Green and circular procurement in public organizations – from single use to reuse and prolonged lifetime in the City of Malmö2022In: E3S Web of Conferences, E-ISSN 2267-1242, Vol. 349, article id 05003Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The procurement in public organisations has traditionally been performed in a linear way. Using circular solutions could help public organisations to save resources and tackle climate change. The Swedish City of Malmö strives to include circular solutions and become a circular municipality. The goal of the study was to explore activities for increased reuse and visualise how circular material flows can reduce environmental impacts. The goal was also to develop a method for mapping material flows that can be used in the City of Malmö and other public organisations. The studied activities included in this study are the reuse of furniture and replacement of single use plastic with reuse alternatives, as well as prolonged lifetime of IT products and textiles. Life cycle analysis (LCA) based methods were used to estimate the reduction in environmental impact from the studied activities. The perception of circular activities within the City of Malmö was analysed with a survey. The results showed that the purchasing agreements with increased lifetime for clothing and IT products, lead to reduced environmental impacts. The results also showed that most employees are interested in using a digital sharing platform. Additionally, the results pointed out the need for a circular manager.

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  • 8.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Wickman, Clara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Norling, Malin
    Malmö Stad, Sweden.
    Börjesson, Emma
    Malmö Stad, Sweden.
    Cirkulär ekonomi, offentlig upphandling och ökad resurseffektivitet: Miljömässiga och sociala effekter av resursflöden i Malmö Stad2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Circular economy, public procurement, and increased resource efficiency: Environmental and social effects of resource flows in the City of Malmö.

    The procurement practices in public organisations are traditionally performed in a linear way. Using circular economy solutions could help public organisations to save both natural and economic resources and tackle climate change. The Swedish City of Malmö strives to include circular economy solutions and become a circular municipality. The scope of the project named “SINA – Sluta med Ineffektiv Användning” SINUS (stop ineffective Use) was to increase the practical knowledge regarding circular procurement and circular user flow within public organisations. In practice, the project tried to increase the efficiency and circularity of material flows in the city of Malmö. The goal of the project was to explore activities for increased reuse and visualise how circular material flows can reduce environmental impacts. The goal was also to develop a method for mapping material flows that can be used in the City of Malmö and other public organisations. Within the project, the purchase and waste flows within the City of Malmö have been mapped and analysed to identify circular activities and product categories. The studied activities and product categories included in this study are the reuse of furniture and replacement of single use plastic with reuse alternatives, as well as prolonged lifetime of IT products and textiles. Life cycle analysis (LCA) based methods were used to estimate the reduction in environmental impact from the studied circular activities. The results showed that most reduction can be achieved though purchasing agreements with increased lifetime from 3 to 4 years, such as for IT products and clothing (25%). The reuse of furniture and the replacement of single use plastic also leads to reduced environmental impacts. Some methodological difficulties might be found in data collection, not for environmental data, but for procurement and waste data. The perception of circular activities within the City of Malmö were analysed with a survey. The results also showed that most employees value the function of the product rather the need of new products, and they are interested in using a digital sharing platform. Additionally, the results pointed out the need for a circular manager handling the material flows, handling storage and repairs and handling the values of employees. This research has been resulted in a draft roadmap for circular economy for the City of Malmö, as well as a description of the methodology developed within the project, to be shared with other public organisations through various networks and digital channels.

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  • 9.
    Carlsson, Raul
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Certification.
    Lorentzon, Katarina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Rex, Emma
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Karpenja, Tatjana
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Pulp, Paper and Packaging.
    Davis, Jennifer
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Edoff, Petra
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems.
    Research institute strengthens its LCA capacity by internal collaboration and data infrastructure2021In: Abstract book of 10th International Conference on Life Cycle Management, 2021Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Most of the research institutes that during the last years merged to create RISE Research Institutes of Sweden had previously developed unique ways of delivering LCA competence, services and data to Swedish industry and public sector. Thereby RISE holds a unique position to establish itself as a leader in the LCA field, in practical application areas such as lifestyle and sustainability analyses, scenario simulation and modeling, service innovation, and policy recommendations at different system levels. To put this in effect, the competence groups of the former separate institutes need to establish synergetic collaboration and operational infrastructure of knowledge, internal standards, and data sharing, as well as concerted LCA offerings. Recognizing the general explosion of interest for environmental assessments, such as carbon footprints, from industry, public sector and consumers, RISE now focuses its capacity to manage different types and formats of life cycle data for internal use as well as for customer offerings. The goal is to increase availability of the life cycle competence connected to RISE’s technical breadth, to provide synergized competence in support of sustainable transition to industry and society. During 2020 the first step towards this goal resulted in an internal shared view of RISE’s LCA offerings and common fundamental and flexible data documentation principles for all different life cycle data within RISE’s different life cycle competence groups. This is an achievement, considering that formats for data presentations within RISE ranges from aggregated carbon footprint results of per kg of products to ILCD European Product Environmental Footprints. During 2021 the RISE effort is dedicated to formation of a solid platform for generic life cycle data sharing, through common internal data exchange formats and interfaces towards customers, as well as a long-term governance, maintenance and competence supply for the synergetic collaboration.

  • 10.
    Carlsson, Raul
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Certification.
    Nevzorova, Tatiana
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Certification.
    Diener, Derek
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Vanacore, Emanuela
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Boyer, Robert
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Linder, Marcus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Carlson, Annelie
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Testing metrics for measuring the circularity while metrics are being standardized - TRACE CERTAINTY TRAnsitioning to a Circular Economy via CERTificAtion in INdusTrY: PROJECT FINAL REPORT Reference Number 2020-044102022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes the results and the learnings of a project that had the aim to develop a protocol for measuring circularity for products. The project was centered around an assessment of the real-world example of a lubrication cleaning and recirculation system by SKF RecondOil. The process of assessment required that the team match circularity in principle (how circularity can be measured in theory) with circularity in practice (how circularity can be measured in a real system). In the process, the team identified different ways to measure circularity based on drafted circularity principles (from ongoing ISO work on circularity). In the end, these alternatives were to be practically verifiable and certifiable. Learnings are to be fed into ongoing work on developing international standards (ISO) for assessing circularity. In the progress of the work, a framework for understanding and measuring circularity for the system at hand was developed including: a heuristic (diagram) describing a system of interest and a list of chosen circular economy principles see Figure 3. It is thought that the heuristic and list of principles could be used to guide an entity in the process of first, creating their system model, and then, making sense of and applying principles.

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  • 11.
    Casimir, Justin
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Lund, Johanna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    A roadmap to develop Integrated Biomass Logistic Centres in Skåne Sweden - Case study grain milling industry2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents the results from the EU project AGROinLOG (Grant Agreement 727921) and focuses on the development of a roadmap for the grain processing industry to develop Integrated Biomass Logistic Centres in Skåne. More information concerning the Swedish contribution can be found in the public report AGROinLOG (2020a).The Swedish partners of the AGROinLOG project have been interacting with different stakeholders from the grain processing industry in Skåne (South of Sweden) to investigate the existing hinders and drivers for the development of Integrated Biomass Logistic Centres (IBLC) in the region. This report focuses in particular into the milling industry in Skåne in regard to its potential, the utilization of the by-product bran and limitation for the implementation of IBLC. The objective of this reports is to propose a roadmap for the transformation of the current milling sector into an IBLC.The reader will first get a brief introduction to the IBLC concept and a detailed status of the cereal production and milling industry in Skåne. The process for data collection included many interactions with the industry and other relevant stakeholders. The results are then presented.The roadmap uses a backcasting approach starting with the development of a desired sustainable vision of the future. The vision foreseen that mills have developed into IBLCs and collaborate with many actors to produce a wider range of products and add values to other by-products than the mills’ own by-products. This new activity is profitable for the mills but also for other processing industries. The products developed are highly demanded by the consumers.The authors then mapped the current situation looking in particular at hinders, potential conflict of interest, and policy support. The hinders could be clustered into six categories: supply, communication, regulation, economy, market, and logistic. The conflict of interest for the valorisation of bran is low as it is used for human consumption to a low extent. It could however conflict with the animal feeding industry. Different kind of supports are needed at the different stage of the innovation development. Skåne, and Sweden in general have good access to supporting schemes. More technical data concerning the current status of the milling sector is included in the background chapter.Finally, concrete measures for moving from the current situation to the vision are discussed. The most important measure to implement would be to develop a market for the new bio-based products. To support this, a number of measures should be implemented in a joint effort. These measures include technical development, collaboration, and communication. Moreover, sustainability must be a red thread in this transformation, and new legislation should provide a supportive framework.

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  • 12.
    Chiew, Yoon Lin
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Life cycle assessment of IoT system in Södertälje – The case of textile waste collection and the municipality’s recycling stations2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet of things (IoT) is expected to transform the way we live, work, and learn. Using IoT can be a game-changer for municipalities to move towards sustainability. Within the Vinnova financed project, The inclusive, sustainable, and connected society, the municipality wants to explore how IoT can enable route optimization and placement planning for increased operational efficiency. The aim of these environmental studies is to enhance the knowledge of the environmental benefits of IoT systems in three parts of the waste collection systems and services provided in the municipality of Södertälje: Waste collection in the city centre (Telge Återvinning), Textile collection (Human Bridge) and Recycling stations (Telge Återvinning). The LCA results for waste collection in the city centre are documented in Chiew & Brunklaus (2021); while the main LCA results and conclusions for textile collection (part 2) and recycling stations (part 3) are summarized in this report. The results for all three types of waste collection system show that the implementation of the IoT system is quite low (<1%). In this study, the climate impacts of both textile waste collection and recycling stations services per year were identified with LCA. By using the actor analysis, we found that in both the textile waste collection and the recycling stations services, the major climate impacts come from citizens, e.g., in the case of the textile waste collection service. The climate impact of transportation of the citizens to the textile station is 36%, followed by the plastic or paper bags from the citizens is 22% of the total impact of the textile waste, while the transportation of citizens to the recycling stations is even higher, such as 70% of the total impact of the recycling station system. The textile collection and recycling stations showed that citizen’s choice has huge impact on the CO2 emission. Re-used and recycled textiles, instead of incinerating can save up to 23-44kg CO2 per kg of new textile produced. The recycling stations collects almost 9kt of waste, which are consumer products (e.g. bicycles, furniture, electronic devices and car decks). Re-used products can save between 100kg CO2 eq per bicycle up to 300kg CO2 eq per electronic devices, such as electric tools or laptop computers, as well as 28kg CO2 eq per car decks. On the other hand, the service provided by Södertälje has a huge influence on the citizens choice. The “rullande återvinning” (rolling service), in which Telge Återvinning arranged trucks to collect bulky waste closer to the citizen can reduce the emission that is caused by the citizen transportation. In addition, the IoT system installed in the recycling station can provide good information to the citizen to avoid congestion time and paying for an empty visit due to long queue in the recycling stations. The service provided by Human Bridge and Telge Återvinning can be improved. However, both have already started to implement green choices. The environmental choices already made by Human Bridge (part 2) include the choice of thinner and recycled plastic bags and the choice of green electricity. The environmental choices already made by Telge Återvinning (part 3) include the choice of transportation (HVO instead of diesel) and the choice of green electricity. The recommendations for the future could include better service for the citizens (rolling service) and setting requirements on the service provider, such as in the textile collection (fossil-free transport).

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  • 13.
    de Jong, Annelise M.
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Mellquist, Ann-Charlotte
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    The potential of plastic reuse for manufacturing: A case study into circular business models for an on-line marketplace2021In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 13, no 4, article id 2007Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The plastic industry is facing increasingly growing social and political demands on plastic recycling and reuse. The resource perspective is essential for plastic production companies. Circular economy is one perspective for how industries could deal with a lack of resources today and in the future. However, there are large challenges in the reuse of plastics waste, predominantly due to concern regarding the quality of the waste material. Our paper focuses on the potential of the exchange of plastic material waste between companies in the production process before it enters into the recycling loop. In this study our aim is to investigate if an on-line marketplace is relevant for the plastic industry for this exchange, the market potential and the potential business model and requirements of the marketplace. Through interviews and benchmarking with five platform providers and two plastic manufacturing companies, we collected information on the business models of international digital platforms and plastic manufacturers concerning the exchange of reusable materials between companies. We also collected data through a survey sent out to plastic manufacturers via two industry organizations in Sweden. This paper will present the results from the study and conclude with a description of draft requirements with particular focus on direct reuse of regrind material, and a potential business model for the on-line marketplace that should be run on a commercial basis. This study shows that there are opportunities for the plastic industry to be at the forefront of a circular initiative that could also be utilized by other industries with adjustments to reflect the specific requirements of each industry. © 2021 by the authors.

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  • 14.
    Edwards, Ylva
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Hållbara byggnadsverk.
    Emilsson, Tobias
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Malmberg, Jonatan
    Scandinavian Green Roof Institute, Sweden.
    Pettersson Skog, Anna
    Sweco Environment, Sweden.
    Capener, Carl-Magnus
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Quality-assured solutions for green roof gardens on concrete deck with zero tolerance for leaks2016In: WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment: The Sustainable City XI / [ed] A. Galiano-Garrigos, C.A. Brebbia, WIT Press, 2016, Vol. 204, p. 363-372Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eco-neighborhoods with gardens on concrete decks are for several reasons increasingly being prescribed today in major Swedish cities. However, there is a lack of knowledge, experience, standards and guidelines as well as collaboration between parties and stakeholders when installing such systems. It is incredibly important to avoid any leakage during the lifetime of a green roof garden but this cannot be completely guaranteed with today’s installation practice and project management. At Sustainable City 2014 in Siena, we presented a paper about a new project aiming at bringing together researchers, government and industry to collaborative development of new and attractive solutions for green roof gardens with consideration to the environment and high requirements for durability, materials, construction and energy efficiency. This paper is a continuation of the paper presented in Siena and reports on the most recent results from the collaborative project which will finalize in November 2016. After that, the project will be further evaluated in a proposed continuation project for another couple of years.

  • 15.
    Fuertes Giné, Leticia
    et al.
    University of Zaragoza, Spain.
    Vanacore, Emanuela
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Hunka, Agnieszka D.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Public Procurement for the Circular Economy: a Comparative Study of Sweden and Spain2022In: Circular Economy and Sustainability, ISSN 2730-597X, E-ISSN 2730-5988, Vol. 2, p. 1021-1041Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the relationship between circular economy and public procurement by regarding green procurement as an enabler for the transition from sustainable to circular public procurement. Considering the different green procurement uptakes under the common legal framework of the European Union, and particularly, the contrasting practice results of Spain and Sweden and the opposed legal configuration of their procurement Acts, a comparative law study of the exclusion of suppliers, awarding criteria and special conditions of performance’s Articles is conducted.

  • 16.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport.
    Millgård, Ulrika
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport.
    Återvinning av avfall: Beslut och riskbedömning2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study has been to highlight different factors that waste recycling decisions can consider, as well as contributing to a constructive discussion of goals and overall principles for waste recycling. The background of the project is that it has been shown that the recycling of construction material has decreased with the application of the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency's handbook (2010:1). One view that emerged from an evaluation of the handbook is that the non-toxic environmental target (“Giftfri miljö”) gets too much weight and that resource management gets too little focus. As the climate crisis becomes more acute, and since recycling in many cases reduces the climate impact, this limitation can be questioned. However, it is currently unclear how a non-toxic environment and resource efficiency should be balanced.A literature study has been carried out in two parts: 1) decision and risk management theory, and 2) ethics. The first part was aimed at providing theory about risk decisions and basic steps that should be included in a decision-making process. The second part of the literature study, ethics, presents theory of ethical aspects linked to decisions. Ethics is central because it has long sought answers to the question of how we should act.Furthermore, nine interviews have also been conducted with various stakeholders, from the governmental agency level to recyclers, to capture how waste recycling works in practice. From the interview result, the theme "The goal Non-toxic environment and the difficulties that can arise in its practical application" crystallized. Which was discussed further in a workshop. Invited to the workshop were mainly those who had been interviewed and had relevant roles for the chosen theme.If waste recycling is seen as a decision problem, the choice is between to recycle (in different ways) or not to recycle (ie. landfill, incineration or energy recovery). Based on decision theory, all the relevant goals should be considered. This is likely to require a broader perspective for more difficult cases, which includes environmental risks linked to the different alternatives.With a broader perspective, it is recognized that no alternative is risk-free. A multi-criteria analysis can weigh the various factors against each other to see what weighs most, which from the perspective of the environmental code is most reasonable, ie. provides the most environmental benefit. A broader perspective favours long-term sustainability and, in the long run, all environmental goals. On a higher level, recycled and virgin material should be treated equally. Similarly, from a circular perspective, it should be demonstrated that the choice of material (recycled and virgin) promotes long-term sustainability.

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  • 17.
    Hildenbrand, Jutta
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Dahlström, Johan
    Kinnarps AB, Sweden.
    Shahbazi, Sasha
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Kurdve, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Identifying and evaluating recirculation strategies for industry in the nordic countries2021In: Recycling, E-ISSN 2313-4321, Vol. 6, no 4, article id 74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The manufacturing industry in the Nordic countries aims to include closing product and material loops to recover values in their circular economy strategies. Recirculating strategies for products and materials are required for existing products that are part of the stock and are also anticipated to be aligned with products designed for circularity and circular business models in the future. Options to capture value of discarded products are diverse and include reuse, remanufacturing and material recycling. The Circular Economy Integration in the Nordic Industry for enhanced sustain-ability and competitiveness (CIRCit) project developed a framework to guide decision makers in the industry on how to identify suitable treatments and subsequent use at the end of use or end of life of a product and how to select among different options. Factors considered in the assessment include technical feasibility, necessary efforts, networks of business partners, legal implications and overall sustainability aspects. Our empirical studies show great support for decision-makers in the value recovery of different products with different complexity levels. It is also concluded that the properties of products at their end of use are the main drivers behind selecting a proper recirculation strategy. This study contributes with an empirical evaluation and a consistent terminology framework for recirculation options. The general setup is relevant for the Nordic countries. © 2021 by the authors. 

  • 18.
    Ibrahim, Muhammad Asim
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Hogland, William
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Safety at waste and recycling industry: Detection and mitigation of waste fire accidents2022In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 141, p. 271-281Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, NASA’s VIIRS (Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite) fire hotspots and data of the Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency (MSB), collected between 2012 and 2018, was integrated to characterize waste fire incidents that were detected by VIIRS and reported to MSB (DaR), detected by VIIRS but not reported to MSB (DbNR) and that are reported to MSB but not detected by VIIRS (RbND). Results show that the average number of open waste fire incidents per million capita per year (AFIPMC) in Sweden, for the period 2012–2018, ranges from 2.4 to 4.7. Although a weak correlation exists (r = 0.44, P = 0.1563, one tailed) between years and number of fire incidents (MSB + VIIRS fires), a continuous increase in number of fire incidents was recorded between 2014 and 2018. It is concluded that the use of satellite data of fire anomalies, in-combination with the use of incident reports, will help in formalizing more reliable and comprehensive waste fire statistics. Another focus area of the article is to consolidate the recommendations and routines for safe storage of waste and biofuels and to present the lessons that can be learnt from past fire incidents. The article also discusses the technical, political, economic, social, and practical aspects of waste fires and provide a baseline for future research and experimentation.

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  • 19.
    Kurkinen, Eva-Lotta
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Al-Ayish, Nadia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Brick, Karolina
    Riksbyggen, Sweden.
    Rönneblad, Anders
    Cementa, Sweden.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    During, Otto
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Larsson, Oskar
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Kriterier för resurssnålt byggande i praktiken: Slutrapport från forskningsprogrammet E2B2 – energieffektivtbyggande och boende2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbetet omfattar uppföljning av ställda kriterier för låg klimatpåverkan från betong vid upphandlingav betongstomme för brf. Viva i Göteborg. Kriterierna följdes upp dels genom att LCA studien somgenomförts under programskedet uppdaterades med data för den färdigupphandlade byggnaden ochdels genom att interljuva ett urval av aktörer för att få en inblick över hur branschen ser på de ställdakraven. Arbetet innehåller även en avslutande del angående känsligheten i beräkningarna samtosäkerheter och hur de kan behandlas.Byggnaderna som är tänkta att stå i 100 år kommer utsättas för klimatförändringar. Därförgenomfördes parallellt med LCA studien också energisimuleringar för att se hur den termiskakomforten och uppvärmningsbehovet förändras över tiden.Resultaten av LCA-uppföljningen och de ställda kriterierna visar att kraven uppfylldes för både denprefabricerade betongen och den platsgjutna betongen. Att jämföra den totala klimatpåverkan mellanprogramskedet och upphandlad byggnad visar sig inte vara möjligt då konstruktionen har förändratsalltför mycket, bland annat har den uppvärmda ytan ökat med ca 50% samtidigt som mer material haranvänts för de prefabricerade väggarna och bjälklagen. En känslighetsanalys har istället genomförtssom visar att den upphandlade konstruktionen har 30% lägre klimatpåverkan per BOA jämfört motom den byggts med traditionell betong. Hade de ursprungliga konstruktionsdetaljerna frånprogramskedet använts för väggar och bjälklag hade klimatpåverkan istället varit ca 40% lägre.Vid framtida kravställning bör man därför ta hänsyn även till konstruktionerna, betongkvaliteternaoch dess materialmängder och inte bara ställa krav på betongrecepten som i det här fallet.Klimatsimuleringarna visar att det troligen finns ett stort mörkertal med lågenergilägenheter som harförhöjd temperatur inomhus sommartid redan vid dagens klimat

  • 20.
    Kyrkander, Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Policyguide - för att möjliggöra innovativ hållbar dagvattenhantering på kvartersmark2024Other (Other academic)
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  • 21.
    Kyrkander, Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Processkartläggning och processdesign för hållbar dagvattenhantering – En metod för stärkt samverkan2024Other (Other academic)
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  • 22.
    McNamee, Margaret
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Göras, Therese
    Skanska, Sweden.
    Mossberg, Aaxel
    Bengt Dahlgren, Sweden.
    Wetterqvist, Cecilia
    Bengt Dahlgren, Sweden.
    Lundh, Karolina
    Bengt Dahlgren, Sweden.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Blomqvist, Susanne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Challenges and opportunities for reuse of products and materials with fire safety requirements – A Swedish perspective2023In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 140, article id 103857Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The construction sector is of great importance to the Swedish economy, but its impact on the climate is significant and the sector accounts for about 40% of Sweden's total energy consumption. The sector also generates a significant share of the total material flows and waste quantities in the society. Thus, due to the large impact of the construction sector, there are great opportunities to contribute positively by reducing the climate impact through change and modernization. There are many activities focused on reducing construction waste in various ways and the issue of material and product reuse has received increasing attention in recent years. However, very little work has focused on products associated with fire safety requirements. This paper provides an overview of research on the reuse of materials and products with a focus on products with fire safety requirements. In addition, it provides a review of the Swedish building legislation and its impact on the possibility of reusing materials and products with fire safety requirements. Finally, possible paths are explored for introducing more large-scale reuse of such materials and products. © 2023 The Authors

  • 23.
    Nilsson-Lindén, Hanna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Mellquist, Ann-Charlotte
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Tekie, Haben
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Myndighetsdialog cirkulär ekonomi : Slutrapport2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With the contemporary sustainability challenges the world is facing, it is encouraging that circular economy is on the uprising and generates new type of products, services and business models. However, current laws and regulations are not always in line with the logic of a circular economy.The project Roundtable for circular economy aimed to identify challenges and opportunities regarding circularity and product related regulation and legislation, in order to facilitate circular economy in practice.

    Important in doing so, is the collaboration and knowledge sharing between authorities and industry. As this is a new practice, there are different interpretations of legislation and regulation. Therefore, in this project, two round tables were organized with authorities and industry in order to have a joint discussion on these issues. This was combined with an interview study with relevant actors.One important goal of this project was to aid with guidance concerning challenges and opportunities regarding circularity and product related regulation and legislation, for a more circular and resource efficient society, as to avoid inaction and uncertainty on how to act circular and within the legal boundaries, now and in the future.

    Another important goal was to have a platform for discussions on circular economy, where authorities and industry can create a common understanding of challenges and opportunities of circular economy.There are several conclusions from the project.

    The most obvious conclusion is that the product-related legislation is:• difficult to interpret, as it involves many directives and laws which are not synchronized• ambiguous as to what may or may not be done and still fulfil legislation• is not adapted to the different strategies that a circular economy entails and that companies wish to act uponMore specifically, there is a need both for different circular concepts to be added to the legislation, and for these concepts to be defined and harmonized between the various legislations and directives.

    The term "new product" in particular, is difficult to interpret in relation to circular flows and products designed for circularity and upgradeability. Other conclusions are that it would be easier for circular flows and business if product information could accompany the product during its service life and different uses, and that this, together with e.g. standardization, would facilitate a more pragmatic approach to risk assessment.

    In addition to legislation, economic policy where costs for externalities are included, could be a powerful enabler for more circular flows.In summary, our study shows that the broad conversations that took place around the table with participants from authorities and industry have been much appreciated and opened up for a constructive dialogue with the potential to make a difference, but also that there are huge challenges of adapting today's product-related legislation to more circular products and flows, and that major changes are likely to be needed.

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  • 24.
    Sandin, Gustav
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Peters, Greg M.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Environmental impact of textile reuse and recycling – A review2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 184, p. 353-365Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reviews studies of the environmental impact of textile reuse and recycling, to provide a summary of the current knowledge and point out areas for further research. Forty-one studies were reviewed, whereof 85% deal with recycling and 41% with reuse (27% cover both reuse and recycling). Fibre recycling is the most studied recycling type (57%), followed by polymer/oligomer recycling (37%), monomer recycling (29%), and fabric recycling (14%). Cotton (76%) and polyester (63%) are the most studied materials.

    The reviewed publications provide strong support for claims that textile reuse and recycling in general reduce environmental impact compared to incineration and landfilling, and that reuse is more beneficial than recycling. The studies do, however, expose scenarios under which reuse and recycling are not beneficial for certain environmental impacts. For example, as benefits mainly arise due to the avoided production of new products, benefits may not occur in cases with low replacement rates or if the avoided production processes are relatively clean. Also, for reuse, induced customer transport may cause environmental impact that exceeds the benefits of avoided production, unless the use phase is sufficiently extended.

    In terms of critical methodological assumptions, authors most often assume that textiles sent to recycling are wastes free of environmental burden, and that reused products and products made from recycled materials replace products made from virgin fibres. Examples of other content mapped in the review are: trends of publications over time, common aims and geographical scopes, commonly included and omitted impact categories, available sources of primary inventory data, knowledge gaps and future research needs. The latter include the need to study cascade systems, to explore the potential of combining various reuse and recycling routes.

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    Sandin and Peters (2018) Envrionmental impact of textile reuse and recycling - A review
  • 25.
    Shahbazi, Sasha
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    van Loon, Patricia
    Chalmers Industriteknik, Sweden.
    Kurdve, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Johansson, Mats
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Metal and Plastic Recycling Flows in a Circular Value Chain2022In: Towards a Sustainable Future - Life Cycle Management: Challenges and Prospects / [ed] Klos, Zbigniew Stanislaw; Kalkowska, Joanna; Kasprzak, Jędrzej, Cham: Springer International Publishing , 2022, p. 195-206Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Material efficiency in manufacturing is an enabler of circular economy and captures value in industry through decreasing the amount of material used to produce one unit of output, generating less waste per output and improving waste segregation and management. However, material types and fractions play an important role in successfulness of recycling initiatives. This study investigates two main fractions in automotive industry, namely, metal and plastic. For both material flows, information availability and standards and regulations are pivotal to increase segregation, optimize the collection and obtain the highest possible circulation rates with high quality of recyclables. This paper presents and compares the current information flows and standards and regulations of metals and plastics in the automotive value chain.

  • 26.
    Stolen, Reidar
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Stensaas, Reidar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Solcelleteknologi og brannsikkerhet2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of photovoltaic (PV) technology in Norway is increasing. In this study, fire safety challenges of PV technology are studied. Fire ignition, fire spread and fire extinguishing are investigated. The study forms a knowledge base for safeguarding fire safety during assembly, operation and during firefighting efforts, and to form unified and clear regulations. The results show:

    Fire ignition: PV installations contain many electric connections which can be potential ignition sources, as well as a small volume of combustible materials. These provide everything needed to initiate a fire. It is important that all connections in a PV installation are robust and can withstand the stress they are exposed to throughout their lifetime, without causing malfunction that could cause a fire.

    Fire spread: For building attached photovoltaics, there are cavities between the module and the building. If there is a fire in this cavity, the produced heat could be trapped, which could lead to a more rapid and extensive fire spread than if the building surface were uncovered. In large scale tests with PV modules mounted on a roof covering, the fire spread under the whole area covered with modules, but stopped when approaching the edge. This demonstrates the importance of sectioning when mounting PV installations, to avoid fire spread to the whole roof. An option is to use materials with limited combustibility as roof covering below the PV module, to withstand the increased heat exposure from the PV modules. The cavity between module and building could potentially also alter the air flow along the building, which in turn could affect the fire spread.

    Firefighting: Firefighters need information on whether there is a PV installation in the building, and where there are electrical components. During firefighting efforts, the fire service must consider the danger of direct contact, and danger of arcs and other faults that could lead to new ignition points. Fresh water can be used as an extinguishing agent. This must be applied from at least 1 meter distance with spread beam and at least 5 meters distance with a focused beam. PV modules can complicate fire extinguishing as they represent a physical barrier between the fire fighter and the area to extinguish, and by creating areas which should be avoided due to danger of components with voltage. When these points are considered, building attached photovoltaics should not be a problem.

    Further work: For building attached photovoltaics, there is little research on vertical mounting (on facades), and on how changed fire dynamics could affect fire spread and extinguishing. Also, today there is an increasing use of building integrated photovoltaics, which could potentially give many new challenges for fire safety and for regulations, as these are a part of the building and at the same time electrical components. German statistics indicate that there is an increased fire risk for these types of installations, compared to building attached photovoltaics, making this an important focus area for further work.

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    RISE-rapport2018_31_Solcellete_Brann
  • 27.
    Zackrisson, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF, Energi och miljö.
    Indikatorer för bedömning av miljöpåverkan2014Report (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Nistad, Andrea Arntzen
    Asplan Viak, Norway.
    Langeland, Markus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Wocken, Yannic
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Hognes, Erik Skontorp
    Asplan Viak, Norway.
    Mehta, Shraddha
    SINTEF Ocean, Norway.
    Greenhouse gas emission reduction opportunities for the Norwegian salmon farming sector - can they outweigh growth?2024In: Aquaculture, ISSN 0044-8486, E-ISSN 1873-5622, Vol. 581, article id 740431Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Norwegian farmed Atlantic salmon is a nutritious type of food in increasing demand and although production has stagnated and is faced by various challenges, it is likely to continue to expand in the future. We present results from a detailed greenhouse gas emission assessment of the most important Norwegian farmed salmon export products along with improvement measures. By scaling up both baseline results and reduction opportunities, based on growth projections, we estimate current and future emissions of the sector as a whole. We show that export of gutted salmon to Europe by truck dominates Norwegian salmon exports, not only in volume and value, but also in emissions, followed by export of fresh gutted salmon and fillets to Asia and fillets to the US by air. The cumulative greenhouse gas emissions are dominated by feed production followed by emissions from overseas airfreighting of fresh products. The five most important emission reduction measures, based only on existing technology and without particular order were 1) slightly increased feed efficiency, 2) increased utilization of side streams occurring in secondary processing after export, 3) seafreight to market instead of road and air, 4) higher energy efficiency and cleaner energy sources, and 5) changed feed composition. Collectively, they have the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions of current production by 60%, from 5.2 to 2.1 million tonnes of CO2e, assuming the same relative importance of each supply chain. This implies that a medium growth-scenario, representing more than a doubling of the volume of salmon farmed to 3.3 million tonnes, would be possible while reducing total sector emissions by 16% if the improvement measures were fully implemented. For larger reductions, either lower growth or more ambitious implementation of improvement measures is needed. Although greenhouse gas emissions are often linked to resource efficiency and wider sustainability, this is not always the case, and it is important to avoid shifting burdens from climate to e.g. eutrophication or biodiversity impacts. However, many environmental impacts of salmon farming are centered around feed efficiency, and even problems with welfare, escapees, and in part eutrophication are reflected in lower feed efficiency resulting in higher greenhouse gas emissions. In addition to the systematic collection of robust data for more continuous monitoring of greenhouse gas emission performance over time, we therefore recommend identifying additional indicators to monitor to ensure the sector develops not only towards climate neutrality but also towards broader sustainability. 

  • 29.
    Zu Castell-Rüdenhausen, Malin
    et al.
    VTT, Finland.
    Wahlström, Margareta
    VTT, Finland.
    Fruergaard Astrup, Thilde
    DTI Danish Technological Institute, Denmark.
    Jensen, Carl
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Oberender, Anke
    DTI Danish Technological Institute, Denmark.
    Johansson, Pernilla
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Waerner, Eirik
    Multiconsult, Norway.
    Policies as drivers for circular economy in the construction sector in the nordics2021In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 13, no 16, article id 9350Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A circular economy (CE) represents the key alternative to the linear ‘take-make-consume-dispose’ economic model, that still predominates in the construction sector. This study investigates how policies support CE-focused businesses in the construction sector in the Nordics. A literature review, the creation of a database, a review of Nordic actors with a CE focus, and targeted interviews with actors across the value chain of the construction sector in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden enabled us to benchmark the CE policy landscape and assess how CE policies at different levels support CE business models in the construction sector. The results show that the construction sector is well represented in the CE policy frameworks and that many business opportunities are created when national and local policies are put into practice. The implementation of policies is mainly done via three key concepts, i.e., planning, requirements for sustainable constructions, and requirements for public procurement. It can be concluded that policies are drivers for the implementation of a CE and support CE business models in the Nordics. © 2021 by the authors. 

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