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  • 1.
    Abdollahi, Elnaz
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Hamon, Camille
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Potential profits from ancillary service markets2023Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In this deliverable from the SeCoHeat project, profits that can be made with 1 MWh of electricity production capacity on existing ancillary service markets are evaluated in 2020 and 2021. Profits are evaluated for four different marginal production costs corresponding to the following fuels for a CHP power plant: waste (assumed fuel price: 0 kr/MWh), recycled wood (10 kr/MWh), wood chips (20 kr/MWh) and wood pellets (30 kr/MWh). The results show that except for wood chips and wood pellets in 2020, the most profitable ancillary service markets are FFR (fast-frequency response) and aFRR down (automatic frequency restoration reserves for down-regulation). The reasons are that (1) producers don’t have to withhold capacity from the day-ahead market when their participate in these two markets and (2) producers get compensated for the capacity reserved for the ancillary service markets. For wood chips, the FFR market was the most profitable in 2020, followed by the mFRR down market (manual frequency restoration reserves for down-regulation). The reason for the mFRR down market to be more profitable than the aFRR down market for this fuel is that the profits from mFRR down depend on the avoided fuel costs, which are higher for wood chips than for waste and recycled wood. In 2021, all prices started increasing significantly, which decreased the relative profitability of the mFRR down compared to other markets. For wood pellets, the mFRR down market was also the second most profitable market in 2020, for the same reasons. The most profitable one in 2020 was the mFRR up market (manual frequency restoration reserves for up-regulation). The reason is that the higher fuel price of these two fuels entails low participation in the day-ahead market. Therefore, withholding capacity from the day-ahead market to be able to participate on the mFRR up market brings additional profits. In 2021, however, day-ahead prices started increasing significantly (a trend that continued into 2022) and the mFRR up market became the least profitable market for these two fuels. The profit evaluation performed in this deliverable is purely economic. It does not include the sector coupling to the heat sector (which entails limitation of the available electricity production capacity but also a possibility to store heat if storage is available) nor does it include other technical limitations such as ramp rates. These aspects will be considered in follow-up work in this project. This report has been compiled within the scope of the project SeCoHeat - Sector coupling of district heating with the electricity system: profitability and operation. The project is financed by the Research and Development Foundation of Göteborg Energi.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 2.
    Ahlström, Johan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Korrosion.
    Jafri, Yawer
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden; International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Austria.
    Furusjö, Erik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sustainable aviation fuels – Options for negative emissions and high carbon efficiency2023Ingår i: International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, ISSN 1750-5836, E-ISSN 1878-0148, Vol. 125, artikel-id 103886Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mitigating the climate impact from aviation remains one of the tougher challenges in adapting society to fulfill stated climate targets. Long-range aviation cannot be electrified for the foreseeable future and the effects of combusting fuel at high altitude increase the climate impact compared to emissions of green-house gasses only, which further limits the range of sustainable fuel alternatives. We investigate seven different pathways for producing aviation biofuels coupled with either bio-energy carbon capture and storage (BECCS), or bio-energy carbon capture and utilization (BECCU). Both options allow for increased efficiency regarding utilization of feedstock carbon. Our analysis uses process-level carbon- and energy balances, with carbon efficiency, climate impact and levelized cost of production (LCOP) as primary performance indicators. The results show that CCS can achieve a negative carbon footprint for four out of the seven pathways, at a lower cost of GHG reduction than the base process option. Conversely, as a consequence of the electricity-intensive CO2 upgrading process, the CCU option shows less encouraging results with higher production costs, carbon footprints and costs of GHG reduction. Overall, pathways with large amounts of vented CO2, e.g., gasification of black liquor or bark, as well as fermentation of forest residues, reach a low GHG reduction cost for the CCS option. These are also pathways with a larger feedstock and corresponding production potential. Our results enable a differentiated comparison of the suitability of various alternatives for BECCS or BECCU in combination with aviation biofuel production. By quantifying the relative strengths and weaknesses of BECCS and BECCU and by highlighting cost, climate and carbon-efficient pathways, these results can be a source of support for both policymakers and the industry. © 2023 The Author(s)

  • 3.
    Awais, Fawad
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Flodén, Jonas
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Svanberg, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Maritima avdelningen.
    Logistic characteristics and requirements of Swedish wood biofuel heating plants2021Ingår i: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 138, artikel-id 110650Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The demand for wood biofuel for district heating plants and combined heat and power plants (CHPs) has increased, caused by an increase in both the number and size of CHPs. This places large demands on the logistics system supplying these plants with fuel, with a particular interest in the use of alternative modes of transport such as rail and sea. The aim of this paper is to identify the industry actors’ requirements, constraints, and preferences regarding the wood-biofuel supply chain and to identify the logistical challenges this entails, as well as how this impacts the opportunity for an increased use of alternative transport solutions. A survey was sent to all Swedish CHPs, combined with six interviews with transport companies, terminal operators, and forest companies. The study shows that the industry has a local focus that limits potential logistics and sourcing solutions. It is also challenged by urban sprawl, with expanding residential areas close to the CHPs putting further constraints on the operations. Significant variations in fuel demand, depending on unpredictable outside temperature and seasonal variation, is a further challenge. The low density of the fuel has a negative impact on transport costs and introduces a trade-off between chipping close to the forest to increase density versus more efficient chipping at the CHP. Intermodal transport only used by large plants, driven by a shortage of local fuel. © 2020 The Authors

  • 4.
    Bianchi, Marta Angela
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Hallström, Elinor
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Parker, Robert
    Dalhousie University, Canada; Aquaculture Stewardship Council, Netherlands.
    Mifflin, Kathleen
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Tyedmers, Peter
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Assessing seafood nutritional diversity together with climate impacts informs more comprehensive dietary advice2022Ingår i: Communications Earth & Environment, E-ISSN 2662-4435, Vol. 3, nr 1, artikel-id 188Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Seafood holds promise for helping meet nutritional needs at a low climate impact. Here, we assess the nutrient density and greenhouse gas emissions, weighted by production method, that result from fishing and farming of globally important species. The highest nutrient benefit at the lowest emissions is achieved by consuming wild-caught small pelagic and salmonid species, and farmed bivalves like mussels and oysters. Many but not all seafood species provide more nutrition at lower emissions than land animal proteins, especially red meat, but large differences exist, even within species groups and species, depending on production method. Which nutrients contribute to nutrient density differs between seafoods, as do the nutrient needs of population groups within and between countries or regions. Based on the patterns found in nutritional attributes and climate impact, we recommend refocusing and tailoring production and consumption patterns towards species and production methods with improved nutrition and climate performance, taking into account specific nutritional needs and emission reduction goals. © 2022, The Author(s).

  • 5.
    Björner Brauer, Hanna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och resurser.
    Khan, Jamil
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Diffusion of biogas for freight transport in Sweden: A user perspective2021Ingår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 312, artikel-id 127738Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Current freight transport is highly dependent on fossil fuels and there is a need for a transition to alternative fuels and technologies. Biogas is a type of biofuel that has the potential to reduce climate emissions from freight transport, while providing additional benefits such as recycling of nutrients and increased energy security. This paper uses theories on the diffusion of green technologies to analyse the barriers and drivers for the increased use and diffusion of biogas in freight transport. The empirical focus is on the region of Västra Götaland in Sweden, and qualitative interviews have been conducted with demand-side actors such as transport buyers, haulage companies and vehicle manufacturers. The results confirm the important barriers observed in previous research, such as the higher costs of biogas, financial uncertainties and lack of infrastructure, as well as the interplay between barriers. The main drivers are an increased focus on sustainability both within the sector and from wider society, as well as the environmental properties of biogas. Specific barriers have also been identified such as a fragmented freight market structure with a mix of large and small transport companies, tight profit margins and reduced capacity for investments. There is also a division of labour and responsibilities between transport companies and transport buyers, which makes it unclear who will drive the transition to alternative fuels. In general, the study shows that the different types of uncertainty are perceived by the actors as being a significant barrier that needs to be better conceptualised in diffusion theory. © 2021 The Authors

  • 6.
    Boork, Magdalena
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Enger, Johanna
    Lunds University, Sweden.
    Carolina, Hiller
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Wendin, Karin
    Kristianstad University, Sweden.
    Bright Communication: Belysningskommunikation med fokus på perception och energi2019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    I syfte att främja effektiv användning av energiför belysning, samtidigt som brukarens upplevelse och ljuskomfort sätts ifokus, har detta projekt utvecklat metoder och verktyg för att kommunicera kringljus och belysning. För att tillgodose att ljusmiljöer utformas utifrån ettbrukarperspektiv har dagens existerande definitioner av ljuskvalitet, somhuvudsakligen bygger på tekniska och fysikaliska termer, kompletterats medbegrepp och definitioner av ljusets visuella och emotionella karaktär. Genom ennära samverkan med både belysningsbranschen och beställare i projektetssamtliga faser har målet varit att utveckla metoder och verktyg som är väl förankradeoch tillämpbara av olika aktörer involverade i processen från ljusplanering tillimplementering och utvärdering av nya ljusmiljöer. Belysning står för enbetydande del av den totala energianvändningen i byggnader, runt 20 procent förhushåll och 40 procent för lokaler. Energibesparingspotentialen är hög ochEuropa befinner sig i ett skifte mot mer energieffektiv belysning som följd avbåde regler och teknikutveckling. Samtidigt tenderar svenska konsumenterfortfarande att föredra glödljus, eftersom det upplevs ge en bättre komfort änljuset från moderna ljuskällor. För att motivera fastighetsägare ochkonsumenter att byta till mer energieffektiva produkter är det därförnödvändigt att fokusera mer på ljusets visuella och emotionella kvaliteter.Idag saknas dock kunskap, begrepp och verktyg för att kommunicera och mätavisuell ljuskvalitet. Det är denna utmaning som projektet har avsett möta genommetoder för att bedöma objektiva och subjektiva ljuskvaliteter för ljuskällor,armaturer och ljusmiljöer och omsätta resultaten i verktyg riktade mot branschen.Projektet har tagit fram en skiss för ett kommunikationsverktyg som baseras på upplevelsemåttav ljuskvalitet. Verktyget fungerar som en neutral kommunikationspunkt ochstödjer såväl belysningsbranschen som beställare, och därmed ävenslutanvändaren. Genom att minska missförstånden och öka samsynen mellan aktöreri olika delar processen från ljusplanering till implementering väntas verktygetfrämja ljusmiljöer som både är energieffektiva och skapar en god upplevelse ochkomfort.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 7.
    Boork, Magdalena
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad.
    Wendin, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Nordén, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Nilsson Tengelin, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Innemiljö i nytt ljus: Metoder för objektiv bedömning av belysning2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Nuvarande belysningsstandarder baseras enbart på tekniska krav, såsom ljusstyrka, jämnhet och luminans. Att även inkludera upplevelsebaserade krav skulle troligen främja bättre ljuskomfort, men även mer energieffektiva ljusmiljöer och produkter. Kunskapen om hur upplevda belysningsparametrar kan beskrivas är dock begränsad. Detta hämmar fastighetsägare och brukare att precisera önskvärda ljusmiljöer, liksom belysningstillverkare att utveckla produkter för nya marknader och tillämpningar. Syftet med detta forskningsprojekt var att utveckla och tillämpa sensoriska metoder på belysning. Till skillnad från tidigare metoder möjliggör sensoriska metoder objektiva bedömningar av upplevda belysningsparametrar.

    En analytisk panel bestående av åtta personer som uppfyller särskilda urvalskriterier rekryterades och tränades att bedöma belysningsprodukter i ett multisensoriskt laboratorium på SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut i Borås. Metodutvecklingen fokuserade särskilt på en effektiv träningsprocedur, hantering av ögats adaption, samt bedömning av färg och skuggningar. Förutom laboratorie-försök undersöktes möjligheten att genomföra analytiska bedömningar i en verklig kontext med samma försöksuppställning och panel.

    Resultaten visar att det är möjligt att använda sensorisk metodik för att genomföra objektiva belysningsbedömningar av armaturer; paneldeltagarna kunde skilja mellan attribut och prover. Signifikanta skillnader identifierades mellan de olika armaturerna, både i form av sensoriska och fysikaliska egenskaper såsom läsbarhet och bländning. Fysikaliska och sensoriska parametrar samvarierar dock inte alltid, vilket visar att fysikaliska och sensoriska mätningar ger kompletterande information om belysningskvalitet. Vidare visade bedömningsförsök i en verklig kontext att samma resultat uppnåddes som i laboratoriet, men med lägre signifikans, vilket verifierar metodens tillämpbarhet på belysning.

    Den genererade kunskapen väntas på sikt bidra till utveckling av verktyg som stödjer kommunikationen mellan olika professioner inom ljusdesign och planering och på så vis främja mer önskvärda och energieffektiva ljusmiljöer.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    170614_slutrapport_innemiljoe_i_nytt_ljus
  • 8.
    Broberg, Kristina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och resurser.
    Lindahl, Lina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och resurser.
    Tamm, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Potentialstudie för biogassubstrat i Västra Götaland, Halland och Skåne2022Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential of producing biogas by digestion from substrates in Västra Götaland, Halland and Skåne has in this study been estimated to approximately 5 900 GWh per year, of which 2 300 GWh are found in Västra Götaland, 650 GWh in Halland and 3 000 GWh in Skåne. The estimated potential is based on the current amounts of the substrate categories food waste, agricultural residues, manure, sludge from sewage treatment plants and industrial organic residues. For each of the three regions, the largest contributor to the current substrate potential is agricultural residues. This category contributes with approximately 3 900 GWh annually in total for the three regions. However, to be able to fully realize the potential of the agricultural residues there are logistic and technical challenges to be solved. Manure accounts for the second largest contribution to the potential, approximately 1 000 GWh per year for the three regions. The conditions to realize the manure potential are good with national production support in place for this substrate category.

    The study also includes a brief investigation of future substrate categories focused on marine substrates, grass and hay harvesting, industrial wastewater and biological methanation. From the future substrates, a contribution of a total of 3 600 GWh per year will be added to the estimated potential for the three regions. The largest addition is potential biological methanation of the carbon dioxide streams from the total substrate potential from the current categories, approximately 3 000 GWh annually. Thereafter, the largest contributing future substrate category is industrial wastewater. Including the future substrate flows, a total biogas potential of 9 500 GWh per year was estimated for Västra Götaland, Skåne and Halland together. To realize the potential, close cooperation between substrate owners, gas producers and municipalities are needed together as well as a long-term policy landscape.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 9.
    Carolina, Hiller
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad.
    Wendin, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Nilsson Tengelin, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Utveckling och tillämpning av sensoriska metoder för objektiva belysnings-bedömningar, del I2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    I dag finns tekniska belysningsstandarder som inkluderar parameterar så som ljusstyrka, jämnhet och luminans. Det som saknas är krav som grundar sig på människors upplevelser av belysning och ljusmiljöer. Att få med den upplevelsebaserade dimensionen skulle betyda ett helhetstänk som förmodligen skulle gynna både ljuskomforten och än mer energieffektiva ljusmiljöer och produkter. Att beskriva upplevda belysningsparametrar har hittills visat sig inte vara helt enkelt, och här saknas både kunskap och en gemensam begreppsvärld inom branschen; något som hämmar fastighetsägare att ställa lämpliga krav vid en upphandling liksom belysningstillverkare att utveckla produkter för nya marknader och tillämpningar. Det övergripande syftet med detta forskningsprojekt är att utveckla och tillämpa sensoriska metoder på belysning. Till skillnad från tidigare metoder möjliggör sensoriska metoder objektiva bedömningar av upplevda belysningsparametrar. Syftet med försöken som redovisas i denna delrapport är att vidareutveckla och testa metoden ytterligare. Detta görs genom att nya armaturer testas liksom att försök utförs i en ny verklig kontext (kontorsmiljö). Försöken bygger vidare på resultat från tidigare försök som har rapporterats om i (Boork et al, 2017).

    En analytisk panel bestående av åtta personer, som uppfyllde särskilda urvalskriterier, har tidigare rekryterats och dessa personer tränades nu för detta specifika delprojekt för att bedöma belysningsprodukter i ett multisensoriskt laboratorium på RISE Research Institutes of Sweden i Borås. Metodutvecklingen fokuserade särskilt på en effektiv träningsprocedur, hantering av ögats adaption, samt bedömning av färg och skuggningar. Förutom laboratorieförsök undersöktes möjligheten att genomföra analytiska bedömningar i en verklig kontext med samma försöksuppställning och panel.

    Resultaten visade att det är möjligt att använda sensorisk metodik för att genomföra objektiva belysningsbedömningar även för de testade belysningsprodukterna, dvs mindre LED-spotlights. Signifikanta skillnader identifierades mellan de olika armaturerna och som i tidigare försök spelade färgtemperaturen en stor roll för flera av de bedömda egenskaperna; inte minst förstås för ljuskällans gulhet och för läsbarhet (textkontrasten). Liksom i tidigare försök fanns det samband mellan de fysikaliska mätningarna och sensoriska bedömningarna, men inte för alla egenskaper, vilket visar att fysikaliska och sensoriska mätningar ger kompletterande information om belysning.  Vidare visade bedömningsförsök i en verklig kontext att likvärdiga resultat uppnåddes som i laboratoriet, om ändock något spretigare och inte heller lika entydiga i jämförelse med verklig kontext i tidigare försök.

    Den genererade kunskapen väntas på sikt bidra till utveckling av verktyg som stödjer kommunikationen mellan olika professioner inom ljusdesign och planering och på så vis främja mer önskvärda och energieffektiva ljusmiljöer.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Sensoriska_metoder_belysning-del_I_SP_Rapport_2017.23
  • 10.
    Cid Gomes, L.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Rana, A.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Berglund, Mathias
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi och Tillämpad mekanik.
    Wiklund, P.
    Biobase Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Ottosson, H.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Light-driven (cross-)dimerization of terpenes as a route to renewable C15-C30 crudes for fuel and lubricant oil applications2023Ingår i: Sustainable Energy & Fuels, E-ISSN 2398-4902, Vol. 7, nr 3, s. 868-882Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-fossil hydrocarbons are desirable for transport fuels and lubricant oils to reach a fossil carbon neutral economy. Herein, we show the production of such end-products from crude raw materials via the photosensitized dimerization of terpenes. Terpenes are hydrocarbons originating from renewable sources, such as forestry, industrial bio-waste and photosynthetically active microorganisms. Under irradiation at 365 nm, we observed high conversions of terpenes with conjugated diene segments into their dimers (e.g. 96.1 wt%, 12 h for α-phellandrene), and remarkable results were obtained using simulated and natural sunlight (90.8 wt% and 46.6 wt%, respectively, for α-phellandrene). We show that the lower reactivities of some isomeric monoterpenes could be overcome by a cross-photodimerization with α-phellandrene. We also utilized the cross-photodimerization approach to obtain C15 and C30 products, combining mixtures of isoprene, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. Hydrogenation of the terpene dimers gave materials with physical properties suitable as high energy density fuels and lubricant oils. Finally, our preliminary analysis based on recent literature points to the commercial viability of this route to produce fuels and lubricant oils, as well as to a potential for reduction of the environmental impact compared to fossil-based routes. 

  • 11.
    Cáceres, Cristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Törnroth, Suzanna
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Vesterlund, Mattias
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Datavetenskap.
    Johansson, Andreas
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Marcus
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Data-Center Farming: Exploring the Potential of Industrial Symbiosis in a Subarctic Region2022Ingår i: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 14, nr 5, artikel-id 2774Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As our world becomes increasingly digitalized, data centers as operational bases for these technologies lead to a consequent increased release of excess heat into the surrounding environment. This paper studies the challenges and opportunities of industrial symbiosis between data centers’ excess heat and greenhouse farming, specifically utilizing the north of Sweden as a case study region. The region was selected in a bid to tackle the urgent urban issue of self-sufficiency in local food production. A synergetic approach towards engaging stakeholders from different sectors is presented through a mix of qualitative and quantitative methods to facilitate resilient data-center-enabled food production. The paper delivers on possible future solutions on implementing resource efficiency in subarctic regions. © 2022 by the authors. 

  • 12.
    Das, Atanu Kumar
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Islam, Md Nazrul
    Khulna University, Bangladesh.
    Nanocomposites in energy storage applications2023Ingår i: Nanocomposites-Advanced Materials for Energy and Environmental Aspects / [ed] Mohammad Ehtisham Khan, Jeenat Aslam and Chandrabhan Verma, Elsevier BV , 2023, s. 175-187Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of energy storage devices for the growing energy demand is a prerequisite for modern society. Specific characteristics, i.e., thermal, electrochemical, and mechanical properties, of nanocomposites are essential for their application in energy storage appliances. Biobased nanocomposites are being considered environmentally friendly. Nanocellulose, lignin, and chitosan are obtained from an abundant source of natural renewable materials. Using them in developing batteries and supercapacitors has great potential for a sustainable supply of energy. Nanocellulose and the lignin-based electrode have shown excellent electrochemical properties for application in a battery. Nanocellulose, lignin, and chitosan-based electrode have also exhibited excellent electrochemical properties for their utilization in supercapacitors. In addition, their low-cost, high conductivity, and environment-friendly nature are being considered for the preparation of energy storage devices. In this chapter, the development strategy and performance of batteries and supercapacitors obtained from biobased nanocomposites have been discussed.

  • 13.
    Eder, Gabriele
    et al.
    OFI, Austria.
    Peharz, Gerhard
    Joanneum Research, Austria.
    Trattnig, Roman
    Joanneum Research, Austria.
    Bonomo, Pierluigi
    SUPSI University of Applied Sciences and Art of Southern Switzerland, Switzerland.
    Saretta, Erika
    SUPSI University of Applied Sciences and Art of Southern Switzerland, Switzerland.
    Frontini, Francesco
    SUPSI University of Applied Sciences and Art of Southern Switzerland, Switzerland.
    Polo López, Cristina S.
    SUPSI University of Applied Sciences and Art of Southern Switzerland, Switzerland.
    Wilson, Helen Rose
    Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Germany.
    Eisenlohr, Johannes
    Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Germany.
    Chivelet, Nuria Martin
    CIEMAT, Spain.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Jakica, Nebojsa
    Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    Zanelli, Alessandra
    Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
    Coloured BIPV : Market, Research and Development2019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In the building sector, net-zero energy performance targets and reduction of CO2 emissions are the main drivers for building integrated photovoltaics. Recent market studies [10,18,19] show the history and perspective of the global market in the BIPV sector and calculate a global compound annual growth rate of ~ 40 % from 2009 up to 2020.

    In Europe, the BIPV market is in a transition. The past decades of a slowly emerging BIPV market have been characterized by the original dominant value of BIPV: a building that communicates an image of sustainability and innovation. Payback time or "return on investment" have not been the major parameters in the decision process for applying BIPV. This is changing now. In most European countries, the new regulations on energy performance in buildings (derived from the European Energy Performance of Buildings Directive and the Directive on energy efficiency) have been translated in national regulations/laws, stating that all new (and freshly refurbished) buildings of the EU member states should be nearly zero energy buildings (nZEBs) by 2020. Thus, the time for the regulations to become mandatory is very near. It is expected that the energy performance regulations are now taking over as the main driving factor for the BIPV market and that should have huge consequences in removing the difference between a conventional building component and a BIPV component both in aesthetical and construction terms. This has led to intensified research and development aiming to create BIPV products that come in a variety of colours and sizes, while at the same time being as close as possible to existing building components, to its requirements and how it is considered by the construction industry.

    The given market overview of state-of-the-art coloured BIPV products clearly reveals that for all parts of a BIPV module (glass, polymers, PV-active layers), there are technical solutions available for colouring. Pilot projects utilizing coloured BIPV products have been built in numerous (mainly European) cities clearly demonstrating the maturity of these solutions.

    The key aspect that has been slowing down the progress of implementation of these aesthetically appealing and technically sophisticated new products into a wider market are the costs. In this respect, a lot of effort has been made to improve and optimize the relationship between colour and efficiency/power generation of BIPV elements. The results of the past and on-going innovative research and intensified fundamental considerations are also summarized in this report.

    Besides the colour perception of the coloured BIPV elements under solar irradiation which is essential for the acceptance of the exterior appearance of a building, also transparency and inside visual comfort of BIPV – windows and façade elements are essential for the users and inhabitants.

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  • 14.
    Ekman Nilsson, Anna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Bergman, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Gomez Barrio, Laura
    Teagasc Ashtown Food Research Centre, Ireland; Technological University Dublin, Ireland.
    Cabral, Eduarda
    Teagasc Ashtown Food Research Centre, Ireland; .
    Tiwari, Brijesh
    Teagasc Ashtown Food Research Centre, Ireland; .
    Life cycle assessment of a seaweed-based biorefinery concept for production of food, materials, and energy2022Ingår i: Algal Research, ISSN 2211-9264, Vol. 65, artikel-id 102725Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Blue Economy is seen as an essential contributor to a sustainable development, and it is an important part of the EU Green Deal. Seaweed plays a key role in the Blue Economy as a source of food, feed, and feedstock for biorefineries. Today, the largest part of global seaweed production is based in Asia, but there is also a growing interest in seaweed production in Europe. However, more knowledge on the environmental impacts is needed to ensure sustainable growth of the sector. Seaweed can be used in biorefineries to produce a variety of products for food and non-food applications. The aim of this paper was to perform a life cycle assessment (LCA) of a seaweed value-chain, including seaweed cultivation and production into sodium alginate, biodegradable materials, biogas, and fertilizer in a biorefinery setting. The LCA included 19 environmental impact categories but focused on climate change. The seaweed Saccharina latissima was cultivated and processed in Ireland. Sodium alginate was then extracted by means of ultrasound-assisted extraction, a novel extraction technology. Cellulosic residues produced after the extraction were used for the production of films used as a packaging material. Residues that remain after the production of the films were sent to anaerobic digestion to achieve a no-waste concept. For seaweed cultivation, fuel use and drying of seaweed biomass were the main environmental hot spots; and for the alginate extraction process, the yield and purification after extraction were the main hot spots. Overall, the results of this paper showed that the seaweed-based biorefinery has the potential to be sustainable, but several improvements are necessary before it is competitive with land-based systems. © 2022 The Authors

  • 15.
    Ekman Nilsson, Anna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Sohn, Joshua
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Sweden.
    Vega, Giovanna
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Sweden; University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Birkved, Morten
    University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Olsen, Stig
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Sweden.
    Testing the no agricultural waste concept – an environmental comparison of biorefinery value chains in various regions2021Ingår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 174, artikel-id 105702Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Although there is great opportunity, the bioeconomy is not a silver bullet in the quest to solve various environmental problems. This assessment tests the no agricultural waste concept, an agricultural system where all residues are utilized within a value chain, to elucidate whether the concept does indeed improve environmental performance across various regions, and if so, explores how various biorefinery concepts might be organized into various value chains to attain environmental benefits. In order to valorize this, the study illustrates how to do a step-wise assessment in order to design biorefinery set-ups based on their feedstock compatibility and region of implementation. The results show that no agricultural waste systems do not always result in environmental benefits, especially when environmental impacts are measured via a holistic interpretation of environmental damages, namely monetizing environmental damages. Furthermore, disagreement is shown when comparing environmental impacts interpreted via a single impact category, here global warming potential (GWP) and monetized environmental damages (MED). The performance of the various biorefineries was highly affected by the degree of decarbonization present in the energy grid of each region. While energy intensive biorefineries are able to provide benefit in terms of global warming savings, tradeoffs are observed where impacts are shifted to other areas of environmental impact. Despite these tradeoffs, across multiple regions, there is great potential for large-scale implementation of biorefineries as a tool for ameliorating environmental damages.

  • 16.
    Fahnestock, Jesse
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    AERTOs Bio-Based Economy: Forward-Looking Analysis2016Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The Forward-Looking Analysis portion of the AERTOs Bio-Based Economy project seeks to develop contextual, exploratory analysis that helps the participating research institutes better evaluate their bioeconomy strategies. The analysis takes a 15-20 year perspective and focuses on the level of the bioeconomy, rather than on specific technologies or biorefinery concepts.

    The analysis contends that RTOs and their industrial partners should consider the uncertainties of the future bioeconomy at different levels – The World and Sustainability, Europe and the Bioeconomy, and the RTOs and Industry – and through the lenses of three alternative logics.

    The logic of environmental sustainability pushes the bioeconomy and its component technologies in the direction of large scale, efficiently incentivized substitution of fossil-based emissions through bio-based alternatives, benefiting biofuel production and creating opportunities for RTOs to take a leadership role in their work to make industrial bioeconomy more sustainable.

    The logic of competitive innovation pushes countries and companies to search for defensible advantages in the bioeconomy. The scale of fossil substitution is smaller but the margins for successful companies are higher, and advanced bio-based materials and chemicals are a dynamic sector for investment. The RTOs have a smaller role and work increasingly on product performance issues.

    The logic of resource utilization sees countries and companies working to maximize the value of existing assets, particularly natural biomass endowments. The bioeconomy is driven primarily through national strategies and the Forest Biorefinery creates national champions in the Nordics. RTOs have a stable workflow and focus on increasing the efficiency of biorefinery systems.

    Uncertainties related to the quantitative boundaries of the future bioeconomy can be assessed through a review of scenario literature on biomass availability, biofuels and bio-based chemicals production. There is a wide range of estimates available, but central estimates suggest that potential supply of sustainable biomass to industry could exceed demand by 70% in the long-term. Pressures created by changes at the margin of markets and through regional variations may nonetheless make realizing this potential difficult. Pathways applying the logic of environmental sustainability, to the extent that it generates common standards, will likely reduce supply-side risks.

    Because the transition to a bio-based economy will occur stepwise, accusations of ‘greenwashing’ may plague early bio-based products and strategies if they are not fully-fossil free or certified sustainable. Nonetheless these first attempts may also generate positive awareness and will need to continue in interplay with the development of standards and certifications. Pathways applying the logic of competitive innovation are likely to be those that create incentives for greenwashing and reputational risks to the bioeconomy.

    Uncertainties about feedstocks and technology costs have made feedstock flexibility a topic of interest in biorefinery development. Here, too, multiple concepts exist, from modular concepts that are truly feedstock agnostic to robust concepts designed to handle heterogeneity within a narrower feedstock basis. Once again the logical pathway applied will be likely to influence the approach to feedstock flexibility.

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  • 17.
    Fahnestock, Jesse
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Johansson, Inge
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Hasselqvist, Märta
    Tekniska verken i Linköping.
    Mirata, Murat
    Linköping Universitet.
    Nilsson, Charlotte
    Fortum.
    Persson, Anders
    Sysav.
    Sahlén, Jakob
    Avfall Sverige.
    Avfallsförbränning för framtida behov: Scenarioanalys och handlingsplaner2019Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport är en leverans från ett enskild projekt inom det Strategiska Innovationsprogram RE:Source. Projektet heter Avfallsförbränning för framtida behovoch ska ta fram kunskapsunderlag som främjar utveckling av energiåtervinning som är anpassad för en framtid cirkulär ekonomi.

    För att identifiera prioriterade innovationer har en scenarioprocess genomförts tillsammans med projektintressenter från energisektorn, avfalls- och återvinningssektorn, och producerande industrier. Resultatet blir två olika, kompletterande scenarier för den cirkulära ekonomin med olika implikationer för innovation inom avfallsförbränning och energiåtervinning. Med dessa scenarier som underlag har projektet sedan identifierat fyra prioriterade innovationsområden och tagit fram handlingsplaner för särskilda innovationsinsatser.

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  • 18.
    Fahnestock, Jesse
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019).
    Norström, Markus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019).
    Johnson, Anders
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019).
    Olsson, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019).
    Johansson, Niklas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019).
    Brolin, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019).
    Ivarsson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019).
    Wolf, Jens
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019).
    Carlström, Elis
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Material och produktion.
    De Jong, Annelise
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019).
    Kempe, Marcus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019).
    Norrblom, Hans-Lennart
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Material och produktion.
    Anheden, Marie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019).
    Ahlroth, MIkael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019).
    Sommarin, Per
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019).
    Riesbeck, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Material och produktion.
    Fornell, Rickard
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019).
    Lundberg, Valeria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019).
    Larsson, Mikael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Material och produktion.
    Hooey, Lawrence
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Material och produktion.
    Hjörnhede, Anders
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019).
    Hermansson, Sven
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019).
    Östling, Henrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Material och produktion.
    RISEnergy: Roadmaps for energy innovation in Sweden through 20302016Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden is a group of research and technology organisations. RISE is a leading innovation partner working global cooperation with academia, enterprise and society to create value, growth and competitiveness through research excellence and innovation.

    In the area of Energy, RISE has developed innovation Roadmaps covering:

    • Energy Efficient Transport
    • Electric Power System
    • Energy Efficient and Smart Buildings
    • Sustainable Thermal Processes
    • Efficient Energy Use in Industry
    • Decarbonisation of Basic Industries

    These Roadmaps describe development pathways for technologies, non-technical elements (market design, user behaviours, policies, etc.) and key actors that deliver on a plausible, desirable vision for each respective innovation area in 2030. These Roadmaps are intended to support RISE’s strategic planning and development, but should be relevant reading for anyone interested in energy innovation in Sweden.

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  • 19.
    Fernqvist, Niklas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Broberg, Sarah
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Torén, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Svensson, Inger-Lise
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    District heating as a flexibility service: Challenges in sector coupling for increased solar and wind power production in Sweden2023Ingår i: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 172, artikel-id 113332Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    With expanding solar and wind power production, the topic of flexibility services attracts increased attention in the Swedish energy system. In this context, the potentials in using thermal storage capacities in district heating (DH) systems have been brought forward, primarily by academic scholars. Using a ‘grounded’ approach, this study investigates if professionals assigned to Swedish DH companies and electricity distribution system operators utilise, or plan to utilise, DH systems as flexibility services for the electricity grid. Original data was collected through semi-structured interviews, held with fourteen individuals affiliated to different actors in the Swedish energy system. These individuals were identified as being experts, or practically engaged, in using DH utilities as flexibility services for the electricity grid. The findings show that although technologies for coupling between DH systems and the electricity grid are already in place, initiatives for using DH systems as flexibility services for the electricity system are rare in Sweden. Coupling challenges stem from ownership and operation legislation frameworks, marginal incentives and a widespread focus on firm benefits rather than energy systems benefits. Identified initiatives for using DH systems for flexibility services are primarily run on a local scale, designed and propelled by small groups of engaged individuals.

  • 20.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge. Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway; Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg, Germany.
    Fighting flameless fires: Initiating and extinguishing self-sustainedsmoldering fires in wood pellets2018Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Smoldering fires represent domestic, environmental and industrial hazards. This flameless form of combustion is more easily initiated than flaming, and is also more persistent and difficult to extinguish. The growing demand for non-fossil fuels has increased the use of solid biofuels such as biomass. This represents a safety challenge, as biomass self-ignition can cause smoldering fires, flaming fires or explosions.

    Smoldering and extinguishment in granular biomass was studied experimentally. The set-up consisted of a cylindrical fuel container of steel with thermally insulated side walls. The container was closed at the bottom, open at the top and heated from below by a hot surface. Two types of wood pellets were used as fuel, with 0.75-1.5 kg samples.

    Logistic regression was used to determine the transition region between non-smoldering and self-sustained smoldering experiments, and to determine the influence of parameters. Duration of external heating was most important for initiation of smoldering. Sample height was also significant, while the type of wood pellet was near-significant and fuel container height was not.

    The susceptibility of smoldering to changes in air supply was studied. With a small gap at the bottom of the fuel bed, the increased air flow in the same direction as the initial smoldering front (forward air flow) caused a significantly more intense combustion compared to the normal set-up with opposed air flow.

    Heat extraction from the combustion was studied using a water-cooled copper pipe. Challenges with direct fuel-water contact (fuel swelling, water channeling and runoff) were thus avoided. Smoldering was extinguished in 7 of 15 cases where heat extraction was in the same range as the heat production from combustion. This is the first experimental proof-of-concept of cooling as an extinguishment method for smoldering fires.

    Marginal differences in heating and cooling separated smoldering from extinguished cases; the fuel bed was at a heating-cooling balance point. Lower cooling levels did not lead to extinguishment, but cooling caused more predictable smoldering, possibly delaying the most intense combustion. Also observed at the balance point were pulsating temperatures; a form of long-lived (hours), macroscopic synchronization not previously observed in smoldering fires.

    For practical applications, cooling could be feasible for prevention of temperature escalation from self-heating in industrial storage units. This study provides a first step towards improved fuel storage safety for biomass. 

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    Mikalsen_DoctoralThesis_FightingFlamelessFires
  • 21.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Olofsson, Anna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Hynynen, Jonna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Temple, Alastair
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Andersson, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Burgén, Julia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Huang, Chen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    BREND 2.0 - Fighting fires in new energy carriers on deck 2.02022Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The project BREND investigated risk with alternative fuel vehicles inside ro-ro spaces. BREND 2.0 is a continuation and has in particular investigated two of the major risks identified in BREND, namely the risk of toxic gases from electric vehicle fires and the risk of a pressure vessel explosion for fire exposed biogas or hydrogen vehicle tanks. Simulations of electric vehicle fires inside a ro-ro space based on real input fire data has been performed. Field experiments that investigate the conditions that can lead to pressure vessel explosion were made with fire exposed biogas and hydrogen tanks. Recommendations are given about how ro-ro space fires in alternative fuel vehicles, or indeed any vehicle fire, can be managed.

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  • 22.
    Gjerløw, Jan Carsten
    et al.
    Akershus County Council, Norway.
    Cornander, Anna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektrifiering och pålitlighet.
    Assessment of Clean Fuel Deployment and Market Access of Clean Fuels in the Northern Scandria®Corridor2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this report is to provide a comprehensive overview of the status of Clean Fuel deployment in the Northern Scandria®Corridor and to describe experiences of market access of Clean Fuels. The report benchmarks Clean Fuel performance in the Northern Scandria®Corridor in the European context, provides results related to obstacles and success factors, exemplifies relevant best practice in the Corridor regions and provides relevant contacts. It will enable the partners to identify crucial barriers and best practice examples. The geographic scope comprises the regions located along the Baltic Sea Region stretch of the Scandinavian-Mediterranean Core Network Corridor (in this report referred to as the “Northern Scandria®Corridor”), including regions in Eastern Germany, the German states of Schleswig-Holstein and Hamburg, Denmark, South Sweden, Southeast Norway and Southwest Finland. See Figure 3 and detailed description of included regions in Chapter 2. In some sections of this report, statistics from The European Alternative Fuels Observatory (EAFO) are used. Numbers from EAFO are provided at national level only. However, in many cases, development at national level can also provide a picture on development in the Northern Scandria®Corridor. The major objective of the Scandria®2Act project is to foster clean, multimodal transport throughout the Corridor regions, and to increase connectivity and competitiveness of the Corridor regions while at the same time minimising negative environmental impact created by transport activities. The joint approach addresses the deployment of Clean Fuels and multimodal transport services and the establishment of a multilevel governance mechanism. This report is an output of the work package of Clean Fuel Deployment, which aims to enable the deployment of Clean Fuels with regard to freight and passenger transport along the Northern Scandria®Corridor. In preparing this report, an assessment of Clean Fuel market access experiences has been carried out in parallel with an assessment of Clean Fuel deployment in the Northern Scandria®Corridor. Information was collected through a questionnaire answered by partners and national experts and through telephone interviews with national experts from each region. Information and statistics have also been gathered from reports, literature, EAFO and national reports from the partner countries regarding the EU Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Directive (DAFI). The assessment has followed the Scandria®2Act multi-fuel approach, including electricity, hydrogen, biomethane and natural gas.

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  • 23.
    Granlund, Alexander
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioekonomi, ETC Energy Technology Center.
    Narvesjö, Jimmy
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioekonomi, ETC Energy Technology Center.
    Malou Petersson, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioekonomi, ETC Energy Technology Center.
    The Influence of Module Tilt on Snow Shadowing of Frameless Bifacial Modules2019Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, frameless bifacial modules’ performance in a boreal climate is examined, with a focus on snow coverage and snow clearance for different module tilt angles. A group of ten bifacial modules at different tilt angles located in northern Sweden at latitude 65°N were studied during the first months of 2019. It was shown that modules mounted at 0 and 15° tilt was covered the most by snow and 80 and 90° the least. All other modules, mounted at 25-70° tilt, showed mostly similar results in snow coverage and removal. All modules were subjected to snow coverage from January to March. In January no considerable energy output was observed for any module. In February and March modules with tilt angles of 0 and 15° had a lower energy output than the other modules, for which no considerable differences were observed. In April, when no snow coverage occurred, the module mounted at 45° had the largest energy output and in May, 25-35° performed the best. For the entire period of January-May the modules at 35-45° output the most energy.

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  • 24.
    Green, Gustav
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektrifiering och pålitlighet.
    Vätgaselektrifiering av transporterbjudandet för tunga fordon (HydroHaul): En analys av praktisk och ekonomisk lämplighet för vätgasdrift hos ett åkeri2023Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vätgas har tidigare konstaterats vara ett fossilfritt, lågemissions, drivmedel som passar bra för långväga tunga transporter. Detta till följd av dess likheter med dieseldrift gällande främst räckvidd och tanktider. I Värmland och Västra Götaland finns det goda planer och medel beviljade för att etablera tankstationer för vätgas. Med infrastruktur på plats behöver nu åkerier överväga huruvida vätgas är lämpligt för att genomföra sina transportuppdrag.

    Stay Fresh Sweden är ett framgångsrikt åkeriföretag som kör livsmedelsgods och var tidigt ute att köra gasdrivna och batterielektriska lastbilar. För deras distribution i Värmland drivs lastbilarna på uteslutande Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil (HVO). Denna förstudie har således analyserat hur praktiskt och ekonomiskt möjligt det är att övergå från HVO-drift till vätgasdrift för Stay Fresh transportuppdrag i Värmland. Två beräkningsmodeller har tagits fram för att beräkna Stay Fresh vätgasbehov och vilken Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) det skulle innebära med vätgasdrift. Beräkningsmodellerna baseras på verksamhetsspecifika data från Stay Fresh och från tidigare genomförda forskningsstudier inom ämnesområdet.

    Resultatet pekar på att det är praktiskt genomförbart för Stay Fresh att driva lastbilar på vätgas. Endast mindre rutinförändringar rörande tankning kan behövas, exempelvis ett extra tankstopp per dag eller tankning på annan plats under transportrutten. Ur ett ekonomiskt perspektiv förväntas övergången från HVO till vätgas ha en marginell påverkan, beroende på val av lastbilsmodell.

    Acceptansen och praktiskt utförande av nyckelaktörer såsom serviceföretag, chaufförer, teknikleverantörer och kund anses inte vara ett hinder för omställning till vätgasdrift. Snarare tvärtom, att det finns en entusiasm och få tendenser till oro kring denna typ av lastbilar.

    Däremot är inköpspriset för vätgaslastbilar osäkert och kan tänkas vara högre än vad denna studie initialt räknat på. Å andra sidan förväntas priset på vätgas minska över tid, vilket har en markant påverkan på den ekonomiska kalkylen. En känslighetsanalys har därför analyserat inköpspriset på fordon och vätgaspriset vid tankstationen. Slutsatsen är att Stay Fresh kommer vara betydligt mer beroende av priset på vätgas snarare än inköpspriset för en vätgasdriven lastbil.

    Med denna förstudie genomförd har nu Stay Fresh ett beslutsunderlag för att avgöra om ett nästa steg är intressant att gå vidare med, nämligen att satsa på ett pilotprojekt med vätgasdrivna lastbilar för deras transportuppdrag.

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  • 25.
    Hamon, Camille
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Abdollahi, Elnaz
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Dahl, Jonas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och resurser.
    Räftegård, Oskar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och resurser.
    Sector coupling of district heating with the electricity system: profitability and operations (SeCoHeat)2023Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    District heating systems can play key roles in the energy transition. The transition to a production mix based on renewable intermittent generation will create a larger need for ancillary services including frequency-regulation services. District heating systems typically participate in the wholesale electricity market (the so-called day-ahead market) today but do not, in general, participate in ancillary service markets. Previous studies have shown that it is technically possible to participate in these markets and that district heating systems have a role to play in these markets in the future. This requires investigating how further integration of district heating systems with the electrical grids and markets will impact operation and planning of these units. In addition, while it may be beneficial on a system level for district heating systems to participate in ancillary service markets, district heating system owners and operators will only do so if there are economic incentives to do so. The SeCoHeat project has therefore explored topics related to the profitability for individual district heating systems to participate in other electricity markets than just the day-ahead market, such as ancillary service markets. Studying sector coupling between the heat and electricity systems requires a thorough understanding of both sectors. This project has contributed to this by bringing together experts from both sides which has led to fruitful knowledge exchanges. Furthermore, some deliverables from the SeCoHeat project have been especially written to provide introduction about the heat sector to experts from the electricity sector, and vice versa. This includes an overview of the electricity markets in which district heating systems can participate, the technical requirements to participate in these markets and explanations about how profitability of participating in these markets can be computed. This also includes explanations about how the flexibility on the heat side can be sourced and provided to the electricity system and what limits this flexibility. Another important contribution of this project is the development of a Python-based open model for scheduling district system units on an hourly basis to minimize heat and electricity production costs while maximising revenues from several electricity markets. This model has been used in this project to evaluate the additional profits of participating in ancillary service markets. The results show that substantial additional profits can be made by doing so, both in historical years and in scenarios for future years. This report is a guide to the separate deliverables produced within this project. It offers an overview of the goals, methods and results from the project. The interested reader is referred to detailed descriptions in the corresponding deliverables. The SeCoHeat project was funded by Göteborg Energi AB:s stiftelse för forskning och utveckling. The work has been performed by RISE with the support of reference group members from Göteborg Energi, Vattenfall, Svenska kraftnät, IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet, Chalmers and Profu.

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  • 26.
    Hamon, Camille
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Nasri, Amin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Paulrud, Susanne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Bio-based CHP as efficient and profitable technology for balancing the energy system2021Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The project’s objective is to assess whether flexible bio-based power generation can be an effective and profitable technology option for balancing power system with large amounts of weather dependent production (wind and sun). It includes an analysis which estimates the potential income levels that can be gained by different types of bio-based power plants from selling electricity products and determines if the extra cost of having a combined heat and power (CHP) plant instead of having a heat only (HO) plant is worth investing.

    The project's subgoals, how they have been addressed and some follow-up directions are presented below:

    Subgoal 1: Increased knowledge about revenues that can be gained by different technology solutions from selling electricity in different markets, e.g., day-ahead and balancing markets (also called manual frequency restoration reserve market – mFRR market).A model has been developed to estimate the profits that can be made by district heating owners on day-ahead and balancing (mFRR) markets. The model has been applied in two case studies using historical price data for 2019: one using Borås Energi och Miljö’s (BEM) district heating system and one using Vattenfall’s system in Nyköping. In both cases, the results show an increase in profits when participating in balancing markets. This increase is, however, very small compared to the profits made by only participating in day-ahead markets (less than 0.1% increase in overall profits).

    Subgoal 2: Increased knowledge about investment and operating costs (CAPEX/OPEX) of different bio-based technologies, both HO and CHP plants. A literature survey was done to identify comprehensive sources of costs. Two reports were identified as relevant sources: [1] and [2]. The first one dates from 2014 and the second one from 2019. They provide a wide-ranging collection of investment and operation and maintenance costs for units of different sizes and types.

    Subgoal 3: Increased knowledge about the market conditions needed to justify the extra cost of building a bio-based CHP plant instead of a bio-based HO plant. Two investment case studies have been performed using BEM’s system to compare investment in CHP and HO units. The previous model has been used to evaluate the profits from participating in the day-ahead electricity market for three representative years: 2019, 2030 and 2040. Price conditions for 2030 and 2040 were obtained from Svenska kraftnät’s long-term market analysis [3]. The investment and O&M costs of the new units were obtained from [1] and [2]. The first investment study investigates an investment in new units for redundancy purposes (to ensure sufficient production capacity in case the largest unit is unexpectedly out of operation). The investment results show that profits from selling heat and electricity are not enough to cover the investment and O&M costs. The economic losses are smaller when going for the HO option. The second investment study investigates an investment in base-load units (units meant to run most of the time). In this case, both CHP and HO plants are profitable but the HO plant achieve a higher profitability.

    Subgoal 4: Increased knowledge about the financial risks and uncertainties in such an investment.This was achieved through discussing the results with the industry partners and identifying aspects that could be further investigated in a follow-up project. The lifetime of new investment is around 25 years. Many sources of uncertainties enter the evaluation of the financial indicators. Among these, the most relevant ones that could be further investigated are: assumptions on the underlying heat demand (colder and warmer years), assumptions on future electricity prices, assumptions on the price for green certificates and purpose of an investment (an investment for redundancy purposes may not recover its costs but is still needed – how to value redundancy?). Many other input parameters to the investment studies - such as O&M costs, fuel prices and discount rate - may also play a role in the results. A thorough sensitivity analysis would shed more light on the magnitude of each one and could be included in a follow-up project.

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  • 27.
    Hamon, Camille
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Persson, Mattias
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Wind power participation in frequency regulation: a profitability assessment for Sweden2023Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In this report, a framework was developed to assess the profits from participating in the different ancillary services for frequency regulation in Sweden. The framework considers forecasting errors on both production and prices, market clearing times and technical requirements of the difference ancillary services. The framework was applied to evaluate potential profits for a real wind power plant of 2 MW in SE3 in 2020 and 2021. The economic analysis points out to aFRR down as the most profitable market today with additional revenue of as much as 35% compared to day-ahead only in case of perfect production forecasts, and as much as 22 % with consideration of standard production forecast errors. It is also shown that developing bidding strategies based on price forecasting to act on several ancillary service market may increase the revenues by up to 70% compared to day-ahead only. Future work in the topic includes evaluating the profits in other price areas and evaluating different production and price forecast methodologies and their impact on the profits.

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  • 28.
    Hamon, Camille
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Vardanyan, Yelena
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Abdollahi, Elnaz
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Review of current and future heat- and electricity-related products and their relevance for district heating companies2023Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    A review of sector coupling possibilities between the heat and electricity sectors in Sweden is made in this report. First, a review of the way the heat sector works in Denmark, Finland and Sweden works is performed. Finland and Sweden have similar setups with deregulated heat sectors in which district heating companies set their billing price freely considering different cost factors, including costs for alternative technologies to which consumers could switch. Denmark has had a more regulated approach with prices being reviewed by the regulator. The sector coupling between the electricity sector in Denmark has been stronger than in both Sweden and Finland. District heating companies had an obligation until 2019 to participate in both the day-ahead market and the balancing market (mFRR). CHP plants in Denmark have also participated to frequency regulation (aFRR). There is still a non-negligible share of CHP plants in Denmark running on fossil fuels such as natural gas and coal. Large investments in heat pumps, biofuels and solar thermal facilities have been identified as alternatives to these CHP plants to enable a fossil free heating sector. Second, the current electricity and ancillary service markets in Sweden are described. Recent experiences with local and regional flexibility markets in Sweden are reviewed. District heating companies are particularly well-fitted for participating in these markets thanks to their geographical location close to the electric consumption centres in the cities. Third, a review of the state-of-the-art research on the participation of district heating systems to the electricity and ancillary service markets is performed. It is shown that the flexibility in district heating systems that can be used in the electricity sector can take many forms: changes in the electricity production / consumption of heat production units, by-product usage of the excess heat (e.g. fuel drying), thermal storage in water tanks or other kinds of storage facilities, thermal storage in the pipeline network and thermal storage at the customers’ site (for example in buildings). Research on the technical capabilities shows that many units in the district heating systems can fulfil the requirements for delivering ancillary services. Many research works have identified possible economical gains by participating in more markets on the electricity side (for example ancillary service markets). However, many research works in this field have focused on single CHP plants instead of considering the whole portfolio of units in the district heating systems. To get a more detailed assessment of the profitability of increasing the participation of district heating companies in the electricity sector, it is advocated to develop operational planning and operations tools for district heating systems that can capture the hourly variability of prices of the electricity and ancillary service markets, as well as consider the order in which decisions have to be taken on these markets (i.e. the time order in which the different markets operate). These tools will be developed in the coming work in the project. 

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  • 29.
    Hansson, J.
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden; Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lönnqvist, T.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Klintbom, Patrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Furusjö, Erik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Holmgren, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Mobilitet och system.
    Trinh, J.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF THE PROSPECTS FOR DIFFERENT BIOFUELS AND ELECTROFUELS FROM FOREST RESIDUES-STRATEGIES FOR DROP-IN AND SINGLE MOLECULE FUELS ARE BOTH INTERESTING OPTIONS2022Ingår i: European Biomass Conference and Exhibition Proceedings, ETA-Florence Renewable Energies , 2022, s. 333-340Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study compares several forest biomass-based biofuels and some electrofuels, for use in cars and trucks, in terms of economic and climate performance and resource efficiency from a Swedish perspective. Both dropin fuels possible to blend in conventional fuels and single molecule fuels requiring new vehicles and infrastructure are included. Mature costs for feedstock, production, distribution, and vehicles are included. There is no clear winner between drop-in and single-molecular fuels when considering both costs, GHG emissions and resource efficiency, neither for cars nor trucks. For trucks, both single-molecular fuels in the form of methanol and DME (dimethyl ether) and drop-in fuels in the form of diesel based on lignin and from hydropyrolysis perform best (given a process designed to reach high GHG performance). For cars drop-in fuels such as petrol produced from lignin or hydropyrolysis perform well, closely followed by the single molecular fuels methanol, DME and methane and some of the other drop-in fuels. For cars, where electrification is progressing fast, it is reasonable to apply the drop-in fuel strategy. For trucks, either continue with the drop-in fuel strategy or, due to uncertainties linked to new fuel production processes, invest in single molecule fuels such as methanol and DME.

  • 30.
    Harfeldt-Berg, Lovisa
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och resurser. Lund University, Sweden.
    Broberg, Sarah
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och resurser.
    Ericsson, Karin
    Lund University, Sweden.
    The Importance of Individual Actor Characteristics and Contextual Aspects for Promoting Industrial Symbiosis Networks2022Ingår i: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 14, nr 9, s. 4927-4927Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Factors that affect and influence industrial symbiosis (IS) collaborations have been researched extensively in the literature, where they are mostly reported at a network level or for IS in general, and lack the individual actor’s perspective. This review article contributes to and expands knowledge of influencing factors and their effect on the individual actor. In a systematic review, guided by the PRISMA 2020 guidelines, this study reviews 53 scientific papers examining planned or existing IS networks. It examines literature from 1 January 2000 to 28 March 2022, and it identifies drivers, barriers, and enablers influencing actors to participate in IS. It explores whether and how the perception and impact of these factors differs depending on the characteristics of individual actors and their specific context. The main findings of this study reveal that an actor’s specific characteristics and the network’s context have a significant impact on decision making and how actors both perceive and are affected by factors influencing collaboration. Furthermore, an additional novel contribution to this field of research is that the study identifies three underlying and recurring considerations that actors appear to find critical, namely, perceived business opportunities/risks, regulatory and political setting, and potential inequalities in the network. The results show that an actor’s take on these critical considerations determines whether the actor is willing to engage in IS.

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  • 31.
    Hasselqvist, Hanna
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Renström, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Prototypande samhälle.
    Håkansson, Maria
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och resurser.
    Strömberg, Helena
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Exploring Renewable Energy Futures through Household Energy Resilience2022Ingår i: Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - Proceedings, Association for Computing Machinery , 2022, artikel-id 333Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A transition to renewable energy increases the risks of disruptions when electricity supply does not meet demand. HCI has explored how digital technologies can mitigate such problems in households through support for reducing or shifting electricity use. However, faster transitions may be possible if some disturbances can be acceptable and households are supported in adapting to them. In this paper, we present a study of 21 Swedish households and their experiences of and ideas on how to manage disruptions in electricity supply. We call this perspective household energy resilience and identify three strategies for resilience: (1) response diversity, i.e., diversity in ways of carrying out normally electricity-dependent practices, (2) creating opportunities to develop resilience, and (3) building community energy resilience. Furthermore, we suggest how HCI can support these strategies, both by providing tools to increase resilience and by carefully designing technology and services to be more resilient in themselves. © 2022 Owner/Author.

  • 32.
    Hasselqvist, Hanna
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Renström, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Prototypande samhälle.
    Strömberg, Helena
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Håkansson, Maria
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och resurser.
    Household energy resilience: Shifting perspectives to reveal opportunities for renewable energy futures in affluent contexts2022Ingår i: Energy Research & Social Science, ISSN 2214-6296, E-ISSN 2214-6326, Vol. 88, artikel-id 102498Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy resilience is an important focus for energy policy and research, since the energy system is increasingly facing challenges such as power shortages, e.g. due to increased renewable energy production, and risks of power outages caused by extreme weathers. Typically, energy resilience in these contexts focuses on infrastructure and securing supply of electricity despite disturbances. This paper contributes a complementary perspective on resilience, which takes households as a starting point for investigating resilience. Building on understandings of resilience from several disciplines, we suggest a definition of household energy resilience that can be used to explore how households can ensure a good life in a future with variable availability of electricity. Furthermore, we draw on current ideas of future domestic energy use in energy affluent contexts (backup energy sources, energy efficiency, flexibility, and energy sufficiency) to create a framework for exploring household energy resilience. We find a potential for diversity within and between the different ideas, that is not always present in mainstream visions of future energy use. With the perspective of household energy resilience, we wish to challenge the perception of electricity demand as non-negotiable and to reveal opportunities for supporting households in becoming more resilient in an uncertain future. © 2022 The Authors

  • 33.
    Huffmeier, Johannes
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. Minesto AB, Sweden.
    Eskilsson, Claes
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Säkerhetsforskning.
    Co-Location of Wave and Wind Power: Results from Screening 226 Locations Worldwide2021Ingår i: Proceedings of the 14th European Wave and Tidal Energy Conference 5-9th Sept 2021, Plymouth, UK, 2021, s. 2307-1-2307-9Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The levelized costs of energy (LCoE) of wavepower is still not fully competitive with other sourcesof renewable energy. However, wave energy is partlyin a different phase than other renewable energy typesand could thus contribute to a better predictability andsmoothed power output. This work focuses on co-locationof wave and wind power by investigating the intermittencyof wind and waves power based on measured historicaldata from several hundreds of locations worldwide. Employingwind power curves and wave power matrices, thesites are evaluated based on several different metrics. Theresults indicate that there are several spots where wavepower has a much lower intermittency than wind powerproviding reliable energy supply. Best sites for co-locationin terms of energy yield was found in North-WesternEurope. However, both wind and wave production have thesame seasonal variability in these sites. Only a handful ofsites found in California showed the possibility of seasonalpower smoothing using the combination of wind and wave.

  • 34.
    Jedvert, Kerstin
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Viklund, Linnea
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Alkhagen, Mårten
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Köhnke, Tobias
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Theliander, Hans
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Tailoring the physical characteristics of solution blown cellulosic nonwovens by various post-treatments2021Ingår i: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, Vol. 36, nr 4, s. 682-695Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Nonwovens are increasing in demand due to their versatility which enables use in a broad range of applications. Most nonwovens are still produced from fossil-based resources and there is thus a need to develop competitive materials from renewable feedstock. In this work, nonwovens are produced from cellulose via a direct solution blowing method. 

  • 35.
    Johansson, Inge
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Climate change strategy and renewable energy issues in EU and Sweden2021Ingår i: Proceeding of 4th K-CIPEC, the 4th International Conference on Combustion, Incineration/pyrolysis, Emission control and Climate change in Korea / [ed] Jong-In Dong, 2021Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Discussions about the climate changes and actions to counter the adverse effects of the massive historic and ongoing emissions have reached far beyond the scientific conferences. Climate activists like Greta Thunberg have gotten attention and recognition. This has also made the public more aware about the issue than before. Together with the strong scientific advice presented by IPCC around the urgency in taking action to reach the 1.5°C target, things are starting to happen. 

    EU had set a goal of reducing the greenhouse gas emissions with 20% until 2020, which was reached ahead of time. The added knowledge developed during that time also have raised the awareness that the transition to a low carbon economy needs to be accelerated. In 2019 EU presented the green deal where it was stated that the EU would transform to become the first carbon neutral continent by 2050 (this is also in line with the IPPC estimation on when the world needs to become carbon neutral to achieve the 1,5°C target). Originally the EU set a part-target to reduce the emissions with 40% until 2030, this has since been revised to increase the ambition and the new target is 55% to 2030. To achieve these targets there has been several different packages developed. The green deal contains a multitude of actions, both on energy aspects like energy efficiency and replacing fossil energy sources, but also actions on circular economy to decrease the emissions driven by mass-consumption and in practice by the economic development. As one of the goals, the decoupling of resource use from the economic growth is mentioned. Amid the hunting after greenhouse gas emissions, it can be easy to ignore other sustainability aspects, however they are also part of the green deal. Bioenergy is mentioned but it will be connected with demands on the sustainability and coupled to aspects like biodiversity. On top of the measures EU also have identified the finance sector as a driver in the transformation, to guide the sector on what should be considered as sustainable actions, a Taxonomy is being developed.

    Sweden has been early in the transformation away from fossil fuels. This is especially true when it comes to the heating sector where district heating has made it possible to replace fossil fuels with bioenergy in a large scale. This has also been the case with the utilization of Waste-to-Energy where today, close to 50% of the MSW is treated in WtE facilities. With the increased demands on carbon neutrality these also face demands on reducing their fossil emissions. A multitude of actions to succeed with this is investigated, including measures to increase the separation of plastics from the residual waste, exchanging support fuels to bio-oils, and BECCS/CCS. 

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  • 36.
    Karpenja, Tatjana
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Massa, papper och förpackningar. Digital Cellulose Center, Sweden.
    Granberg, Hjalmar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign. Digital Cellulose Center, Sweden.
    Edberg, Jesper
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digitala system, Smart hårdvara. Digital Cellulose Center, Sweden.
    Ahniyaz, Anwar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Circularity of DCC materials – case study on three energy storage solutions2022Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to growing concerns about the environmental impacts of fossil fuels and the capacity and resilience of energy grids around the world, engineers and policymakers are increasingly turning their attention to energy storage solutions1. In turn, the huge demand for materials for such storage systems will require a considerable energy input in extraction, processing and materials formulation, and new and sustainable electrochemical systems need to be developed2. Current report is the result of the exploration work where the circularity and environmental potentials of biobased energy storage solutions were analysed in the form of iterative interviews with stakeholders along the energy storage and packaging value chains, complemented by literature research. The work was performed within the scope of Digital Cellulose Center (DCC) research center3 in the sub-project 1 “Circularity of DCC materials” of the Theme 1: Design for a circular bioeconomy. Totally three systems were selected and analysed in the form of three respective case studies: • Case study I: Biobased battery (Chemical energy storage system) • Case study II: Biobased printed supercapacitor (Electrochemical energy storage system) • Case study III: Intelligent packaging (Chemical or electrochemical energy storage for fiber-based packaging) Each case study was put into the life cycle context where aspects such as legislation, circularity potential and potential environmental impact were discovered. The biobased battery for large-scale grid storage applications was classified as an industrial battery with collection rate requirement of 75% at end-of-life, of which 50% to be materially recycled. The biobased printed supercapacitor was classified as an electric and electronic equipment (EEE) with collection rate requirement of 65%, of which recovery and recycling / preparing for reuse targets vary between 55% - 85% depending on application. The material recycling target for the fiber-based intelligent packaging is 85% since being perceived as a paper-based packaging it would enter paper packaging recycling stream rather than entering the recycling stream of Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). In next steps of this exploratory journey, the compositions of the respective energy storage solutions were identified, including biobased content and recycling potential on the short- and long-term, compared to their benchmark solutions where possible. Today, the material recycling processes for batteries and WEEE are strongly economically driven: the material components that are considered as valuable by recyclers are mainly base metals (e.g., aluminium, steel) and to low extent critical raw materials (e.g., cobalt, nickel). The biobased energy storage solutions though do not contain any critical raw materials and use base metals to a less extent. This is a dilemma where the material value of the biobased, renewable materials (more sustainable materials by origin) is not favourable in the end-of-life processes of today and therefore will be lost (i.e., incinerated). A more balanced approach to such dilemma is urged in order to facilitate both economic and environmental incentives in the energy storage value cycles. Current Battery and WEEE directives do not promote the recycling of materials that are critical or have a high environmental burden, which in practice results in loss of those materials, not least due to lack of economy in recycling processes. Moreover, the legislation needs to be adapted in order to meet innovative development in the area. It can be relevant to introduce a cross-sectoral category ‘Biobased energy storage solutions’ in the upcoming legislation with the aim to encourage use of more abundant, biobased materials and thus decouple energy storage applications from use of critical raw materials.

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  • 37.
    Kroner, Desiree
    et al.
    Dalarna university, Sweden, Luleå university of technology, Sweden.
    Lundgren, Urban
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport.
    Radiated Electromagnetic Emissions from Photovoltaic Systems - Measurement Results from Inverter and Modules2023Ingår i: IEEE International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility, ISSN 1077-4076, Vol. 2023-SeptemberArtikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Radiated electromagnetic emissions of photovoltaic systems causing interference with radiocommunication can pose a major barrier to further photovoltaic penetration. This is particularly critical close to sensitive infrastructures such as hospitals, airports, and communication facilities. To understand the impact of each component and installation detail, we performed systematic emission measurements on comparable commercial photovoltaic systems in the range 150 kHz to 30 MHz. Our measurements indicate that systems with module optimizers are the main cause of increased emissions. The choice of a specific module type can increase emissions from inverter systems with module optimizers, while changes in cable management and earthing do not substantially affect emissions. For the module optimizer measurements, emissions were significantly increased when replacing aluminum framed half-cut modules with frameless bifacial glass-glass modules. 

  • 38. Li, Ying Zhen
    Study of fire and explosion hazards of alternative fuel vehicles in tunnels2018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    An investigation of fire and explosion hazards of different types of alternativefuel vehicles in tunnels is presented. The different fuels are divided into four types:liquid fuels, liquefied fuels, compressed gases, and electricity, and detailed parameters are obtained. Three types offire hazards for the alternativefuel vehicles: pool fires, jet fires and fireballs are identified andinvestigated in detail. Fromthe perspective of pool fire size, the liquid fuels pose equivalent or evenmuch lower fire hazards compared to the traditionally used fuels, but theliquefied fuels may pose higher hazards. For pressurized tanks, the fires are generally much larger in size butshorter in duration. The gas releases from pressure relief devices and the resulting jet firesare highly transient. Forhydrogen vehicles, the fire sizes are significantly higher compared to CNGtanks, while flame lengths only slighter longer. Investigation of the peakoverpressure in case of an explosion in a tunnel was also carried out. Theresults showed that, for the vehicles investigated, the peak overpressure of tankrupture and BLEVE are mostly in a range of 0.1 to 0.36 bar at 50 m away. Thesituations in case of cloud explosion are mostly much more severe andintolerable. These hazards need to be carefully considered in both vehiclesafety design and tunnel fire safety design. Further researches on thesehazards are in urgent need.

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  • 39.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Brandsäker energilagring - Sammanställning av risker och forskningsbehov2018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a large interest in the possibilities in storing produced energy that is not needed at that particular moment or to store energy when the cost for production of electricity is low. For this reason, different types of energy storage systems are used. With a fast development of new technologies and new forms of application for energy storage systems, it is important to also study the existing and potential risks with these types of systems.

    This prestudy describes the field, its risks and needs for research. It focuses on risks associated with fire, including explosions and when relevant the production of toxic gases. Although the main focus of the prestudy is different types of energy storage systems, the report contains information also on risks associated with storage of solid biofuels and waste. This means that the report contains information on risks and needs for research for batteries, hydrogen, biogas, liquified gases, biofuels and waste.

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  • 40.
    Mandalika, A.
    et al.
    University of Wisconsin-Madison, US; Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, US.
    Bragg, D.
    USDA Forest Service, US.
    Schuler, J.
    West Virginia University, US.
    Baker, Darren
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi.
    Elder, T.
    USDA Forest Service, US.
    Groom, L.
    USDA Forest Service, US.
    Potential of natural-origin loblolly pine tree fractions as a bioenergy feedstock2019Ingår i: Wood and Fiber Science, ISSN 0735-6161, Vol. 51, nr 1, s. 26-40Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemical characterization was performed on 10 different samples of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.), representing the various woody components of trees (bole, slab, tops and branches, and precommercial stem-only) harvested from two naturally regenerated forests in southern Arkansas. Ultimate analysis, proximate analysis using thermogravimetry, and the energy content of the samples were determined to help evaluate their bioenergy utility. Elemental analysis revealed no significant differences between the pine tree fractions, whereas differences were observed in the proximate analysis, particularly in regard to the fixed carbon content. Generally, proximate analyses did not show significant differences between the slabwood and bolewood samples, although the “tops and branches” and “whole stem” samples contained the lowest volatile matter amounts and the greatest amounts of fixed carbon and ash content. In terms of the calorific value, the “tops and limbs” sample reported the lowest energy content, whereas the “whole stem” sample was among the highest reported value with statistical significance. These results indicate that whole stem samples may be an attractive prospect for bioenergy applications such as gasification, pelletization, and combustion, owing to favorable heating content values and relatively low ash content. Although a number of logistical challenges exist in their acquisition and processing, slabs, topwood, and branches offer opportunities for bioenergy applications that can increase the utilization of forest residues without threatening more traditional uses of wood in lumber, panels, and paper. Finally, we then briefly consider the silvicultural implications of these results for naturally regenerated southern pine €“dominated forests.

  • 41.
    Mattsson, Moa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Lundberg, Liv
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Korda, Olga
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    An Exploratory Study on Swedish Stakeholders’ Experiences with Positive Energy Districts2023Ingår i: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 16, nr 12, artikel-id 4790Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Positive energy district (PED) is a novel idea aimed to have an annual surplus of renewable energy and net zero greenhouse gas emissions within an area. However, it is still an ambiguous concept, which might be due to the complexity of city district projects with interconnected infrastructures and numerous stakeholders involved. This study discusses various aspects of PED implementation and presents practitioners’ experiences with the PED concept, challenges, and facilitators they have faced with real projects. The study is based on interviews with ten Swedish professionals. The major challenges reported for PED implementation were local energy production and energy flexibility, sub-optimization, legislation, suitable system boundaries, and involvement of stakeholders. Most of the interviewees mentioned improved collaboration, integrated innovative technology, political support, and climate change mitigation goals as important facilitators. The interviewees highlighted the importance of a local perspective and considered each city’s preconditions when developing a PED project. The study emphasizes that to facilitate PED implementation and replication in cities, more knowledge and clarity is required about PED such as on the definition and system boundaries. © 2023 by the authors.

  • 42.
    Niklasson, Fredrik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Gustavsson, Lennart
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Ryde, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Johansson, Mathias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Persson, Henrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Schüßler, Ingmar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Branschgemensam forskning för småskaliga biobränslepannor inför ekodesign2018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Nytillverkade småskaliga biobränslepannor måste uppfylla ekodesignkraven senast år 2020. I en marknadsundersökning från 2014 klarade ingen av 11 testade pelletspannor alla ställda krav, vilket tydligt visar på ett utvecklingsbehov. Föreliggande projekt har haft som syfte att panntillverkare och forskningsinstitut branschgemensamt ska bemöta de förbränningstekniska utmaningar som tillverkarna står inför.

    För pelletspannor är den största utmaningen med ekodesigndirektivet att prestanda till största delen beräknas från drift vid partiell last (låg last). Tidigare har prestanda bara fastställts vid nominell last och designen optimerats därefter. I detta projekt har tester körts med två moderna pelletspannor som har olika typer av pelletsbrännare: en med horisontellt brännarrör och en med undermatad brännarkopp. Resultaten visar att tillräckligt god förbränning kunde upprätthållas vid partiell last med båda brännartyperna. Dock uppvisade rörbrännaren betydligt lägre emissioner vid partiell last, troligtvis beroende på att förbränningszonen i denna brännare är skyddad från värmestrålningsutbyte med kylande pannväggar. Ett ganska omfattande arbete lades ned på att förse koppbrännaren med en skyddande krage som skulle skydda förbränningszonen. Det resulterade dock inte in någon betydande förbättring, antagligen beroende på att tillförseln av sekundärluft inte blev optimal. Ett mer omfattande arbete krävs för att utveckla en optimal brännardesign av denna typ.

    För vedpannor är det en utmaning att klara ekodesigndirektivets NOx-krav på 200 mg/Nm³. En mängd temperaturmätningar i en vedpanna för villabruk resulterade i att termisk NOx-bildning kunde uteslutas. Pannan förseddes med ett system för rökgasåterföring, men det minskade inte NOx-emissionen. Därefter provades olika vedsorter. NOx-emissionen kunde minskas till att klara gränsvärdet med avbarkad björkved. Kemiska analyser visade att björkbarken innehöll 0,49% kväve jämfört med 0,09% i stamveden. Även granved gav låga NOx-emissioner, men det bränslet medförde ökade emissioner av CO och OGC. För att vedpannor ska klara kraven på CO, OGC och stoft krävs optimering med avseende på vedens slutförbränningsfas. I det skedet är emissionerna som högst, vilket beror på att värmeeffekten avtar och luftflödet tenderar att kyla ned rökgasen innan de brännbara gaserna brunnit ut. Den optiska partikelmätningen visade tydlig korrelation mellan stoft och CO i rökgasen. Om pannan uppfyller gränsvärdet för CO så finns goda chanser att även kravet på partiklar uppfylls.

    Verkningsgraden som anges i ekodesigndirektivet beräknas utgående från bränslets övre värmevärde. Dessutom subtraheras vissa förlustfaktorer. Detta innebär att pannan inte får ha några onödigt stora värmeförluster eller omotiverat hög elförbrukning för att klara satta krav. Mätningar visade att den största förlusten sker via värmen i rökgasen. Den näst största förlustposten är värmetransport från pannkroppen. För verkningsgraden ökar betydelsen av en välisolerad pannkropp vid partiell last. De två pelletspannor som användes inom projektet låg väl till för att kunna uppfylla ekodesigndirektivets krav på verkningsgrad.

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  • 43.
    Ollas, Patrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och resurser. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Energy Savings Using a Direct Current Distribution Network in a PV and Battery Equipped Residential Building2020Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy from solar photovoltaic (PV) are generated as direct current (DC) and almost all of today’s electrical loads in residential buildings, household appliances and HVAC system (Heating Ventilation and Air-conditioning) are operated on DC. For a conventional alternating current (AC) distribution system this requires the need for multiple conversion steps before the final user-stage. By switching the distribution system to DC, conversion steps between AC to DC can be avoided and, in that way, losses are reduced. Including a battery storage–the system’s losses can be reduced further and the generated PV energy is even better utilised.

    This thesis investigates and quantifies the energy savings when using a direct current distribution topology in a residential building together with distributed energy generation from solar photovoltaic and a battery storage. Measured load and PV generation data for a single-family house situated in Borås, Sweden is used as a case study for the analysis. Detailed and dynamic models–based on laboratory measurements of the power electronic converters and the battery–are also used to more accurately reflect the system’s dynamic performance.

    In this study a dynamic representation of the battery’s losses is presented which is based on laboratory measurements of the resistance and current dependency for a single lithium-ion cell based on Lithium iron phosphate (LFP). A comparative study is made with two others, commonly used, loss representations and evaluated with regards to the complete system’s performance, using the PV and load data from the single-family house. Results show that a detailed battery representation is important for a correct loss prediction when modelling the interaction between loads, PV and the battery.

    Four DC system topologies are also modelled and compared to an equivalent AC topology using the experimental findings from the power electronic converters and the battery measurements. Results from the quasi-dynamic modelling show that the annual energy savings potential from the suggested DC topologies ranges between 1.9–5.6%. The DC topologies also increase the PV utilisation by up to 10 percentage points, by reducing the associated losses from the inverter and the battery conversion. Results also show that the grid-tied converter is the main loss contributor and when a constant grid-tied efficiency is used, the energy savings are overestimated.

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  • 44.
    Ollas, Patrik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Markusson, Caroline
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Persson, Jon
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Alfadel, Usama
    Soliga Energi, Sweden.
    Impact of Battery Sizing on Self-Consumption, Self-Sufficiency and PeakPower Demand for a Low Energy Single-Family House With PVProduction in Sweden2018Ingår i: 7th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (WCPEC-7), June 10-15, 2018, 2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper simulates the impact of battery sizingfor an actual nearly-zero energy (NZEB) single-family housewith solar PV located in Bor°as, Sweden. Simulations are done,using measurement data as an input, for three different batterydispatch algorithms with two different purposes; (i) peak powershaving and (ii) maximising system self-consumption (SC) andself-sufficiency (SS) of the solar PV. The results show that theoptimal battery storage size for this single-family house, givenits measured electrical loads and existing solar PV system isaround 7.2 kWh. System self-consumption and self-sufficiencyfrom generated solar PV increased with 24.3 percentage pointscompared to a reference case without battery. Furthermore,results show that increasing the battery size beyond 7.2 kWhonly results in minor performance gains.

  • 45.
    Ollas, Patrik
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och resurser. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Thiringer, Torbjörn
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Chen, Hiujuan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och resurser.
    Markusson, Caroline
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och resurser.
    Increased photovoltaic utilisation from direct current distribution: Quantification of geographical location impact2021Ingår i: Progress in Photovoltaics, ISSN 1062-7995, E-ISSN 1099-159X, Vol. 29, nr 7, s. 846-856Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the performance of a direct current (DC) distribution system is modelled for a single-family residential building and compared with a conventional alternating current (AC) system to quantify the potential energy savings and gains in photovoltaic (PV) utilisation. The modelling is made for two different climates to quantify the impact of the geographical location. Results show that the system losses are reduced by 19–46% and the PV utilisation increased by 3.9–7.4% when using a DC distribution system compared to an AC equivalent, resulting in system efficiency gains in the range of 1.3–8.8%. Furthermore, it is shown that the geographical location has some effect on the system's performance and PV utilisation, but most importantly, the grid interaction is paramount for the performance of the DC topology. © 2021 The Authors.

  • 46.
    Olsson, Linda
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria.
    Fallahi, Sara
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria.
    Schnurr, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria.
    Diener, Derek
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria.
    van Loon, Patricia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria.
    Circular Business Models for Extended EV Battery Life2018Ingår i: Batteries, ISSN 2313-0105, Vol. 4, nr 4, artikel-id 57Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the near future, a large volume of electric vehicle (EV) batteries will reach their end-of-life in EVs. However, they may still retain capacity that could be used in a second life, e.g., for a second use in an EV, or for home electricity storage, thus becoming part of the circular economy instead of becoming waste. The aim of this paper is to explore second life of EV batteries to provide an understanding of how the battery value chain and related business models can become more circular. We apply qualitative research methods and draw on data from interviews and workshops with stakeholders, to identify barriers to and opportunities for second use of EV batteries. New business models are conceptualized, in which increased economic viability of second life and recycling and increased business opportunities for stakeholders may lead to reduced resource consumption. The results show that although several stakeholders see potential in second life, there are several barriers, many of which are of an organizational and cognitive nature. The paper concludes that actors along the battery value chain should set up new collaborations with other actors to be able to benefit from creating new business opportunities and developing new business models together.

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  • 47.
    Paulrud, Susanne
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Bioraffinaderi och energi.
    Bäckström, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Hamon, Camille
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Nasri, Amin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Dahl, Jonas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och resurser.
    VALUE-OPTIMISED USE OF BIOMASS IN A FLEXIBLE ENERGYINFRASTRUCTURE2021Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall objective of the VABISYS project was to develop new technologies and concepts that improve the value of bioenergy resources in an energy system dominated by variable renewable energy (VRE) such as wind and solar. When an energy system becomes dominated by VRE generation, completely new types of flexible resources are needed to maintain a stable and reliable supply of energy.

    The objective of the Swedish work was to extend the flexibility of known bioenergy technologies and accelerate the deployment of flexible bioenergy technologies via market assessments and business plans. The specific objectives were:1. To assess the operational limitations of liquid biofuel-based energy production in low load and load changing conditions bio-oil boilers.2. To find the operation limits of an Organic Ranking Cycle (ORC). 3. To produce data to support energy system modelling and technology assessment of biofuel-based energy production in WP2 and WP6. 4. To create scenarios for the design of future energy markets. 5. To generate adequate production portfolios for bio-based flexible electricity production addressing future system needs and demands. 6. To estimate potential revenues for electricity production from bio-based production. 7. To analyse the replication potential for flexible bio-based electricity production in a European context and from a market design and policy perspective. 

    The objectives were addressed in the following way:- Objective 1 and 2: A measurement campaign was performed to investigate the performance of the energy system at Falbygdens Energi with respect to emissions, ramp rates and flexibility limits for a bio-oil boiler (8,8 MW) and an ORC (2,4 MW electricity and 10 MW heat). The results will improve the possibilities of manufacturers to offer technologically and economically attractive bioenergy solutions to a market based on strengthening the robustness of VRE dominated energy system.- Objective 3: This was done by VTT and is not in the scope of this report, which only documents RISE work.- Objective 4: Scenarios for future electricity prices and fuel prices have been collected from (Svenska kraftnät, 2018) to serve as inputs to investment studies for the plants identified as interesting in the created portfolio (see objective 4 below).- Objective 5: A portfolio of current and future CHP plants was designed. The aim of this was to identify data sources that provide both economic and technical parameters for investments in new CHP plants.- Objective 6: An operational planning model has been developed to simulate operational planning of all units in district heating systems. It gives the optimal hourly schedules of all units for the coming week so as to maximize profits on the day-ahead electricity market and minimize fuel, start-up and shut-down costs.- Objective 6: continued: An investment model has been developed to study the profitability of investments in new plants in existing district heating systems. It uses scenarios covering the full lifetime of the new plants to be studied. It takes the results from the operational planning model to compute financial profitability indicators.- Objective 7: The developed models have been applied to case studies in Sweden. However, they are flexible enough to be used in other contexts. Moreover, the day-ahead electricity market has a common design in most European countries, which makes the model valid without any changes in countries included in the same coupling region as Sweden.

    Some conclusions from the projects are:A biopower plant needs to have a stored resource that can produce electricity when it is needed and to be a flexible resource in the energy system. Bio-oils can be used for these purposes since they have high starting availability and are a fuel that can be stored for several years. The results showed that it is possible to obtain a fast start from 80 seconds to 13 minutes depending on operational mode and the emissions from the bio-oil boiler is not significantly affected during start-up or when changing load.

    Flexibility and storage solutions will be important to meet the needs, and despite rapid development in terms of such solutions, in the longer term, a powerful expansion of Swedish electricity production and the electricity grid will also be needed. For smaller district heating plants, the ORC technology can be a good option. One of the most interesting features with the ORC is that it can operate at low load with maintained efficiency. The maximum decrease in electricity production for the studied ORC plant when running the wood chip boiler at constant load and when bypassing oil in the three-way valve was approximately 85 kW/min and when increasing the load in the ORC the ramp rate was approximately 172 kW/min. The emissions from the ORC-solid fuel boiler system was overall low and was not affected by changes in electricity production or load.

    District heating can play key roles in meeting the challenges associated with the energy transition by coupling the electricity and the heat sector. District heating can provide local electricity production, decrease the share of electric heating and could be able to participate in ancillary services. To fulfil these roles, the profitability of investments in for example combined heat-and-power units needs to be evaluated, which the operational planning and investment models developed in this project can do. Future electricity price scenarios for Sweden show that higher electricity demand leads to both higher average electricity prices and larger variance in the electricity prices, the latter being due to the largest variation in available capacity from VRE from hour to hour. The results of the investment models on these scenarios indicate larger potential revenues from electricity markets in the future compared to today, which increases the profitability of investments in CHP units.

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  • 48.
    Paulrud, Susanne
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Löfgren, Bengt-Erik
    Pelletsförbundet, Sweden.
    Iwarsson Wide, Maria
    Skogforsk, Sweden.
    Melin, Gustav
    SVEBIO, Sweden.
    Innovationskluster för internationalisering inom bioenergiområdet - förstudie2018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Bioenergy contributes to a sustainable energy mix in most countries worldwide, is the largest renewable energy generation and has a global development potential. Bioenergy today accounts for 60 percent of all renewable energy in the EU: 11 percent of all used energy, compared with 7 percent for all other renewable energy sources. However, the market for Swedish bioenergy and bioenergy technology in Sweden has decreased. Partly because our domestic market for new district heating installations has already been expanded and partly because the competition from electricity heating through energy efficient heat pumps in the residential segment takes over the exchange market. In order for Swedish know-how and products to grow, increased exports and visibility are important. An innovation cluster for internationalization in the bioenergy field cre-ates a meeting place that facilitates involved bioenergy companies and organizations to create sustainable growth inside and outside their own industry.

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  • 49.
    Persson, Jon
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och resurser.
    Förstudierapport: Solel och elnät i Viared industriområde2022Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta förstudiearbete genomfördes under 2021 av RISE i samarbete med Borås Elnät AB, AFRY och Borås Energi och Miljö, med finansiering från Västra Götalandsregionen. Västra Götaland är det län som efter Stockholm importerar mest el i Sverige, 13 TWh. Industri- och transportsektorn är de största energianvändarna som tillsammans står för över 65% av länets totala elanvändning. Att bygga solel på befintliga industribyggnader innebär att man ökar värdeproduktionen på redan exploaterad mark, med goda förutsättningar att nyttja lokalproducerad solel i den dagliga verksamheten. Viared är det största industri- och logistikområde i länet med sina ca. 850 000 m2 takyta och med en elanvändning på ca. 52 GWh/år. 15 av de 140 elabonnenterna i området står för ca. 50% av både elanvändning och tillgängliga takytor. I snitt är elanvändningen 53 kWh/m2/år, vilket innebär att området skulle kunna nå netto-noll i elanvändning över året om 50% av takytorna används för solelinstallationer. Gränser för installerad effekt för solelsystem i gällande regelverk (500 kWp och 1500 kW) påverkar ekonomin för stora solelanläggningar negativt, vilket rör flera av de större taken i Viared och begränsar den totala potentialen. 40% av Viareds byggnader är uppförda efter 2015 och erbjuder relativt nya takytor på vilka solelsystem kan placeras och takets bärighet tillåter den extra lasten på taket. Delade incitament mellan fastighetsägare, fastighetsförvaltare och hyresgäster med korta kontraktslängder (ofta <10 år) och osäkerhet kring framtida användning av lokalerna är i flera fall ett hinder för investering i solelsystem där återbetalningstiden bedöms till 10-15 år. En förenklad modellering av elnätet på Viareds industriområde pekar på att befintligt elnät bör kunna hantera relativt mycket solelproduktion, även om ett netto-noll scenario för solelproduktion skulle utmana spänningsstabiliteten med eleffektstoppar på elnätet nästan fyra gånger större i nuläget. Solelanläggningar dimensioneras och byggs idag utifrån enskilda aktörers förutsättningar. Företagens eller företagskoncernernas egna hållbarhetsambitioner är drivande för utbyggnaden av solelsystem och närliggande investeringar för ökad hållbarhet. För att kunna nytta områdets fulla potential för utbyggnad av solel på befintliga takytor skulle det behövas en aktör som tydligare kan driva frågan från ett områdesperspektiv för att skapa ekonomiska mervärde på lokal och regional nivå för att använda en större del av takytorna och överbrygga delade incitament bland de många aktörer som berörs. Vårt förslag är att det skulle kunna prövas genom en form av energigemenskap där lämpliga aktörer medverkar.

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  • 50.
    Persson, Mattias
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Solelens effekter på elnätets elkvalitet2019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det övergripande målet med projektet är att utvärdera hur solel påverkar elkvalitet i mindre nätområden i ett större distributionsnät med hjälp av högupplösta elkvalitetsrelaterade mätningar, modellerings- och simuleringsstudier samt en kartläggning av statusen i branschen. Tre befintliga lågspänningsnät med solel är utgångspunkten för mätningarna och de tillhörande analyserna Ambitionen är att ta fram verktyg och metoder som med ovan nämnd indata kan kvantifiera solelens påverkan gällande nätbolagets elkvalitet till kund. Bland mätningarna ingår

    parametrar såsom effekt, energi, spänning, ström, fasobalanser, övertoner m.m.

     

    Projektmål:

    1. Samla in högupplöst elkvalitetsrelaterad mätdata per fas från tre mindre nätområden i större svenska distributionsnät med solel. Mätningarna ska genomföras under minst ett år för att fånga säsongsmässiga variationer från solelproduktionen.

    2. Undersöka elkvalitetsrelaterade faktorer som exempelvis övertoner och öka kunskapen kring hur dessa propagerar, dämpas eller förstärks inom ett nät med en större mängd installerad solelproduktion.

    3. Analysera de sammanlagringseffekter som existerar mellan produktion från solel och laster i elnäten. Genom att utnyttja de installerade högupplösta mätningarna kan en noggrannare analys av nätets kapacitet utföras. Ambitionen är att utifrån analysen ta fram verktyg och metoder som kan ge riktlinjer till nätägarna kring både hur framtidens nät bör dimensioneras samt hur en större mängd solelproduktion kan integreras i de befintliga näten.

    4. Utvärdera hur mycket noggrannare analyser som kan uppnås med de i projektet installerade högupplösta mätningarna i jämförelse med att endast använda de redan tillgängliga energitimvärden som finns hos varje kund. Dessutom kvantifieras nyttan av att ha så kallad undermätning på närmaste transformatorstation.

    5. I en intervjustudie omfattande ett 15-tal aktörer på nät-, policy- och entreprenörssidan kartlägga branschens inställning, problem och erfarenheter kopplat till solceller och elkvalitet.

    6. Genom en litteraturstudie sammanfatta det internationella kunskapsläget kring solel och elkvalitet.

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