Change search
Refine search result
1 - 42 of 42
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1. Almström, Peter
    et al.
    Andersson, Carin
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Ericsson Öberg, Anna
    Hammersberg, Peter
    Kurdve, Martin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Landström, Anna
    Shahbazi, Sasha
    Mälardalens högskola, Innovation och produktrealisering.
    Wiktorsson, Magnus
    Mälardalens högskola, Innovation och produktrealisering.
    Windmark, Christina
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Winroth, Mats
    Zackrisson, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF, Energi och miljö.
    Sustainable and Resource Efficient Business Performance Measurement Systems: - The Handbook2017Report (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Amon, Francine
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Assessment of the environmental impact of warehouse fires and fire service response2017In: Fire and Materials 2017: 15th International Conference, London, UK: Interscience Communications, 2017, p. 433-442Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Bok, Gunilla
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Brander, Linus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Johansson, Pernilla
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Nya möjligheter att minska mängden deponerat gipsavfall från bygg- och ombyggnadsprojekt2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Plasterboard is a common building material used in several parts of a building. In the case of retrofitting and demolition a part of the waste consists of components combined with the plasterboards, for example, frame work timber.

    In the case of new construction and retrofitting, construction waste is produced from clean plasterboard boards, either as cut off pieces or as unused whole boards. This waste can be used as raw material to produce new plasterboards. Manufacturers want to use gypsum from wasted boards to decrease the use of primary gypsum from mining and the quality requirements are relatively easy to achieve.

    In this project it has been found that the major construction companies already handle gypsum from new construction separately. This waste fraction could already be used in the production of new boards. Gypsum from retrofitting is usually assembled with other building materials and require more extensive efforts to achieve necessary purity to be used in the productions of new boards. Today, plasterboard waste is deposited or used to improve soil and/or sludge. In order to increase the recycling of plasterboards new inventory routines of rebuilding and demolition projects need to be elaborated. New tools and methods for dismantling plasterboard need to be development to achieve safe working environment and environmentally and economically sustainable recycling.

    Preparation plants producing raw material from plasterboard waste are already in operation. Today the waste mainly is wastage from the production stage. In order to increase the recycling of plasterboards from the construction- and demolition branch new logistic systems need to be developed, for example by creating collection points for gypsum board waste and / or developing new transport vehicles and systems. Prerequisites of changing the system of piece work in the construction industry need to be investigated with the intension to create a more sustainable building industry.

  • 4.
    Boork, Magdalena
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment.
    Wendin, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Nordén, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Nilsson Tengelin, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Innemiljö i nytt ljus: Metoder för objektiv bedömning av belysning2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Nuvarande belysningsstandarder baseras enbart på tekniska krav, såsom ljusstyrka, jämnhet och luminans. Att även inkludera upplevelsebaserade krav skulle troligen främja bättre ljuskomfort, men även mer energieffektiva ljusmiljöer och produkter. Kunskapen om hur upplevda belysningsparametrar kan beskrivas är dock begränsad. Detta hämmar fastighetsägare och brukare att precisera önskvärda ljusmiljöer, liksom belysningstillverkare att utveckla produkter för nya marknader och tillämpningar. Syftet med detta forskningsprojekt var att utveckla och tillämpa sensoriska metoder på belysning. Till skillnad från tidigare metoder möjliggör sensoriska metoder objektiva bedömningar av upplevda belysningsparametrar.

    En analytisk panel bestående av åtta personer som uppfyller särskilda urvalskriterier rekryterades och tränades att bedöma belysningsprodukter i ett multisensoriskt laboratorium på SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut i Borås. Metodutvecklingen fokuserade särskilt på en effektiv träningsprocedur, hantering av ögats adaption, samt bedömning av färg och skuggningar. Förutom laboratorie-försök undersöktes möjligheten att genomföra analytiska bedömningar i en verklig kontext med samma försöksuppställning och panel.

    Resultaten visar att det är möjligt att använda sensorisk metodik för att genomföra objektiva belysningsbedömningar av armaturer; paneldeltagarna kunde skilja mellan attribut och prover. Signifikanta skillnader identifierades mellan de olika armaturerna, både i form av sensoriska och fysikaliska egenskaper såsom läsbarhet och bländning. Fysikaliska och sensoriska parametrar samvarierar dock inte alltid, vilket visar att fysikaliska och sensoriska mätningar ger kompletterande information om belysningskvalitet. Vidare visade bedömningsförsök i en verklig kontext att samma resultat uppnåddes som i laboratoriet, men med lägre signifikans, vilket verifierar metodens tillämpbarhet på belysning.

    Den genererade kunskapen väntas på sikt bidra till utveckling av verktyg som stödjer kommunikationen mellan olika professioner inom ljusdesign och planering och på så vis främja mer önskvärda och energieffektiva ljusmiljöer.

  • 5.
    Edwards, Ylva
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Hållbara byggnadsverk.
    Emilsson, T.
    Malmberg, J.
    Skog, A. P.
    Capener, C.-M.
    Quality-assured solutions for green roof gardens on concrete deck with zero tolerance for leaks2016In: The Sustainable City XI / [ed] A. Galiano-Garrigos, C.A. Brebbia, WIT Press, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eco-neighborhoods with gardens on concrete decks are for several reasons increasingly being prescribed today in major Swedish cities. However, there is a lack of knowledge, experience, standards and guidelines as well as collaboration between parties and stakeholders when installing such systems. It is incredibly important to avoid any leakage during the lifetime of a green roof garden but this cannot be completely guaranteed with today’s installation practice and project management. At Sustainable City 2014 in Siena, we presented a paper about a new project aiming at bringing together researchers, government and industry to collaborative development of new and attractive solutions for green roof gardens with consideration to the environment and high requirements for durability, materials, construction and energy efficiency. This paper is a continuation of the paper presented in Siena and reports on the most recent results from the collaborative project which will finalize in November 2016. After that, the project will be further evaluated in a proposed continuation project for another couple of years.

  • 6.
    Engsig-Karup, Allan P.
    et al.
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eskilsson, Claes
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety. Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Spectral element FNPF simulations of focused wave groups impacting a fixed FPSO2018In: Proceedings of the Twenty-eighth (2018) International Ocean and Polar Engineering Conference, the International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineering , 2018, p. 1443-1450Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For  the assessment of experimental measurements of focused wave groups impacting a surface-piecing fixed structure, we present a new Fully Nonlinear Potential Flow (FNPF) model for simulation of unsteady water waves. The FNPF model is discretized in three  spatial dimensions (3D) using high-order prismatic - possibly curvilinear - elements using a  spectral  element  method (SEM) that has support for adaptive unstructured meshes. This  SEM-FNPF model is based on an Eulerian formulation and deviates from past works in that a  direct discretization of the Laplace problem is used making it straightforward to handle  accurately floating structural bodies of arbitrary shape. Our objectives are; i) present detail of a new SEM modelling developments and ii) to consider its application to address a wave-body interaction problem for nonlinear design waves and their interaction with a model-scale fixed Floating Production, Storage and Offloading vessel (FPSO).  We first reproduce  experimental measurements for focused design waves that represent a probably extreme  wave event for a sea state represented by a wave spectrum and seek to reproduce these measurements in a numerical wave tank. The validated input signal based on measurements is then generated in a NWT setup that includes the FPSO and differences in the signal caused by nonlinear diffraction is reported.

  • 7.
    Eskilsson, Claes
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety. Aalborg University, Sweden.
    Palm, Johannes
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Simulations of floating wave energy devices using adaptive mesh refinement2019In: Advances in Renewable Energies Offshore / [ed] C. Guedes Soares, 2019, p. 431-438Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    CFD simulations of floating wave energy converters are computationally very heavy. This paper deals with a straightforward attempt to cut down on the computational effort by using adaptive mesh refinement (AMR). We investigate the use of AMR for simulations involving floating bodies inside the open-source finite volume framework OpenFOAM. A simple error indicator based on the pressure jump over cell faces is used to drive the AMR. First the use of the error indicator is illustrated for propagation of a very steep stream function wave. Then the AMR technique is applied to two cases of floating bodies: (i) a floating box and (ii) a bottom reacting point-absorber. As expected the AMR significantly reduce the number of cells in the computational meshes and subsequently lower the  computational effort.

  • 8.
    Fahnestock, Jesse
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    AERTOs Bio-Based Economy: Forward-Looking Analysis2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Forward-Looking Analysis portion of the AERTOs Bio-Based Economy project seeks to develop contextual, exploratory analysis that helps the participating research institutes better evaluate their bioeconomy strategies. The analysis takes a 15-20 year perspective and focuses on the level of the bioeconomy, rather than on specific technologies or biorefinery concepts.

    The analysis contends that RTOs and their industrial partners should consider the uncertainties of the future bioeconomy at different levels – The World and Sustainability, Europe and the Bioeconomy, and the RTOs and Industry – and through the lenses of three alternative logics.

    The logic of environmental sustainability pushes the bioeconomy and its component technologies in the direction of large scale, efficiently incentivized substitution of fossil-based emissions through bio-based alternatives, benefiting biofuel production and creating opportunities for RTOs to take a leadership role in their work to make industrial bioeconomy more sustainable.

    The logic of competitive innovation pushes countries and companies to search for defensible advantages in the bioeconomy. The scale of fossil substitution is smaller but the margins for successful companies are higher, and advanced bio-based materials and chemicals are a dynamic sector for investment. The RTOs have a smaller role and work increasingly on product performance issues.

    The logic of resource utilization sees countries and companies working to maximize the value of existing assets, particularly natural biomass endowments. The bioeconomy is driven primarily through national strategies and the Forest Biorefinery creates national champions in the Nordics. RTOs have a stable workflow and focus on increasing the efficiency of biorefinery systems.

    Uncertainties related to the quantitative boundaries of the future bioeconomy can be assessed through a review of scenario literature on biomass availability, biofuels and bio-based chemicals production. There is a wide range of estimates available, but central estimates suggest that potential supply of sustainable biomass to industry could exceed demand by 70% in the long-term. Pressures created by changes at the margin of markets and through regional variations may nonetheless make realizing this potential difficult. Pathways applying the logic of environmental sustainability, to the extent that it generates common standards, will likely reduce supply-side risks.

    Because the transition to a bio-based economy will occur stepwise, accusations of ‘greenwashing’ may plague early bio-based products and strategies if they are not fully-fossil free or certified sustainable. Nonetheless these first attempts may also generate positive awareness and will need to continue in interplay with the development of standards and certifications. Pathways applying the logic of competitive innovation are likely to be those that create incentives for greenwashing and reputational risks to the bioeconomy.

    Uncertainties about feedstocks and technology costs have made feedstock flexibility a topic of interest in biorefinery development. Here, too, multiple concepts exist, from modular concepts that are truly feedstock agnostic to robust concepts designed to handle heterogeneity within a narrower feedstock basis. Once again the logical pathway applied will be likely to influence the approach to feedstock flexibility.

  • 9.
    Fahnestock, Jesse
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Norström, Markus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Johnson, Anders
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Olsson, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Johansson, Niklas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Brolin, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Ivarsson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Wolf, Jens
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Carlström, Elis
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea.
    De Jong, Annelise
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Kempe, Marcus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Norrblom, Hans-Lennart
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea.
    Anheden, Marie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Ahlroth, MIkael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Sommarin, Per
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Riesbeck, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea.
    Fornell, Rickard
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Lundberg, Valeria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Larsson, Mikael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea.
    Hooey, Lawrence
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea.
    Hjörnhede, Anders
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Hermansson, Sven
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Östling, Henrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea.
    RISEnergy: Roadmaps for energy innovation in Sweden through 20302016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden is a group of research and technology organisations. RISE is a leading innovation partner working global cooperation with academia, enterprise and society to create value, growth and competitiveness through research excellence and innovation.

    In the area of Energy, RISE has developed innovation Roadmaps covering:

    • Energy Efficient Transport
    • Electric Power System
    • Energy Efficient and Smart Buildings
    • Sustainable Thermal Processes
    • Efficient Energy Use in Industry
    • Decarbonisation of Basic Industries

    These Roadmaps describe development pathways for technologies, non-technical elements (market design, user behaviours, policies, etc.) and key actors that deliver on a plausible, desirable vision for each respective innovation area in 2030. These Roadmaps are intended to support RISE’s strategic planning and development, but should be relevant reading for anyone interested in energy innovation in Sweden.

  • 10.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway. Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg.
    Fighting flameless fires: Initiating and extinguishing self-sustainedsmoldering fires in wood pellets2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Smoldering fires represent domestic, environmental and industrial hazards. This flameless form of combustion is more easily initiated than flaming, and is also more persistent and difficult to extinguish. The growing demand for non-fossil fuels has increased the use of solid biofuels such as biomass. This represents a safety challenge, as biomass self-ignition can cause smoldering fires, flaming fires or explosions.

    Smoldering and extinguishment in granular biomass was studied experimentally. The set-up consisted of a cylindrical fuel container of steel with thermally insulated side walls. The container was closed at the bottom, open at the top and heated from below by a hot surface. Two types of wood pellets were used as fuel, with 0.75-1.5 kg samples.

    Logistic regression was used to determine the transition region between non-smoldering and self-sustained smoldering experiments, and to determine the influence of parameters. Duration of external heating was most important for initiation of smoldering. Sample height was also significant, while the type of wood pellet was near-significant and fuel container height was not.

    The susceptibility of smoldering to changes in air supply was studied. With a small gap at the bottom of the fuel bed, the increased air flow in the same direction as the initial smoldering front (forward air flow) caused a significantly more intense combustion compared to the normal set-up with opposed air flow.

    Heat extraction from the combustion was studied using a water-cooled copper pipe. Challenges with direct fuel-water contact (fuel swelling, water channeling and runoff) were thus avoided. Smoldering was extinguished in 7 of 15 cases where heat extraction was in the same range as the heat production from combustion. This is the first experimental proof-of-concept of cooling as an extinguishment method for smoldering fires.

    Marginal differences in heating and cooling separated smoldering from extinguished cases; the fuel bed was at a heating-cooling balance point. Lower cooling levels did not lead to extinguishment, but cooling caused more predictable smoldering, possibly delaying the most intense combustion. Also observed at the balance point were pulsating temperatures; a form of long-lived (hours), macroscopic synchronization not previously observed in smoldering fires.

    For practical applications, cooling could be feasible for prevention of temperature escalation from self-heating in industrial storage units. This study provides a first step towards improved fuel storage safety for biomass. 

  • 11. Gram, Hans-Erik
    et al.
    Lagerblad, Björn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Hållbara byggnadsverk.
    Westerholm, Mikael
    Betong med krossat bergmaterial som ballast: Kvalitetskriterier och proportionering2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden there is a local shortage of natural aggregate. Moreover, for environmental reasons remaining natural aggregate should be preserved. Crushed rocks are the only economically realistic alternative. Aggregate from crushed rocks is different from natural aggregate as regard particle distribution, grain shape and particle surface. Crushed rocks mostly generate a larger amount of filler. That will affect the workability of concrete. In part it is possible to change the particle distribution and particle shape but in general with present rules for concrete proportioning crushed rocks and especially the fine material from crushed rocks will increase the cement demand at a given quality.  Aggregate from crushed rocks is, however, not a uniform product. There are several methods for crushing and different types of rocks that will give different products with different degree of suitability for concrete production.  Different types of granites have since long been the prime source of rock for aggregate in Sweden. Earlier, however, only the coarse aggregate has been from crushed rocks but today Sweden has to learn also to use fine aggregate from crushed rocks. Crushed granites often give bad fine aggregate mainly due to that it contains flaky minerals and generate large amount of filler. The variation is, however, large and some crushed granites give aggregates that is good while other give fine aggregates that con not be used in concrete production. 7(119)  The analysis and tests in this report show how it is possible to characterize crushed rocks. The material characterization is correlated to substitute methods for practical testing. These are in turn correlated to rheological measurements and workability tests. The material characterization can be used to select rock, optimizing processes and to find more cost-effective methods for sustainable concrete optimization.  Granites are composed of a certain set of minerals, mainly quartz, alkali feldspar, plagioclase and micas (muscovite and biotite). In the finer fractions the micas become free and free mica is flaky. Free mica affects the rheology and workability negatively.  Basically, concrete proportioning is about finding an optimized particle size distribution that considers the particle shape. A fresh concrete is a particle slurry where the different grains interfere. A flaky and angular particle needs finer material and water to flow than a round one. This is the case from the course down to the finest material. To find the appropriate distribution curve a computer based proportioning tool has been developed. The difference between this program and earlier similar programs is that it also considers the particle shape. Basically, it calculates the void volume needed to be filled with micro mortar (< 125 μm) to allow flow. Less void demands less cement for the same strength. In the second step the micro mortar is optimized.  Analysis and tests show that the crushing technique is important. With VSI (Vertical Shaft impact) crushing it is possible to get more cubic grains down to the mineral limit, i.e. the size where free minerals dominate over rock particles. Free mica is common in sizes less than 0.5 mm but it depends on the coarseness of the rock. It is possible to lower the amount of micas and filler by wind sieving that separates light and fine particles from coarser but this demands that the fine fraction is replaced. The amount of free micas in the fine fraction varies from almost nothing up to 20-30 % in granites. Thus, it is important to find and use rocks with low contents of mica in aggregate production. Carbonate and basic rocks generally give better fine aggregates than granitic rocks but they can give other problems.  To be able to reduce the amount of cement the properties of the micro mortar have to be considered. Tests have shown that it is possible to lower the strength by increasing the amount of filler and keeping the water/cement ratio constant. This, however, demands a filler of good quality and the use of efficient superplasticizer. Like with the other particles good quality filler is made up of round or cubic particles.  Concrete production demands a uniform and good quality of the aggregate. One of the major problems is inhomogeneities of the rock. As different rocks give different products this demands a geological characterization of the rock. As different rocks give different products it is difficult to give a specific test procedure. Especially the properties of fine aggregate are correlated with rheology and workability. Different methods for testing and describing both rock and products are given in this report. Each quarry has to be characterized and an appropriate quality test procedure has to be established. With data given in this report it is possible to characterize and evaluate different products and from this to find ways to improve the properties.

  • 12.
    Groth, Cecilia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Spill till guld2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Hiller, Carolina
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment.
    Wendin, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Nilsson Tengelin, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Utveckling och tillämpning av sensoriska metoder för objektiva belysnings-bedömningar, del I2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I dag finns tekniska belysningsstandarder som inkluderar parameterar så som ljusstyrka, jämnhet och luminans. Det som saknas är krav som grundar sig på människors upplevelser av belysning och ljusmiljöer. Att få med den upplevelsebaserade dimensionen skulle betyda ett helhetstänk som förmodligen skulle gynna både ljuskomforten och än mer energieffektiva ljusmiljöer och produkter. Att beskriva upplevda belysningsparametrar har hittills visat sig inte vara helt enkelt, och här saknas både kunskap och en gemensam begreppsvärld inom branschen; något som hämmar fastighetsägare att ställa lämpliga krav vid en upphandling liksom belysningstillverkare att utveckla produkter för nya marknader och tillämpningar. Det övergripande syftet med detta forskningsprojekt är att utveckla och tillämpa sensoriska metoder på belysning. Till skillnad från tidigare metoder möjliggör sensoriska metoder objektiva bedömningar av upplevda belysningsparametrar. Syftet med försöken som redovisas i denna delrapport är att vidareutveckla och testa metoden ytterligare. Detta görs genom att nya armaturer testas liksom att försök utförs i en ny verklig kontext (kontorsmiljö). Försöken bygger vidare på resultat från tidigare försök som har rapporterats om i (Boork et al, 2017).

    En analytisk panel bestående av åtta personer, som uppfyllde särskilda urvalskriterier, har tidigare rekryterats och dessa personer tränades nu för detta specifika delprojekt för att bedöma belysningsprodukter i ett multisensoriskt laboratorium på RISE Research Institutes of Sweden i Borås. Metodutvecklingen fokuserade särskilt på en effektiv träningsprocedur, hantering av ögats adaption, samt bedömning av färg och skuggningar. Förutom laboratorieförsök undersöktes möjligheten att genomföra analytiska bedömningar i en verklig kontext med samma försöksuppställning och panel.

    Resultaten visade att det är möjligt att använda sensorisk metodik för att genomföra objektiva belysningsbedömningar även för de testade belysningsprodukterna, dvs mindre LED-spotlights. Signifikanta skillnader identifierades mellan de olika armaturerna och som i tidigare försök spelade färgtemperaturen en stor roll för flera av de bedömda egenskaperna; inte minst förstås för ljuskällans gulhet och för läsbarhet (textkontrasten). Liksom i tidigare försök fanns det samband mellan de fysikaliska mätningarna och sensoriska bedömningarna, men inte för alla egenskaper, vilket visar att fysikaliska och sensoriska mätningar ger kompletterande information om belysning.  Vidare visade bedömningsförsök i en verklig kontext att likvärdiga resultat uppnåddes som i laboratoriet, om ändock något spretigare och inte heller lika entydiga i jämförelse med verklig kontext i tidigare försök.

    Den genererade kunskapen väntas på sikt bidra till utveckling av verktyg som stödjer kommunikationen mellan olika professioner inom ljusdesign och planering och på så vis främja mer önskvärda och energieffektiva ljusmiljöer.

  • 14.
    Jönbrink, Anna Karin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Roos, Sandra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Sundgren, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Johansson, Eva
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Birgitha, Nyström
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Peter, Nyström
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Create Competitiveness In A Sustainable Society: - Use Ecodesign, In Cooperation2011In: Design for Innovative Value Towards a Sustainable Society: Proceedings of EcoDesign 2011: 7th International Symposium on Environmentally Conscious Design and Inverse Manufacturing / [ed] M. Matsumoto et al., Dordrecht: Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2011, p. 430-433Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper will describe a new methodology for the use of Ecodesign, where various competences are combined to obtain high quality results. The competences needed are: Environmental experts, who can evaluate the environmental performance of a product or service through Life Cycle Assessment, LCA, material- and process experts for the materials and processes in the targeted product or service, experts of the final product or service who can provide high quality data for the LCA. This cross functional team can develop new products or services, with high performance combined with low environmental impact, applying ecodesign when cooperating closely. Using this methodology is a feasible way to obtain improved competitiveness for the industry in a sustainable society.

  • 15.
    Jönbrink, Anna Karin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF, Energi och miljö.
    Sahlin, Jenny
    Profu AB.
    Moberg, Åsa
    IVL, Swedish Environmental Institute.
    Wilson, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF, Energi och miljö.
    Dvali, Katja
    Profu AB.
    Youhanan, Lena
    IVL, Swedish Environmental Institute.
    Policy for Circular Economy: Prestudy for improved policy development2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes mainly the approach and results from a project “Polcirkeln” within the research program RE:Source, funded by three Swedish agencies: the Swedish Energy Agency, Vinnova and Formas. Polcirceln has studied the current situation and possible future effects of various measures for a circular economy. Among others, the EU's proposed policy package for a circular economy has been studied. A selection of today's flows of products, materials and waste constitutes a starting point and challenges and possible effects on material flows and sustainability have been formulated and analyzed based on experiences and views from different actors in the value chain (mainly from industry), and other experts. Methods used in the study are e.g. interviews, web-surveys, workshops and scenario analysis.

    The importance of Policies moving towards a more holistic approach to achieve more circular flows has been stressed by all stakeholders in the study described in the paper. Instead of dividing activities, obstacles and opportunities between waste, materials, production and consumption, a holistic approach should be introduced in the analysis of the challenges and designing of solutions. Another main finding is that a change to a Circular Economy needs an increased and developed cooperation between companies and other actors along the value chain, thus there is a need to develop policies in order to support the new improved ways for cooperation

  • 16.
    Koukounas, Dimitrios
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Eskilsson, Claes
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety. Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Engsig-Karup, Allan P.
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Numerical simulations of Peregrine breathers using a spectral element model2018In: Proceedings of the 37th International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic EngineeringOMAE 2018June 17-22, 2018, Madrid, Spain, 2018, Vol. 11A, article id OMAE2018-77648Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Breather solutions to the nonlinear Schrödinger equation have been put forward as a possible prototype for rouge waves and have been studied both experimentally and numerically. In the present study, we perform high resolution simulations of the evolution of Peregrine breathers in finite depth using a fully non- linear potential flow spectral element model. The spectral ele- ment model can accurately handle very steep waves as illustrated by modelling solitary waves up to limiting steepness. The an- alytic breather solution is introduced through relaxation zones. The numerical solution obtained by the spectral element model is shown to compare in large to the analytic solution as well as to CFD simulations of a Peregrine breather in finite depth pre- sented in literature. We present simulations of breathers over variable bathymetry and 3D simulations of a breather impinging on a mono-pile.

  • 17. Kurkinen, Eva-Lotta
    et al.
    Norén, Joakim
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Peñaloza, Diego
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Al-Ayish, Nadia
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    During, Otto
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Energy and climate-efficient construction systems: Environmental assessment of various frame options for buildings in Brf. Viva2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the collaborative forum Positive footprint housing® Riksbyggen is building the Viva residential quarter, which is a sustainability project at the very forefront of what is possible with contemporary construction. The idea is that this residential quarter should be fully sustainable in ecological, economic and social terms. Since 2013, a number of pilot studies have been completed under the auspices of the Viva project framework thanks to financing from the Swedish Energy Agency. The various building frame alternatives that have been evaluated are precast concrete, cast in-situ concrete and solid wood, all proposed by leading commercial suppliers. The report includes a specific requirement for equivalent functions during the use phase of the building, B. An interpretation has been provided that investigates the building engineering aspects in detail, as well as an account of the results based on the social community requirements specified in Viva, durability, fire, noise and energy consumption in the Swedish National Board of Building, Planning and Housing building regulations (BBR), plus Riksbyggen’s own requirements, Sweden Green Building Council’s Environmental Building Gold (Miljöbyggnad Guld) and 100-year life cycle. Given that the alternatives have different long-term characteristics (and also that our knowledge of these characteristics itself varies), these functional requirements have been addressed by setting up different scenarios in accordance with the EPD standard EN 15978. Because Riksbyggen has specified a requirement for a 100-year life cycle, we have also opted for an analysis period of 100 years. The results show no significant differences between concrete and timber structures for the same functions during the life cycle, either for climate or for primary energy. The minor differences reported are accordingly less than the degree of uncertainty involved in the study. The available documentation on the composition of the relevant intumescent paint coating on solid wood frames differs from source to source, so it was not possible to fully allow for the significance of this. The LCA has not included functional changes in the building linked to load-bearing characteristics, noise, moisture, health or other problems that may result in increased maintenance and replacement. The concrete houses have been dimensioned for 100 years, for instance, in accordance with tried and tested standards and experience. The solid wood house is not dimensioned in the same way, and this has led to us having to assume various scenarios.

    The results also show the following:

    • The uncertainties involved in comparing different structures and alternative solutions are very significant. The results are affected by factors such as life cycle, the functional requirements taken into consideration, transportation, design and structural details, etc.

    • Variations in the built items and a considerable degree of uncertainty in the assumptions make it difficult to obtain significant results on comparisons. Only actual construction projects with known specific data, declared from a life cycle perspective that takes into account actual building developer requirements and involving different scenarios (best, documented and worst-case) for the user stage can currently be compared.

    • In the other hand, comparisons restricted to different concrete structures only, or to different timber structures only, ought to involve a lower degree of uncertainty. These would then provide results that are significant as well as improvement requirements that are relevant.

    • There is potential for improving concrete by imposing requirements on the material

    • There is potential for improving solid wood frames by developing and guaranteeing well-documented long-term characteristics for all functional requirements.

    The LCAs were performed as an iterative process where all parties were given the opportunity to submit their viewpoints and suggestions for changes during the course of the work. This helped ensure that all alternatives have been properly thought through.

    Because, during the project, Riksbyggen opted to procure a concrete frame, in the final stage the researchers involved focused on ensuring the procurement process would result in the concrete frame as built meeting the requirements set out above. As things currently stand, the material requirements for the concrete are limited by the production options open to the suppliers, and this is therefore being investigated in the manufacture of precast concrete frames for the Viva cooperative housing association.

  • 18. Li, Ying Zhen
    Study of fire and explosion hazards of alternative fuel vehicles in tunnels2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An investigation of fire and explosion hazards of different types of alternativefuel vehicles in tunnels is presented. The different fuels are divided into four types:liquid fuels, liquefied fuels, compressed gases, and electricity, and detailed parameters are obtained. Three types offire hazards for the alternativefuel vehicles: pool fires, jet fires and fireballs are identified andinvestigated in detail. Fromthe perspective of pool fire size, the liquid fuels pose equivalent or evenmuch lower fire hazards compared to the traditionally used fuels, but theliquefied fuels may pose higher hazards. For pressurized tanks, the fires are generally much larger in size butshorter in duration. The gas releases from pressure relief devices and the resulting jet firesare highly transient. Forhydrogen vehicles, the fire sizes are significantly higher compared to CNGtanks, while flame lengths only slighter longer. Investigation of the peakoverpressure in case of an explosion in a tunnel was also carried out. Theresults showed that, for the vehicles investigated, the peak overpressure of tankrupture and BLEVE are mostly in a range of 0.1 to 0.36 bar at 50 m away. Thesituations in case of cloud explosion are mostly much more severe andintolerable. These hazards need to be carefully considered in both vehiclesafety design and tunnel fire safety design. Further researches on thesehazards are in urgent need.

  • 19.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Brandsäker energilagring - Sammanställning av risker och forskningsbehov2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a large interest in the possibilities in storing produced energy that is not needed at that particular moment or to store energy when the cost for production of electricity is low. For this reason, different types of energy storage systems are used. With a fast development of new technologies and new forms of application for energy storage systems, it is important to also study the existing and potential risks with these types of systems.

    This prestudy describes the field, its risks and needs for research. It focuses on risks associated with fire, including explosions and when relevant the production of toxic gases. Although the main focus of the prestudy is different types of energy storage systems, the report contains information also on risks associated with storage of solid biofuels and waste. This means that the report contains information on risks and needs for research for batteries, hydrogen, biogas, liquified gases, biofuels and waste.

  • 20.
    Niklasson, Fredrik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Gustavsson, Lennart
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Ryde, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Johansson, Mathias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Persson, Henrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Schüßler, Ingmar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Branschgemensam forskning för småskaliga biobränslepannor inför ekodesign2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    New domestic biofuel boilers must meet the Ecodesign Directive by 2020. In a market survey from 2014, none of 11 tested pellet boilers did meet all requirements, clearly indicating a developmental need. In the present project boiler manufacturers and research institutes have collaborated in response to the combustion engineering challenges.

    For pellet boilers, the biggest challenge with the Ecodesign Directive is that performance is largely calculated from partial load operation (low load). Previously, performance has only been determined at nominal load and the design has been optimized accordingly. In this project, tests have been run with two modern pellet boilers that have different types of pellet burner: one with horizontal burner tube and one with an underfeed burner cup. The results show that sufficient combustion performance could be maintained at partial load with both burner types. However, the tube burner exhibited significantly lower emissions at partial loads, probably due to the combustion zone in this burner being protected from heat radiation exchange with cooling boiler walls. A rather extensive work was laid down to provide the cup burner with a protective collar that would protect the combustion zone. However, it did not result in any significant improvement, probably because the supply of secondary air did not become optimal. A more extensive work is required to develop an optimal burner design of this type.

    For wood log boilers, it is a challenge to comply with the NOx requirements of the Ecodesign Directive of 200 mg / Nm³. A variety of temperature measurements in a wood log boiler resulted in the exclusion of thermal NOx formation. The boiler was fitted with a flue gas recirculation system, but it did not reduce the NOx emission. Then different varieties of wood fuels were tested. The NOx emission could be reduced to meet the requirement using barked birch wood. Chemical analyzes showed that the birch bark contained 0.49% nitrogen compared to 0.09% in the stock. Spruce logs also gave low NOx emissions, but that fuel resulted in increased CO and OGC emissions. For wood log boilers to meet the requirements for CO, OGC and dust, optimization is required under the wood's final combustion phase. At this stage, emissions are at its highest, due to the decreasing heat output while the airflow tends to cool down the flue gas faster than the combustible gases burn out. The optical particle measurement showed a clear correlation between dust and CO in the flue gas. If the boiler meets the CO limit, there are good chances that the requirement for particles also will be met.

    The efficiency specified in the Ecodesign Directive is calculated based on the fuel's higher heating value. In addition, some loss factors are subtracted. This implies that the boiler must not have unnecessarily large heat losses or excessive electricity consumption to meet the requirements. Measurements showed that the biggest loss occurs with the heat in the flue gas. The second largest loss is heat from the boiler body. For the efficiency, the importance of a well-insulated boiler body increases in the case of partial loads. The two pellet boilers used in the project were well suited to meet the eco-directive directive's efficiency requirements.

  • 21.
    Ollas, Patrik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Caroline, Markusson
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Persson, Jon
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Alfadel, Usama
    Soliga Energi, Sweden.
    Impact of Battery Sizing on Self-Consumption, Self-Sufficiency and PeakPower Demand for a Low Energy Single-Family House With PVProduction in Sweden2018In: 7th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (WCPEC-7), June 10-15, 2018, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper simulates the impact of battery sizingfor an actual nearly-zero energy (NZEB) single-family housewith solar PV located in Bor°as, Sweden. Simulations are done,using measurement data as an input, for three different batterydispatch algorithms with two different purposes; (i) peak powershaving and (ii) maximising system self-consumption (SC) andself-sufficiency (SS) of the solar PV. The results show that theoptimal battery storage size for this single-family house, givenits measured electrical loads and existing solar PV system isaround 7.2 kWh. System self-consumption and self-sufficiencyfrom generated solar PV increased with 24.3 percentage pointscompared to a reference case without battery. Furthermore,results show that increasing the battery size beyond 7.2 kWhonly results in minor performance gains.

  • 22.
    Olsson, Linda
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Fallahi, Sara
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Schnurr, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Diener, Derek
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    van Loon, Patricia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Circular Business Models for Extended EV Battery Life2018In: Batteries, ISSN 2313-0105, Vol. 4, no 4, article id 57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the near future, a large volume of electric vehicle (EV) batteries will reach their end-of-life in EVs. However, they may still retain capacity that could be used in a second life, e.g., for a second use in an EV, or for home electricity storage, thus becoming part of the circular economy instead of becoming waste. The aim of this paper is to explore second life of EV batteries to provide an understanding of how the battery value chain and related business models can become more circular. We apply qualitative research methods and draw on data from interviews and workshops with stakeholders, to identify barriers to and opportunities for second use of EV batteries. New business models are conceptualized, in which increased economic viability of second life and recycling and increased business opportunities for stakeholders may lead to reduced resource consumption. The results show that although several stakeholders see potential in second life, there are several barriers, many of which are of an organizational and cognitive nature. The paper concludes that actors along the battery value chain should set up new collaborations with other actors to be able to benefit from creating new business opportunities and developing new business models together.

  • 23.
    Palm, Johannes
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Bergdahl, Lars
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Eskilsson, Claes
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety. Aalborg University, Denmarkl.
    Parametric excitation of moored wave energy converters using viscous and non-viscous CFD simulations2019In: Advances in Renewable Energies Offshore / [ed] C. Guedes Soares, Taylor & Francis Group, 2019, p. 455-462Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper discusses the use of CFD simulations to analyse the parametric excitation of moored, full scale wave energy converters in six degrees of freedom. We present results of VOF- RANS and VOF-Euler simulations in Open FOAM® for two body shapes: (i) a truncated cylinder; and (ii) a cylinder with a smooth hemispherical bottom. Flow characteristics show large differences in smoothness of flow between the hull shapes, where the smoother shape results in a larger heave response. However the increased amplitude makes it unstable and parametric pitch excitation occurs with amplitudes up to 30°. The responses in surge, heave and pitch (including the transition to parametric motion) are found to be insensitive to the viscous effects. This is notable as the converters are working in resonance. The effect of viscous damping was visible in the roll motion, where the RANS simulations showed a smaller roll. However, the roll motion was found to be triggered not by wave-body interaction with the incident wave, but by reflections from the side walls. This highlights the importance of controlling the reflections in numerical wave tanks for simulations with WEC motion in six degrees of freedom.

  • 24.
    Paulrud, Susanne
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Löfgren, Bengt-Erik
    Pelletsförbundet, Sweden.
    Iwarsson Wide, Maria
    Skogforsk, Sweden.
    Melin, Gustav
    SVEBIO, Sweden.
    Innovationskluster för internationalisering inom bioenergiområdet - förstudie2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Bioenergy contributes to a sustainable energy mix in most countries worldwide, is the largest renewable energy generation and has a global development potential. Bioenergy today accounts for 60 percent of all renewable energy in the EU: 11 percent of all used energy, compared with 7 percent for all other renewable energy sources. However, the market for Swedish bioenergy and bioenergy technology in Sweden has decreased. Partly because our domestic market for new district heating installations has already been expanded and partly because the competition from electricity heating through energy efficient heat pumps in the residential segment takes over the exchange market. In order for Swedish know-how and products to grow, increased exports and visibility are important. An innovation cluster for internationalization in the bioenergy field cre-ates a meeting place that facilitates involved bioenergy companies and organizations to create sustainable growth inside and outside their own industry.

  • 25.
    Peñaloza, Diego
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    The role of biobased building materials in the climate impacts of construction: Effects of increased use of biobased materials in the Swedish building sector2017Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A significant share of the global climate change impacts can be attributed to the construction sector. One mitigation strategy is increasing the use of biobased materials. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used to demonstrate the benefits of this, but forest complexities create uncertainty due to omission of key aspects. This aim of this thesis is to enhance understanding of the effects of increasing use of biobased materials in climate change mitigation of construction works with a life cycle perspective. Non-traditional LCA methodology aspects were identified and the climate impact effects of increasing the use of biobased materials while accounting for these was studied. The method applied was dynamic LCA combined with forest carbon data under multi-approach scenarios. Diverse case studies (a building, a small road bridge and the Swedish building stock) were used. Most scenarios result in impact reductions from increasing the use of biobased materials in construction. The inclusion of non-traditional aspects affected the results, but not this outcome. Results show that the climate mitigation potential is maximized by simultaneously implementing other strategies (such as increased use of low-impact concrete). Biobased building materials should not be generalised as climate neutral because it depends on case-sensitive factors. Some of these factors depend on the modelling of the forest system (timing of tree growth, spatial level approach, forest land use baseline) or LCA modelling parameters (choice of the time horizon, end-of-life assumptions, service life). To decrease uncertainty, it is recommended to use at least one metric that allows assessment of emissions based on their timing and to use long-term time horizons. Practitioners should clearly state if and how non-traditional aspects are handled, and study several methodological settings. Technological changes should be accounted for when studying long-term climate impacts of building stocks.

  • 26.
    Posner, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF, Energi och miljö.
    Evaluation of information on perfluorooctane sulfonic acid, its salts and perfluorooctane sulfonyl fluoride2014Report (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Posner, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF, Energi och miljö.
    Factsheets on alternatives to perfluorooctane sulfonic acid, its salts and perfluorooctane sulfonyl fluoride2014Report (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Reinelt, Torsten
    et al.
    Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnützige GmbH, Germany.
    Delre, Antonio
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Westerkamp, Tanja
    Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnützige GmbH, Germany.
    Holmgren, Magnus Andreas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Liebetrau, Jan
    Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnützige GmbH, Germany.
    Scheutz, Charlotte
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Comparative use of different emission measurement approaches to determine methane emissions from a biogas plant2017In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 68, p. 173-185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A sustainable anaerobic biowaste treatment has to mitigate methane emissions from the entire biogas production chain, but the exact quantification of these emissions remains a challenge. This study presents a comparative measurement campaign carried out with on-site and ground-based remote sensing measurement approaches conducted by six measuring teams at a Swedish biowaste treatment plant. The measured emissions showed high variations, amongst others caused by different periods of measurement performance in connection with varying operational states of the plant. The overall methane emissions measured by ground-based remote sensing varied from 5 to 25 kg h−1 (corresponding to a methane loss of 0.6–3.0% of upgraded methane produced), depending on operating conditions and the measurement method applied. Overall methane emissions measured by the on-site measuring approaches varied between 5 and 17 kg h−1 (corresponding to a methane loss of 0.6 and 2.1%) from team to team, depending on the number of measured emission points, operational state during the measurements and the measurement method applied. Taking the operational conditions into account, the deviation between different approaches and teams could be explained, in that the two largest methane-emitting sources, contributing about 90% of the entire site’s emissions, were found to be the open digestate storage tank and a pressure release valve on the compressor station.

  • 29.
    Roos, Sandra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Jönsson, Christina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Hedberg, J
    Kaplin, C
    Odnevall Wallinder, Ingrid
    KTH Royal Institute of Thechnology.
    Integrating real metal runoff data to the life cycle assessment of alloys2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Roos, Sandra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Jönsson, Christina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Posner, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Peters, G
    Simultaneous development of inventory and impact assessment enables chemicals inclusion in textile LCA2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Roos, Sandra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Sandin, Gustav
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Biobaserade material och produkter.
    Zamani, Bahareh
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Peters, Greg
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Clarifying sustainable fashion: Life cycle assessment of the Swedish clothing consumption2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Roos, Sandra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Zamani, Bahare
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Sandin, Gustav
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Biobaserade material och produkter.
    Peters, Greg M.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Svanström, Magdalena
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Biobaserade material och produkter.
    A life cycle assessment (LCA)-based approach to guiding an industry sector towards sustainability: the case of the Swedish apparel sector2016In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 133, p. 691-700Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental challenges associated with consumption of textiles have generally been investigated on product level in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies. For social sustainability aspects, social hotspot analysis has instead been applied on the textile sector level. The aim with the industry sector approach developed by the authors was to enable assessment of different interventions in terms of how they contribute to reaching targets for environmental and social sustainability, on the sector level. The approach was tested in a case study on the Swedish apparel sector. The industry sector approach consists of three steps that address three different questions: 1) What is the current sustainability performance of the sector? 2) What is an acceptable sustainability performance for the sector? 3) Are proposed interventions enough to reach an acceptable sustainability performance? By answering these questions, it is possible to measure performance in relation to sector level targets and learn which types of interventions (technical improvements, behavioral changes, new business models, etc.), and which actors (manufacturers, retailers, consumers, authorities, etc.) that can potentially provide the greatest improvements. By applying the approach in the case study, conclusions could be drawn on whether specific interventions appear to be sufficient or not in relation to the set environmental targets. The influence of the interventions in relation to reaching targets for social sustainability was found to be the most difficult to measure due to lack of data. To spur the industry sector's stakeholders to actualize the full potential of the most effective environmental interventions, a scheme for structured evaluation of LCA results directed towards these prospective actors was developed. Based on the results from the study, actor-oriented advice could be provided.

  • 33.
    Sandin, Gustav
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Peters, Greg M.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Environmental impact of textile reuse and recycling – A review2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 184, p. 353-365Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reviews studies of the environmental impact of textile reuse and recycling, to provide a summary of the current knowledge and point out areas for further research. Forty-one studies were reviewed, whereof 85% deal with recycling and 41% with reuse (27% cover both reuse and recycling). Fibre recycling is the most studied recycling type (57%), followed by polymer/oligomer recycling (37%), monomer recycling (29%), and fabric recycling (14%). Cotton (76%) and polyester (63%) are the most studied materials.

    The reviewed publications provide strong support for claims that textile reuse and recycling in general reduce environmental impact compared to incineration and landfilling, and that reuse is more beneficial than recycling. The studies do, however, expose scenarios under which reuse and recycling are not beneficial for certain environmental impacts. For example, as benefits mainly arise due to the avoided production of new products, benefits may not occur in cases with low replacement rates or if the avoided production processes are relatively clean. Also, for reuse, induced customer transport may cause environmental impact that exceeds the benefits of avoided production, unless the use phase is sufficiently extended.

    In terms of critical methodological assumptions, authors most often assume that textiles sent to recycling are wastes free of environmental burden, and that reused products and products made from recycled materials replace products made from virgin fibres. Examples of other content mapped in the review are: trends of publications over time, common aims and geographical scopes, commonly included and omitted impact categories, available sources of primary inventory data, knowledge gaps and future research needs. The latter include the need to study cascade systems, to explore the potential of combining various reuse and recycling routes.

  • 34.
    Sandin, Gustav
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Roos, Sandra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Zamani, Bahareh
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Peters, Gregory
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Using the planetary boundaries for evaluating interventions for impact reduction in the clothing industry2015In: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Life Cycle Management, 2015, p. 608-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Stensson, Sofia
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Piette, Mary Ann
    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, USA.
    Comparing energy systems in California and Sweden: A pilot-study to further develop amethodology for prediction of overall demandresponse potential in Northern Europe2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The share of electricity generation from renewable resources (e.g. wind and solar) is increasing, as a consequence of environmental targets, to avoid the imminent risks of climate change. Renewable generation is less predictable and controllable than conventional generation, which introduces new challenges for the energy system as a whole. Consequently, demand side management is gaining increased attention for its conceivable potential of providing

    needed operational flexibility to the energy system. However, little is still known about the size, accessibility and cost of

    using demand side flexibility on a broader scale. To attain better knowledge, this paper proposes a conceptual framework for how a forecasting tool, previously developed for California, could be adapted in a Swedish demand response potential study. This tool would enable prediction of the demand response potential on a system wide scale. The tool can then be used by researchers and policy makers in order to understand the size of the resource, prioritize research needs and to support policymaking.

  • 36.
    Stolen, Reidar
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Stensaas, Reidar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Solcelleteknologi og brannsikkerhet2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of photovoltaic (PV) technology in Norway is increasing. In this study, fire safety challenges of PV technology are studied. Fire ignition, fire spread and fire extinguishing are investigated. The study forms a knowledge base for safeguarding fire safety during assembly, operation and during firefighting efforts, and to form unified and clear regulations. The results show:

    Fire ignition: PV installations contain many electric connections which can be potential ignition sources, as well as a small volume of combustible materials. These provide everything needed to initiate a fire. It is important that all connections in a PV installation are robust and can withstand the stress they are exposed to throughout their lifetime, without causing malfunction that could cause a fire.

    Fire spread: For building attached photovoltaics, there are cavities between the module and the building. If there is a fire in this cavity, the produced heat could be trapped, which could lead to a more rapid and extensive fire spread than if the building surface were uncovered. In large scale tests with PV modules mounted on a roof covering, the fire spread under the whole area covered with modules, but stopped when approaching the edge. This demonstrates the importance of sectioning when mounting PV installations, to avoid fire spread to the whole roof. An option is to use materials with limited combustibility as roof covering below the PV module, to withstand the increased heat exposure from the PV modules. The cavity between module and building could potentially also alter the air flow along the building, which in turn could affect the fire spread.

    Firefighting: Firefighters need information on whether there is a PV installation in the building, and where there are electrical components. During firefighting efforts, the fire service must consider the danger of direct contact, and danger of arcs and other faults that could lead to new ignition points. Fresh water can be used as an extinguishing agent. This must be applied from at least 1 meter distance with spread beam and at least 5 meters distance with a focused beam. PV modules can complicate fire extinguishing as they represent a physical barrier between the fire fighter and the area to extinguish, and by creating areas which should be avoided due to danger of components with voltage. When these points are considered, building attached photovoltaics should not be a problem.

    Further work: For building attached photovoltaics, there is little research on vertical mounting (on facades), and on how changed fire dynamics could affect fire spread and extinguishing. Also, today there is an increasing use of building integrated photovoltaics, which could potentially give many new challenges for fire safety and for regulations, as these are a part of the building and at the same time electrical components. German statistics indicate that there is an increased fire risk for these types of installations, compared to building attached photovoltaics, making this an important focus area for further work.

  • 37. Wänerholm, Martin
    Climate impact of metal-casting2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Swerea SWECAST was commissioned by the Swedish Foundry Association to update the background report for the carbon footprint indicator which was first put forward in 2011.

    The aim of the work was to analyze the emission of CO2 for thirteen foundry producing countries when producing one tonne of cast product.

    The Swedish Environmental Research Institute, IVL, has on Swerea SWECAST mission produced a report with general data on carbon dioxide emissions from electricity consumption from thirteen countries.

    Based on the background data presented by IVL and assumptions, calculations have been made for a number of different metals. The results are an indication that there are climatic differences depending on the country the cast components is manufactured in. In essence, it is the countries' electricity mix that controls the outcome, where Sweden is very well, because electricity from hydro and nuclear power produce low emissions of greenhouse gases in the operating phase.

    A risk with this kind of work is that the result is taken as income for not working with energy efficiency in the Swedish foundries. So should not the results be interpreted. If foundries in other countries or individual foundries are working to streamline its process and the Swedish foundries don’t there is the risk that the Swedish foundries after all end up behind.

  • 38.
    Wänerholm, Martin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea SWECAST.
    Klimatpåverkan av gjutgods2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Swerea SWECAST was commissioned by the Swedish Foundry Association toupdate the background report for the carbon footprint indicator which was first putforward in 2011.The aim of the work was to analyze the emission of CO2 for thirteen foundryproducing countries when producing one tonne of cast product transported to aprospective buyer in Sweden.The Swedish Environmental Research Institute, IVL, has on Swerea SWECASTmission produced a report with general data on carbon dioxide emissions fromelectricity consumption and transport of goods from thirteen countries that have ormay have a significant role in the Swedish castings supply.Based on the background data presented by IVL and assumptions, calculationshave been made for a number of different metals. The results are an indication thatthere are climatic differences depending on the country the cast components ismanufactured in. In essence, it is the countries' electricity mix that controls the Swerea SWECAST AB Rapport nr 2016-003_outcome, where Sweden is very well, because electricity from hydro and nuclearpower produce low emissions of greenhouse gases in the operating phase.A risk with this kind of work is that the result is taken as income for not workingwith energy efficiency in the Swedish foundries. So should not the results beinterpreted. If foundries in other countries or individual foundries are working tostreamline its process and the Swedish foundries don’t there is the risk that theSwedish foundries after all end up behind.

  • 39. Xi, F.
    et al.
    Davis, S. J.
    Ciais, P.
    Crawford-Brown, D.
    Guan, D.
    Pade, C.
    Shi, T.
    Syddall, M.
    Lv, J.
    Ji, L.
    Bing, L.
    Wang, J.
    Wei, W.
    Yang, K. -H
    Lagerblad, Björn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Hållbara byggnadsverk.
    Galan, I.
    Andrade, C.
    Zhang, Y.
    Liu, Z.
    Substantial global carbon uptake by cement carbonation2016In: Nature Geoscience, ISSN 1752-0894, E-ISSN 1752-0908, Vol. 9, no 12, p. 880-883Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Calcination of carbonate rocks during the manufacture of cement produced 5% of global CO 2 emissions from all industrial process and fossil-fuel combustion in 2013. Considerable attention has been paid to quantifying these industrial process emissions from cement production, but the natural reversal of the process - carbonation - has received little attention in carbon cycle studies. Here, we use new and existing data on cement materials during cement service life, demolition, and secondary use of concrete waste to estimate regional and global CO 2 uptake between 1930 and 2013 using an analytical model describing carbonation chemistry. We find that carbonation of cement materials over their life cycle represents a large and growing net sink of CO 2, increasing from 0.10 GtC yr â '1 in 1998 to 0.25 GtC yr â '1 in 2013. In total, we estimate that a cumulative amount of 4.5 GtC has been sequestered in carbonating cement materials from 1930 to 2013, offsetting 43% of the CO 2 emissions from production of cement over the same period, not including emissions associated with fossil use during cement production. We conclude that carbonation of cement products represents a substantial carbon sink that is not currently considered in emissions inventories.

  • 40.
    Zackrisson, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF, Energi och miljö.
    Indikatorer för bedömning av miljöpåverkan2014Report (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Zackrisson, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF, Energi och miljö.
    Lead-free brass from Nordic Brass Gusum2015Report (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Zackrisson, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF, Energi och miljö.
    Recycling production cable waste: Environmental and economic implications2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main driver for recycling cable wastes is the high value of the conducting metal, while the plastic with its lower value is often neglected. New improved cable plastic recycling routes could provide both economic and environmental incentive to cable producers for moving up the “cable plastic waste ladder”. The improvement potential for the European cable industry as a whole is roughly estimated to avoidance of 30 750 tonnes of CO2eq annually if these new techniques were to be applied to the 5% plastic waste stream from cable production. Cradle-to-gate life cycle assessment of the waste management of the cable scrap is suggested and explained as a method to analyze the pros and cons of different cable scrap recycling options at hand. Economic and environmental data about different recycling processes and other relevant processes and materials are given. Cable producers could use this data and method to assess the way they deal with the cable plastic waste today and compare it with available alternatives and thus illuminate the improvement potential of recycling cable plastic waste both in an environmental and in an economic sense.

    Recycling production cable waste - Environmental and economic implications. (PDF Download Available).

1 - 42 of 42
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
v. 2.35.4